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History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Avar Khaganate 564–804
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
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Kangar union 659–750
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
Kimek Khanate
Oghuz Yabgu State
Shatuo dynasties 923–979
  Later Tang
  Later Jin
  Later Han (Northern Han)
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khilji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [1][2][3] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty
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Patria Onoguria, referred to as such by Agathius, Priscus Rhetor, Zacharias Rhetor, and Pseudo-Zecharias Rhetor, was a Hunno-Bulgar state around the Sea of Azov granted by Byzantium to the Onogurs in the 460s AD when, led by Attila's sons Dengizich and Ernakh, they overran Karadach's Akatziroi already settled in the region within the larger context of the Great Migrations and the Turkic expansion. From the 5th to 8th century this was the kingdom of the Hunugur/Onogur/Unogur Crimean Huns, a horde of equestrian nomads in the North Eurasian steppe east of the Don River (Russia) who became known as Utigur Bulgars under Sandilch after they were annexed by the Onoq.[citation needed]

According to the Rhetors, the Hunugurs/Onogurs/Unogurs crossed the Volga and entered into Europe around the year 463 having been attacked (along with the Saragur and Ugor) by the Sabirs who in turn had been attacked by the Uar.


The name Onogur is most often analysed as On-Oğuz "ten (tribes of the) Oğuz". In older "Oghur" Turkic languages, On~Ono means "10" and Gar~Gurs~Gur means "tribes", so Onogurs means "People of 10 tribes". Alternative suggestions have connected the Onogurs with the polity of the Western Turkic Kaghanate as the "People of 10 Arrows" (On-oq-ar), the Utigurs, and the Adygers.

Decline of Patria Onoguria[edit]

Europe in 600 AD, showing the Onogurs (Utigur Bulgars) and their neighbors.

Towards the close of Patria Onoguria's Old Great Bulgaria period, the Onoguri moved their base to Transylvania in 677AD according to the Vienna Chronicle under a Kubrat heir according to the Miracles of Demetrius evicting the Pseudo-Avars to the north putting an end to the Avar menace to Byzantium in the Balkans and marking the arrival of the new Onogur ethnic element.[4] Not long after this, Batbayan was left with Kotrag's Kazarigs when another Kubrat heir, Asparukh, led the Utigur Bulgars south into the Balkans following the battle of Ongal in the 680sAD. That they continued to preserve Monothelite faith Heraclius introduced to the Kubrat dynasty is evidenced in the "Notitia of the Isaurians" which mentions a Bishop of the Onogurs in Crimea in the mid 8th century.[5][6] The Onogur-Kazarig alliance lasted until the latter half of the 9th century when the Magyars led an alliance of secession from the Khazars. The name of Hungary and the name of the Hungarian people arrive in Pannonia at this time deriving from the term Hunuguria/Onoguria/Unoguria,[7] because in the western European languages the Hungarians (Magyars) are called Onogurs (e.g. Ungarn, Hongrie, Hongar, Ungherese).[7] In the 890s AD, the Magyars seceded Pannonia from the same Onogur tribal alliance .[7] Later Hungarian Chronicles still refer to the lands of the eastern Kazarigs in Patria Onoguria as Magna Hunuguria immediately prior to the Mongol invasions. The Hongirad still form a major part of the Middle Juz in the modern Kazakh nation from which the name of Ukraine's modern Cossacks derives.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364. 
  2. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280. 
  3. ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162. 
  4. ^ The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Volume 1 edited by Denis Sinor, page 215-216
  5. ^ Gyula Moravcsik, 'Zur Geschichte der Onoguren,' Ungarische Jahrbiicher, X (Berlin and Leipzig, 1930), 64-65, 81.
  6. ^ A. A. Vasiliev, The Goths in the Crimea (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936), pp. 97, 98, 100
  7. ^ a b c Peter F. Sugar, ed. (1990-11-22). A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-253-20867-5. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z by James Minahan page 1966