Ontario Centre of Forensic Sciences
|Preceding Agency||Attorney-General’s Laboratory|
25 Grosvenor St.Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Agency executive||Anthony (Tony) Tessarolo, Director|
The Centre of Forensic Sciences (CFS) is a forensic laboratory mandated to provide forensic science services to law enforcement agencies in the province of Ontario in Canada. It is part of the government of Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services-Public Safety Division. Its major client groups are the Ontario Provincial Police, most municipal police forces across Ontario, Office of the Chief Coroner, Pathologists, Crown Attorneys, and the Office of the Fire Marshal. The majority of cases deal with Criminal Code of Canada offences but other enforcement areas related to environment, conservation, hazardous materials, and public transit have also have submitted samples. The CFS may also agree to provide specialized forensic services on a fee basis to other non-law enforcement parties, such as a non-criminal case lawyer or medical doctor. This decision rests with the Director of the CFS and any request must be made in writing.
Other mandated program areas for CFS include providing expert testimony in courts of law and tribunals, research and development, and client education and training.
The Centre of Forensic Sciences is located in central Toronto in the George Drew Complex at 25 Grosvenor St. CFS has a satellite laboratory in Sault Ste. Marie called the Northern Regional Laboratory (NRL). The NRL was created to better serve areas of Northwestern Ontario.
The Centre of Forensic Sciences Toronto laboratory is the single largest forensic laboratory in Canada. The other full-service forensic laboratories in Canada are the multiple Royal Canadian Mounted Police Forensic Laboratory Services laboratories and Quebec’s Laboratoire de Sciences Judiciaires et de Médecine Légale in Montreal. The Toronto location of CFS has approximately 260 personnel and the NRL has approximately 22 personnel.
While CFS is a part of the Ontario government, it does not serve only the prosecution in any case. CFS strives to be an independent and impartial provider and interpreter of forensic science. Its slogan is "scientia pro justicia" or "science for justice".
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Areas of analysis
- 4 Inquires and other governmental recommendations
- 5 Accreditation
- 6 Locations and jurisdictions
- 7 Employment and internships
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Forensic science in Ontario was first documented in 1859 by Professor Henry Holmes Croft, testifying during a murder court case in Cobourg, Ontario on arsenic found in stomach contents. Croft was succeeded by one of his University of Toronto students, Professor William Hodgson Ellis, in 1879. Ellis continued employing toxicology methods to criminal cases but also implemented serology and hair examinations. One of Ellis’s assistants, Professor L. Joslyn Rogers, started working forensic cases in 1911 and ended his long lived career retiring from the Centre of Forensic Sciences in 1967. Rogers’ remarkably long career saw him introduce new forensic methods in toxicology, fire and explosion investigation and safe burglaries.
First organization of a provincial laboratory
Up until 1932, the only forensic expertise in Ontario was a small group of interested doctors operating out of the old Grace Hospital in Toronto, a few university professors and specific hospital laboratories. There was no organization or funding and cases were handled ad hoc. In 1932, the Deputy Attorney-General C.L. Snyder asked Toronto surgeon, Dr. E.R. Frankish to set up a medico-legal laboratory. This first provincial laboratory was at 11 Queen’s Park Crescent in a stately old house. His former colleagues Dr. Noble C. Sharpe and chemist Verda Vincent later joined Dr. Frankish. Professor Rogers also served as a consultant to the medico-legal laboratory beginning in 1946. Dr. Sharpe and other rotating medical doctors were caretaker heads of the laboratory from 1941-1951.
Founding of the Centre of Forensic Sciences
Problems such as shortage of staff, diversification of forensic analysis and overcrowding with the original medico-legal laboratory led the Deputy Attorney-General C.R. Nagone to institute a wholesale revamping of the laboratory system. Thus the Attorney-General’s Laboratory was founded in 1951. After a lengthy search, Dr. H. Ward Smith was appointed Director of the new laboratory, bringing the staff to three, along with Dr. Sharpe and Ms. Vincent. By the end of the year the laboratory moved to new quarters at 67 College St. in Toronto. Dr. Smith attended the first modest meeting of Canadian forensic science professionals in Ottawa in 1953. He was the person to second the motion to adopt the name "Canadian Forensic Society" which later became the Canadian Society of Forensic Science.
By 1957, the laboratory had 17 staff and overcrowding again necessitated a move to 8 Jarvis St. in Toronto. Demand for forensic services continued to grow strongly and specialization had become formalized into organizational sections. These included biology, pathology, toxicology, physical chemistry and documents. A firearms section was created in 1958 making the Attorney-General’s Laboratory a full-service forensic laboratory. Soil examinations were added under the Chemistry Section by 1962.
In 1966, the laboratory was renamed The Centre of Forensic Sciences, and Lucas was made the new Director. By 1968, staff had risen to 75 personnel. The 1970s brought many new aspects to the CFS duties with the addition of a forensic engineer and certain types of electronic evidence being added to the chemistry discipline. This decade also saw the advent of the computer and other electronic equipment that would revolutionize the way the laboratory worked. The forensic pathology unit was separated from CFS in 1972. However the CFS was again outgrowing its warehouse location on Jarvis St. and sweeping plans for a new laboratory space were started. In 1975 the CFS moved to its present location at 25 Grosvenor St. and had a staff of 95. The multiple floors of the 25 Grosvenor St. location gave the CFS space to expand and add the Dr. H. Ward Smith Memorial Library.
The NRL was mandated by the Ontario Government in 1986 and became operational in 1992 at Roberta Bondar Place in Sault Ste. Marie. The NRL was started with a staff of 13 personnel under Lab Manager John Wells. The NRL serves areas north and west of Sudbury.
The analysis of DNA started in the CFS in 1990 continues to evolve and expand tremendously as it is the most important advance in forensic science to date. The CFS has also engineered workflow processes to handle the rapid growth of DNA cases. The CFS added an illegal gaming unit within the Chemistry Section in 1993 to add to the evolving electronics and digital evidence functions already being performed within the Chemistry Section.
In 1994, Mr. Lucas retired and George Cimbura became director. In 1996, Dr. Ray Prime took over the position of Director. This year also saw the non-management members on strike for 6 weeks as part Ontario Public Service Employees Union (OPSEU) strike against Ontario government policies. During the 1990s a series of events including the Kaufman Commission of Inquiry (1996) regarding the wrongful conviction of Guy Paul Morin, and the Campbell Inquiry (1999) regarding Paul Bernardo highlighted problems of case backlog, inadequate training and investigator communication to CFS. In 1999 the CFS adopted a computer network Laboratory Information Management System to better track and manage case flow through the laboratory.
The inquiries, and the Askov decision (dismissed charges from unreasonable delay in awaiting crown preparation for trial), in the 1990s led CFS to receive increased staffing and reorganize to improve the speed and quality of forensic services. CFS had to restrict its case acceptance criteria for some types of analysis due to the case backlog. By 2001 staff was over 240 personnel. The gaming unit, and digital evidence analysis, would leave the Chemistry Section in 2000 to form a separate Electronics Section. CFS union members were again on strike with the larger OPSEU union for 8 weeks in 2002 although many personnel were ruled to be essential and so were required to report to the workplace. In another reorganization, the Casino (gaming) unit of the Electronics Section was transferred to the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario in 2005.
Currently, the CFS is growing and reaching out to develop better working relationships with target client groups. Workload for the CFS is currently regularly over ten thousand cases per year. The majority of the growth has been in the DNA area due to the exceptional strength of this evidence, the lowering of detection limits and the expansion of testing to more crime types. Some notable recent service improvements are; DNA analysis has been extended to new offence categories such as Break and Enter, additional trace explosives capabilities, scientific support to the Ontario Provincial Police Provincial Emergency Response Team in CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) and improved support for unknown materials identification by police field instrumentation. CFS has also performed some groundbreaking work and safety training of police regarding organic peroxide explosives. CFS is again facing increasing scrutiny from the 2007 Auditor General of Ontario report and Goudge Inquiry about the turn-around time in processing forensic cases.
CFS will be moving to a new purpose-built Forensic Science Complex in the Downsview area of Toronto, scheduled for 2012.
CFS is under the Deputy Minister Public Safety and headed by a Director. Under the Director of CFS are three Deputy Directors (Deputy Director NRL, Deputy Director Scientific Affairs and Deputy Director Support Services). Scientific sections are organized under the Deputy Director Scientific Affairs into the following disciplines; Biology, Toxicology, Chemistry, Firearms, Documents, Electronics and the Centre Receiving Office. There are also several additional administrative and technical personnel under Support Services, Quality Assurance and Organizational Development.
CFS also has dedicated cleaning staff that provide janitorial and maintenance services.
Areas of analysis
Inquires and other governmental recommendations
The Kaufman Commission of Inquiry
The Kaufman Inquiry was ordered by the Ontario Government to investigate and make recommendations regarding the wrongful conviction of Guy Paul Morin in the murder of Christine Jessop in 1984. A substantial portion of the arrest warrant and prosecution case against Mr. Morin relied on hair and fibre evidence supplied by CFS. Additionally it came to light that CFS had inadequate tracking of evidence being processed through the lab. Problems were also exposed regarding inappropriate police communications between police and forensic scientists. Mr. Morin was exonerated by DNA evidence in 1995. The Kaufman Inquiry resulted in 119 recommendations of which a number applied to the role of CFS.
The impact of the Kaufman Inquiry on the CFS has been significant. One of the manifestations was the creation of the CFS Quality Unit in 1996. This unit is part of a through system to ensure the accuracy and relevance of the evidence it produces. Communications between lab personnel and investigators is now regulated and documented. There was also a continuing commitment from the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services to fund relatively high levels of training for the CFS scientific personnel.
The Campbell Inquiry
The Campbell Inquiry in 1999 looked into the police and justice system failings around the Paul Bernardo case. As a sexual assault suspect, Bernardo was sampled for DNA comparison to case evidence by Metro Toronto Police in November 1990 but the sample was not analyzed by CFS until December 1992. During this time Bernardo had moved to another region and committed four additional sexual assaults and two sadistic sexual murders. As a result of the inquiry CFS received additional resources and impetus to improve DNA analysis turn-around times.
2007 Annual Report of the Office of the Auditor General of Ontario
Chapter 3 of the 2007 annual Auditor General’s report dealt with the Centre of Forensic Sciences. Specifically, it made observations and recommendations about CFS turn-around time performance and efficiency. The report made 5 recommendations regarding; improving case turn-around times, consulting clients about turn-around targets, tracking effects of urgent cases, analysis of causes for longer than target turn-around times, and tracking efficiency in dollars and inter-laboratory comparisons.
The Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario (Goudge Inquiry)
The Goudge Inquiry was initiated to look at the work of Dr. Charles Smith, who erred in numerous pediatric forensic pathology cases through the 1990s. The inquiry also examined the system for forensic pathology in Ontario as a whole. Although this inquiry did not directly concern CFS there were several recommendations applicable to CFS. The Director of CFS, Dr. Ray Prime testified at the inquiry regarding CFS quality system and positive changes to the forensic lab stemming from the Kaufman Inquiry. The Inquiry recommended CFS to collaborate with the Office of the Chief Coroner to improve turn-around times for toxicology reports, which are usually prevalent in forensic pathology. Also, CFS is to collaborate with the Office of the Chief Coroner to better prioritize urgent forensic samples. The report also asked the Director of CFS (or delegate) to sit on a governing council to guide improvements in the work of the Office of the Chief Coroner and forensic pathology.
In 1993, the CFS became the first forensic laboratory in Canada to be accredited to an international set of standards. The accreditation process is an external and detailed check on CFS quality system to help ensure quality in the forensic evidence it produces. CFS first became accredited by the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors-Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB). This accreditation is slated to continue until fall 2008 when CFS is applying for accreditation to an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard. The new standard for CFS is the ISO 17025 standard for testing and calibration laboratories (along with relevant supplemental standards). The ASCLD organization is also expected to provide this new accreditation service.
Locations and jurisdictions
The current main location for the CFS is 25 Grosvenor St. in Toronto. The laboratory and associated working areas occupy the 2nd through the 7th and the 15th floors. There is a firing range in the upper basement. In addition, there is glassware washing facilities in the lower basement and a secure auto examination area underground. The main laboratory serves Southern Ontario and the parts of Northern Ontario, east of North Bay to Moosonee. Some exceptions are Ottawa, whom customarily send cases to the RCMP Forensic Laboratory in Ottawa, and certain specialized cases from the NRL jurisdiction have to be performed in the Toronto laboratory.
The NRL location is in Roberta Bondar Place at 500-70 Foster Drive in Sault Ste. Marie. It also has an auto examination area. The NRL serves areas north and west of Sudbury. Some exceptions are in far western Ontario, such as west of Dryden, which occasionally send cases to the RCMP Forensic Laboratory in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Both laboratory locations have multi-layered security and do not accept unscheduled public visitors. During the school year CFS has a tour program that allows grade 12 or university students to visit the Toronto laboratory and learn about its forensic work. These tours are by arrangement only.
CFS occasionally performs work for other governments or agencies such as the Department of National Defence (Canada), the Government of Bermuda, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, and the U.S. state of Virginia (notably the post-execution DNA testing in a U.S. capital murder case State of Virginia vs. Roger Coleman).
The CFS and RCMP Forensic Laboratory Services have also worked cooperatively to utilize each other's expertise and instrumentation on training events and during occasional cases.
The Ontario Government announced funding for a new state of the art Forensic Sciences Complex in October 2006. The new complex is to give needed room for growth in forensic services, especially, Biology, Toxicology and Pathology units. The new facility was originally slated to be operational in 2012. The complex will house the CFS, Office of the Chief Coroner and Provincial Forensic Pathology facilities. The new complex location was announced in November 2008 as being on Ontario government-owned property at Wilson Ave. and Keele St. in Toronto, currently in use by the Ministry of Transportation.
Employment and internships
The CFS hires by the rules and procedures of the Ontario Public Service. All public jobs are posted on the Ontario Government job site. On occasion there are positions for internal competition only in line with OPS rules. New forensic science hires to CFS are either as technologists or scientists. The chief distinction being scientists have responsibility for writing official case reports and giving expert opinion testimony. Technologists usually operate scientific instrumentation and/or process cases items for evidence. The minimum background requirements of a technologist hire is a 2 year diploma in a relevant science program and a relevant Honours BSc degree for a scientist position. Due to the current popularity of forensic topics in pop culture, there is strong competition for positions at CFS and new hires are most often well above the minimum requirements. A criminal record check is standard for potential hires at CFS. Other tests of technical skills or physical abilities may be assessed for some positions. Usually managers are hired competitively after several years experience as a scientist. Poaching of other forensic laboratory’s employees is avoided.
CFS normally takes several students from University of Toronto, Mississauga campus' Forensic Science program for graduation projects throughout the school year. CFS also sometimes takes students from the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland for the summer months. Relevant students from other universities occasionally also participate in summer internships at CFS. The CFS Organizational Development and Training Section must approve all requests for internships.
- The Development of Forensic Science in Ontario, D.M. Lucas and Noble C. Sharpe. Canadian J of Forensic Science, Vol. 2, June 1969.
- The Development of Forensic Science in Ontario: The Role of the Forensic Science Laboratories of the Ministry of the Solicitor General. GOALS Newsletter (Government of Ontario Analytical Laboratories System), December 1992, Issue #9.
- R. V. Askov, 1990. 2 S.C.R. 1199 http://scc.lexum.umontreal.ca/en/1990/1990rcs2-1199/1990rcs2-1199.html
- Report of the Kaufman Commission on Proceedings Involving Guy Paul Morin, The Honourable Fred Kaufman, C.M., Q.C, 1998 http://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/about/pubs/morin/
- Bernardo Investigation Review Summary, Report of Mr, Justice Archie Campbell, June 1996. http://www.cornwallinquiry.ca/en/hearings/exhibits/Wendy_Leaver/pdf/10_Campbell_Summary.pdf
- Maclean's, July 22, 1996, D'ARCY JENISH. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=M1ARTM0010959
- 2007 Annual Report of the Office of the Auditor General of Ontario: Chapter 3.02 Centre of Forensic Sciences http://www.auditor.on.ca/en/reports_safety_en.htm
- Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario, The Honourable Stephen T. Goudge, Volume 3, Chapter 22, Conclusion and Consolidated Recommendations. http://www.goudgeinquiry.ca/