|Classification and external resources|
Onychogryphosis (also known as "ram's horn nails") is a hypertrophy that may produce nails resembling claws or a ram's horn, possibly caused by trauma or peripheral vascular disorders, but most often secondary to neglect and failure to cut the nails for extended periods of time.:783-4 Onychogryphosis is most commonly seen in the elderly, and some recommend avulsion of the nail plate with surgical destruction of the matrix with phenol or the CO2 laser, if the blood supply is good.:783-4:659
Severe congenital onychogryphosis affecting all twenty nailbeds has been recorded in two families, who exhibit the dominant allele for a certain gene.  Congenital onychogryphosis of the fifth toe (the little toe) is fairly common, but asymptomatic and seldom brought to the attention of medical professionals. Rather, it is brought to the attention of manicurists who routinely file the clawed toenail flat.
- Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.
- James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
- Ram’s horn nails, Dr Nicola Mumoli (cardiologist) - Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile Livorno, Livorno, Italy, reported in Medical Journal of Australia, MJA 2011; 195 (4): 202, 15 August 2011, accessed 1 September 2011
- Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.
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