Onobrychis viciifolia

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Onobrychis viciifolia
Onobrychis viciifolia Inflorescence 11April2009 CampoCalatrava.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Onobrychis
Species: O. viciifolia
Binomial name
Onobrychis viciifolia
Scop.
Synonyms

Hedysarum onobrychis
Onobrychis sativa

Onobrychis viciifolia, also known as O. sativa or common sainfoin has been an important forage legume in temperate regions until the 1950s. During the Green Revolution it was replaced by high yielding alfalfa and clover species. Due to its anthelmintic properties the common sainfoin is a natural alternative to drugs to control nematode parasitism in the guts of small ruminants. This is the main reason why O. viciifolia came back to the scientific agenda during the last years.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Biological, ecological and biochemical properties[edit]

Onobrychis viciifolia and Ixodes scapularis (Deer Tick)

The genus Onobrychis comprises 54 different species of which O. viciifolia is of greatest agronomic importance. Two different agricultural types of O. viciifolia are known. The single-cut type is characterized by a vegetative regrowth[clarification needed] after cutting and its origin is in Europe. A generative regrowth[clarification needed] after cutting is typical for the second or the double-cut type. Originated in the Middle East the double-cut type grows larger than the single-cut type.[3][9] Compared to other forage legumes both types are weak in competition and their regrowth after mowing is considered to be low. Also the yields of common sainfoin are significantly lower than those of alfalfa and clover[2][3][5][13] .[9][12][14][15][16]

In terms of symbiotic nitrogen fixation from the atmosphere, common sainfoin is not as specific as other legumes. A relatively broad range of rhizobia genera is able to colonize the roots of O. viciifolia.[17] The common sainfoin is an open pollinating plant, mainly pollinated by nectar feeding insects. Therefore O. viciifolia is a promising crop to enhance biodiversity within agro-ecosystems. This pollination biology leads to certain difficulties in breeding programs resulting in a low number of registered cultivars.[3][13][18][19][20] The leaves of common sainfoin contain high levels of condensed tannins. This content can be more than five times higher than in clover species or alfalfa[1][4][6][8][11] .

Beneficial aspects in animal production[edit]

An animal diet containing common sainfoin is able to reduce nematode (e.g. Haemonchus contortus) parasitism in ruminant’s guts. Due to the high levels of condensed tannins, the fecundity of nematodes and the number of their eggs in the ruminant’s digestive system are reduced.[4][6][11][21][22][23][24][25] Especially in goat and sheep production systems feeding of O. viciifolia is a promising alternative or complement to synthetic drugs.[3] Besides these anthelmintic properties diets containing common sainfoin can lead to increasing daily weight gains of small ruminants. Also milk quantity and quality of these animals are not negatively affected by O. viciifolia intake. Furthermore various studies showed that the voluntary intake of sainfoin was comparable or even higher than the intake of alfalfa or clover species.[4][6][8][11][21]

Cultivation of O. viciifolia[edit]

O. viciifolia in the field

To reach high levels of condensed tannins common sainfoin should be sown in pure culture. Due to its low competitiveness, weed infestation has to be controlled, especially in the first year. Normally fertilizer applications are not needed to reach satisfying yields. Nevertheless slurry or phosphate applications can promote initial growth. Pests and diseases are almost never a serious problem.[3][4][9][13][14][15][16][26] Frost and drought tolerance of common sainfoin is higher than in other forage legumes such as alfalfa or different clover species.[3][9][27] In contrast O. viciifolia is much more intolerant to water logging than other forage legumes. Therefore clayey soils with a bad drainage should be avoided. Also acidic soils are not appropriate for the cultivation of common sainfoin.[3][5][9][28][29]

Seedbed preparation and sowing procedure are done in a similar manner and with the same machinery as for cereal cultivation. Around 800 seeds per square meter should be sown on a weed free seedbed between spring and late summer. In the year of establishment common sainfoin can be cut twice a year. Afterwards up to four cuts per growing season are possible. Careful moving is important to minimize disintegration losses. Common sainfoin can be stored and fed to animals in the form of hay, pellets or silage.[13]

List of References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Berard N. C., Y. Wang, K. M. Wittenberg, D. O. Krause, B. E. Coulman, T. A. McAllister and K. H. Ominski, 2011. Condensed tannin concentrations found in vegetative and mature forage legumes grown in western Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences, 91: 669–675
  2. ^ a b Boschma S. P., G. M. Lodge and S. Harden, 2011. Seasonal production of lucerne and other perennial legumes and herbs in a summer dominant rainfall zone. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 54 (2): 105–114
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Carbonero C. H., I. Mueller-Harvey, T. A. Brown and L. Smith, 2011. Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia): a beneficial forage legume. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization 9(1): 70–85
  4. ^ a b c d e Heckendorn F., D. A. Häring, V. Maurer, M. Senn and H. Hertzberg, 2007. Individual administration of three tanniferous forage plants to lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei. Veterinary Parasitology 146: 123–134
  5. ^ a b c Lauriault L.M., R.E. Kirksey, and D.M. VanLeeuwen, 2008. Perennial cool-season forage legume performance in diverse soil moisture Treatments, southern High Plains, USA. New Mexico State University, Bulletin 796
  6. ^ a b c d Manolaraki F., S. Sotiraki, A. Stefanakis, V. Skampardonis, M. Volanis and H. Hoste, 2010. Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes. Parasitology 137: 685–696
  7. ^ Peel M. D., K. H. Asay, D. A. Johnson and B. L. Waldron, 2004. Forage production of sainfoin across an irrigation gradient. Crop Sciences 44: 614–619
  8. ^ a b c Paolini V., I. Fouraste and H. Hoste, 2003. In vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes. Parasitology, 129: 69–77
  9. ^ a b c d e f Waghorn G. C., G.B. Douglas, J.H. Niezen, W.C. McNabb and A.G. Foote, 1998. Forages with condensed tannins – their management and nutritive value for ruminants. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 60: 89–98
  10. ^ Waller P. J., From discovery to development: Current industry perspectives for the development of novel methods of helminth control in livestock, 2006. Veterinary Parasitology 139: 1–14
  11. ^ a b c d Valderrábano J., C. Calvete and J. Uriarte, 2010. Effect of feeding bioactive forages on infection and subsequent development of Haemonchus contortus in lamb faeces. Veterinary Parasitology 172: 89–94
  12. ^ a b Xu B. C., P. Gichuki, L. Shan and F.M. Li., 2006. Aboveground biomass production and soil water dynamics of four leguminous forages in semiarid region, northwest China. South African Journal of Botany 72: 507–516
  13. ^ a b c d Agridea, 2012. Esparsette reich an kondensierten Tanninen. http://www.agridea-lausanne.ch/files/ftesparcette-2012-d.pdf, last visited 23.7.2012
  14. ^ a b Liu Z., G. P. F. Lane and W. P. Davies, 2008. Establishment and production of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) in the UK. 2. Effects of direct sowing and undersowing in spring barley on sainfoin and sainfoin-grass mixtures. Grass and Forage Science, 63: 242–248
  15. ^ a b Liu Z., R. N. Baines, G. P. F. Lane and W. P. Davies, 2009. Survival of plants of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) in competition with two companion grass species. Grass and Forage Science, 65: 11–14
  16. ^ a b Moyer J. R., 1985. Effect of Weed Control and a Companion Crop on Alfalfa and Sainfoin Establishment, Yields and Nutrients Composition. Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences, 65: 107-116
  17. ^ Baimiev Al. Kl., An. Kh. Baimiev, I. I. Gubaidullin, O. L. Kulikova, and A. V. Chemeris, 2007. Bacteria closely related to Phyllobacterium trifolii according to their 16S rRNA gene are discovered in the nodules of Hungarian sainfoin. Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 43 (5): 587–590
  18. ^ Agroscope, 2011. Liste der empfohlenen Sorten von Futterpflanzen 2011-2012: http://www.agff.ch/cms/index.php?menuid=34&reporeid=85, last visited 23.7.2012
  19. ^ http://eurisco.ecpgr.org/search/quick_search.html, last visited 1.11.2012
  20. ^ Clement S. L., T. L. Griswold, R. W. Rust, B. C. Hellier and D. M. Stout, 2006. Bee associates of flowering Astragalus and Onobrychis genebank accessions at a Snake River site in Eastern Washington. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 79(3): 254–260
  21. ^ a b Hoste H., L. Gaillard and Y. Le Frileux, 2005. Consequences of the regular distribution of sainfoin hay on gastrointestinal parasitism with nematodes and milk production in dairy goats. Small Ruminant Research 59: 265–271
  22. ^ Morrill W. L., R. L. Ditterline and S. D. Cash, 1998. Insect pests and associated root pathogens of sainfoin in western USA. Field Crops Research 59: 129-134
  23. ^ Paolini V., P. Dorchies and H. Hoste, 2003. Effects of sainfoin hay on gastrointestinal infection with nematodes in goats. http://orgprints.org/6995/01/vetrec.pdf, last visited: 24.7.2012
  24. ^ Paolini V., F. Prevot, P. Dorchies and H. Hoste, 2005. Lack of effects of quebracho and sainfoin hay on incoming third-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus in goats. The Veterinary Journal 170: 260–263
  25. ^ Scharenberg, A., F. Heckendorn, Y. Arrigo, H. Hertzberg, A. Gutzwiller, H. D. Hess, M. Kreuzer and F. Dohme, 2008. Contortus and fed tanniferous sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) nitrogen and mineral balance of lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus. Journal of Animal Sciences, 86: 1879–1890
  26. ^ Turk M., S. Albayrak, C. G. Tuzun and O. Yuksel, 2011. Effects of fertilisation and harvesting stages on forage yield and quality of sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa L.). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17 (6): 789–794
  27. ^ Meyer D. W. and M. Badaruddin, 2001. Frost tolerance of ten seedling legume species at four growth stages. Crop Sciences 41: 1838–1842
  28. ^ Bordeleau L. M. and D. Prévost, 1994. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in extreme environments. Plant and Soil 161: 115–125
  29. ^ Heinrichs D. M., 1970. Flooding Tolerance of Legumes. Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences 50: 435-438

External links[edit]