Onsernone

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Onsernone
Onsernone -
Country Switzerland Coat of Arms of Onsernone
Canton Ticino
District Locarno
46°12′N 8°37′E / 46.200°N 8.617°E / 46.200; 8.617Coordinates: 46°12′N 8°37′E / 46.200°N 8.617°E / 46.200; 8.617
Population 264 (Dec 2012)[1]
- Density 9 /km2 (23 /sq mi)
Area 29.86 km2 (11.53 sq mi)[2]
Elevation 802 m (2,631 ft)
Postal code 6662
SFOS number 5136
Mayor Sindaco
Localities Comologno, Vocaglia, Corbella, Cappellino, Spruga, Crana, Russo
Surrounded by Borgnone, Craveggia (IT-VB), Gresso, Isorno, Maggia, Mosogno, Re (IT-VB), Vergeletto
Website website missing
SFSO statistics
Onsernone is located in Switzerland
Onsernone
Onsernone

Onsernone is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Ticino, near the city of Locarno. The river Isorno runs through this valley.

The municipality was created in 1995 by a merger of Comologno, Crana and Russo.[3]

History[edit]

Comologno is first mentioned in 1438 as Comolognium.[4] Crana is first mentioned in 1228 as Grana and in 1265 it was mentioned as Crana.[5] Russo is first mentioned in 1231 as de Ruxi. In 1277 it was mentioned as Rusio.[6]

Comologno[edit]

During the Ancien Régime, Comologno belonged to the Squadra of Crana, which together with the other villages of the valley (with the exception of Auressio) formed the medieval municipality of Onsernone. With the establishment of the Canton of Ticino in 1803, Comologno became an independent municipality.[4]

Comologno formed an independent parish in 1715, when it separated from Russo. The parish church of San Giovanni Battista, was built in 1668-1697.

With the emergence and development of rye straw processing in the 19th Century, the population of Comologno increased rapidly. However, in the following century, the decline of farming, animal husbandry and straw craft led to a rapid population decline. Most of the working population works in industrial or service enterprises in the valley or commute to work in the agglomeration of Locarno. Many residents emigrated to other countries in search of work. Several families became wealthy in foreign countries, and used that wealth to build stately mansions in Comologno. The largest is from the Remonda family, who in the second half of the 18th Century, became wealthy in France. Another notable mansion is the Palazzo (or Castello) della Barca which was acquired in the 1930s by Vladimir Rosenbaum for his wife Aline Valangin, a writer and artist. It soon became a haven for artists and well-known anti-fascists, including Ignazio Silone, Ernesto Rossi, Kurt Tucholsky, Hans Marchwitza, Ernesto Bonaiuti, Max Terpis, Elias Canetti, Wladimir Vogel and Jean-Paul Samson. Since the early 1970s, at the suggestion of the Associazione Amici di Comologno, various artists have decorated houses in the village with frescos.[4]

Crana[edit]

During the Ancien Régime, Crana belonged to the Squadra of Crana which included the territory of Vocaglia, Comologno and Spruga, and was part of the old municipality of Onsernone. The modern village was created during the institutional changes of the Act of Mediation in 1803. Crana is known for the over 5,000 holders of heimatrecht in the village. The heimatrecht is similar to place of birth in other countries, and the heimatort is used on Swiss passports. A person maintains their heimatort regardless of whether they have ever lived in the municipality. The reason for the high number of heimatrecht holders is that the village sold the heimatrecht, which conferred local citizenry (and thus Swiss citizenship) to help make up for the low village income.[5]

The parish was created in 1787 when the village split away from the Russo parish. The Church of SS Peter and Paul was built in 1676.

The present population is made up of retirees and commuters who work in the Onsernone valley and in the agglomeration of Locarno.

Russo[edit]

During the Ancien Régime, Russo belonged to the Squadra of Russo, part of the old municipality of Onsernone.

The parish was probably created in 1656, when it separated from Loco. It included Comologno until 1715, Vergeletto until 1757, and Crana until 1787. The parish church of S. Maria Assunta is first mentioned in 1365, and was renovated in 1995-2002.

Until about the mid-20th Century, agriculture, animal husbandry and straw plaiting were the main sources of income in the village. This was supplemented by the traditional seasonal migration. While the number of inhabitants had decreased consistently over the decades, it began increasing in the 1970s. In 1989, the opening of the Centro sociale onsernonese nursing home provided a few dozen jobs in the village.[6]

Geography[edit]

Onsernone has an area, as of 1997, of 29.86 square kilometers (11.53 sq mi). Of this area, 0.34 km2 (0.13 sq mi) or 1.1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 23.38 km2 (9.03 sq mi) or 78.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.36 km2 (0.14 sq mi) or 1.2% is settled (buildings or roads), 0.75 km2 (0.29 sq mi) or 2.5% is either rivers or lakes and 3.48 km2 (1.34 sq mi) or 11.7% is unproductive land.

Of the built up area, housing and buildings made up 0.6% and transportation infrastructure made up 0.3%. Out of the forested land, 70.6% of the total land area is heavily forested and 4.3% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 0.5% is used for growing crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water. Of the unproductive areas, 9.1% is unproductive vegetation and 2.5% is too rocky for vegetation.[7]

The municipality is located in the Locarno district, in the lower Onsernone valley, about 25 km (16 mi) from Locarno. It consists of the villages of Comologno, Crana and Russo as well as the settlements of Vocaglia, Corbella, Cappellino and Spruga. It was formed in 1995 from the three formerly independent villages. The drawn out merger process began in the 1970s.[8]

Demographics[edit]

Onsernone has a population (as of December 2012) of 264.[1] As of 2008, 5.1% of the population are resident foreign nationals.[9] Over the last 10 years (1997–2007) the population has changed at a rate of -11.2%.

Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks Italian (79.5%), with German being second most common (14.9%) and French being third (4.0%).[10] Of the Swiss national languages (as of 2000), 48 speak German, 13 people speak French, 256 people speak Italian. The remainder (5 people) speak another language.[11]

As of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. The population was made up of 134 Swiss men (45.4% of the population), and 6 (2.0%) non-Swiss men. There were 145 Swiss women (49.2%), and 10 (3.4%) non-Swiss women.[12]

In 2008 there were 5 deaths of Swiss citizens. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 5 while the foreign population remained the same. There was 1 non-Swiss man and 1 non-Swiss woman who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources, including moves across municipal borders) was an increase of 1 and the non-Swiss population change was a decrease of 2 people. This represents a population growth rate of -0.3%.[9]

The age distribution, as of 2009, in Onsernone is; 14 children or 4.7% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 23 teenagers or 7.8% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 30 people or 10.2% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 19 people or 6.4% are between 30 and 39, 34 people or 11.5% are between 40 and 49, and 61 people or 20.7% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 48 people or 16.3% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 34 people or 11.5% are between 70 and 79, there are 32 people or 10.8% who are over 80.[12]

As of 2000, there were 147 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2. persons per household.[10] In 2000 there were 337 single family homes (or 75.7% of the total) out of a total of 445 inhabited buildings. There were 61 two family buildings (13.7%) and 27 multi-family buildings (6.1%). There were also 20 buildings in the municipality that were multipurpose buildings (used for both housing and commercial or another purpose).[13]

The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2008, was 0.85%. In 2000 there were 582 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was the 3 room apartment of which there were 150. There were 86 single room apartments and 90 apartments with five or more rooms.[14] Of these apartments, a total of 147 apartments (25.3% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 429 apartments (73.7%) were seasonally occupied and 6 apartments (1.0%) were empty.[14] As of 2007, the construction rate of new housing units was 0 new units per 1000 residents.[10]

The historical population is given in the following table:

Year Population
Comologno[4]
Population
Crana[5]
Population
Russo[6]
1719 182 - -
1795 253 134 206
1808 333 138 239
1850 440 185 302
1900 624 303 248
1950 477 134 121
1960 281 87 -
1970 - - 84
1990 142 49 136
Onsernone[8]
2000 322

Heritage sites of national significance[edit]

The Palazzo Della Barca is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance. The villages of Comologno and Russo are part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites.[15]

Politics[edit]

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SP which received 29.95% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP (27%), the CVP (16.98%) and the SVP (12.62%). In the federal election, a total of 116 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 30.3%.[16]

In the 2007 Gran Consiglio election, there were a total of 312 registered voters in Onsernone, of which 131 or 42.0% voted. 1 blank ballot and 1 null ballot was cast, leaving 129 valid ballots in the election. The most popular party was the PS which received 44 or 34.1% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were; the PLRT (with 27 or 20.9%), the SSI (with 26 or 20.2%) and the LEGA (with 17 or 13.2%).[17]

In the 2007 Consiglio di Stato election, 1 null ballot was cast, leaving 130 valid ballots in the election. The most popular party was the PS which received 43 or 33.1% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were; the PLRT (with 26 or 20.0%), the PLRT (with 26 or 20.0%) and the LEGA (with 22 or 16.9%).[17]

Economy[edit]

As of 2007, Onsernone had an unemployment rate of 3.18%. As of 2005, there were 13 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 7 businesses involved in this sector. 16 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 3 businesses in this sector. 90 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 13 businesses in this sector.[10] There were 124 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 32.3% of the workforce.

In 2000, there were 32 workers who commuted into the municipality and 44 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 1.4 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. About 12.5% of the workforce coming into Onsernone are coming from outside Switzerland.[18] Of the working population, 6.5% used public transportation to get to work, and 50% used a private car.[10] As of 2009, there was one hotel in Onsernone.[19]

Religion[edit]

From the 2000 census, 232 or 72.0% were Roman Catholic, while 18 or 5.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. There are 58 individuals (or about 18.01% of the population) who belong to another church (not listed on the census), and 14 individuals (or about 4.35% of the population) did not answer the question.[11]

Education[edit]

In Onsernone about 68.7% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule).[10]

In Onsernone there were a total of 36 students (as of 2009). The Ticino education system provides up to three years of non-mandatory kindergarten and in Onsernone there were 5 children in kindergarten. The primary school program lasts for five years and includes both a standard school and a special school. In the village, 10 students attended the standard primary schools and 2 students attended the special school. In the lower secondary school system, students either attend a two-year middle school followed by a two-year pre-apprenticeship or they attend a four-year program to prepare for higher education. There were 9 students in the two-year middle school, while 1 students were in the four-year advanced program.

The upper secondary school includes several options, but at the end of the upper secondary program, a student will be prepared to enter a trade or to continue on to a university or college. In Ticino, vocational students may either attend school while working on their internship or apprenticeship (which takes three or four years) or may attend school followed by an internship or apprenticeship (which takes one year as a full-time student or one and a half to two years as a part-time student).[20] There were 2 vocational students who were attending school full-time and 6 who attend part-time.

The professional program lasts three years and prepares a student for a job in engineering, nursing, computer science, business, tourism and similar fields. There was 1 student in the professional program.[21]

As of 2000, there were 15 students from Onsernone who attended schools outside the municipality.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistics Office – STAT-TAB Ständige und Nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Region, Geschlecht, Nationalität und Alter (German) accessed16 Septemeber 2013
  2. ^ Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeindedaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
  3. ^ Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz published by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (German) accessed 14 January 2010
  4. ^ a b c d Comologno in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  5. ^ a b c Crana in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  6. ^ a b c Russo in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  7. ^ Altitudine, superficie, secondo il genere di utilizzazione, rilevazione 1992/1997, e densità della popolazione, nel 2000 (Italian) accessed 25 October 2010
  8. ^ a b Onsernone in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  9. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Superweb database - Gemeinde Statistics 1981-2008 (German) accessed 19 June 2010
  10. ^ a b c d e f Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 09-December-2010
  11. ^ a b Popolazione residente, secondo la lingua principale e la religione, nel 2000 (Italian) accessed 23 November 2010
  12. ^ a b 01.02.03 Popolazione residente permanente (Italian) accessed 23 November 2010
  13. ^ 09.02.01 Edifici (Italian) accessed 23 November 2010
  14. ^ a b 09.02.02 Abitazioni (Italian) accessed 23 November 2010
  15. ^ "Kantonsliste A-Objekte:Ticino". KGS Inventar (in German). Federal Office of Civil Protection. 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  16. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office, Nationalratswahlen 2007: Stärke der Parteien und Wahlbeteiligung, nach Gemeinden/Bezirk/Canton (German) accessed 28 May 2010
  17. ^ a b Elezioni cantonali: Gran Consiglio, Consiglio di Stato (Italian) accessed 23 November 2010
  18. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Statweb (German) accessed 24 June 2010
  19. ^ Settori alberghiero e paralberghiero (Italian) accessed 23 November 2010
  20. ^ EDK/CDIP/IDES (2010). KANTONALE SCHULSTRUKTUREN IN DER SCHWEIZ UND IM FÜRSTENTUM LIECHTENSTEIN / STRUCTURES SCOLAIRES CANTONALES EN SUISSE ET DANS LA PRINCIPAUTÉ DU LIECHTENSTEIN (Report). http://edudoc.ch/record/35128/files/Schulsystem_alle.pdf. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  21. ^ Allievi e studenti, secondo il genere di scuola, anno scolastico 2009/2010 (Italian) accessed 23 November 2010


  • History and genealogy of a family from Onsernone: www.balmelli.info