Open-mid back rounded vowel

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Open-mid back rounded vowel
ɔ
IPA number 306
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɔ
Unicode (hex) U+0254
X-SAMPA O
Kirshenbaum O
Sound

The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɔ. The IPA symbol is a turned letter c and both the symbol and the sound are commonly called "open-o". The name open-o represents the sound, in that it is like the sound represented by o, the close-mid back rounded vowel, except it is more open. It also represents the symbol, which can be remembered as an o which has been "opened" by removing part of the closed circular shape.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian po [pɔ] 'yes'
Armenian Eastern[1] հողմ [hɔʁm] 'storm'
Bamana wɔɔrɔ [wɔːrɔ] 'six'
Bengali বস [bɔʃ] 'sit' See Bengali phonology
Catalan[2] soc [ˈsɔk] 'clog' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese ngo5 [ŋɔː˩˧] 'I' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin wǒ [wɔ˨˩˦] 'I' See Mandarin phonology
Min [ɡɔ˨] 'five'
Wu bo [bɔ˨˩˦] 'run'
Danish Standard[3] og [ɔw] 'and' Often transcribed /ɒ/. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[4] och About this sound [ʔɔˤx]  'alas' 'Very tense, with strong lip-rounding',[5] strongly pharyngealized[6] (although less so in standard Belgian[7]) and somewhat fronted.[4][8] See Dutch phonology
Standard Netherlandic[8]
Amelands hôl [hɔːl] 'hollow'
Belgian nauw [nɔ̞ː] 'narrow' Some dialects. Corresponds to [ɔu] in standard Belgian Dutch.
Dutch Low Saxon taol [tɔːɫ] 'language' May be lower [ɒː] in some dialects.
English Australian[9] not About this sound [nɔt]  'not' See Australian English phonology
Cockney May also be as open as [ɒ], like in traditional RP.
Estuary[10]
New Dublin Other Dublin accents use a lower sound [ɒ ~ ɑ ~ a], which differs from /ɔː/ entirely by length.
New Zealand[11] May be somewhat fronted.[12] Often transcribed /ɒ/.
Received Pronunciation[13] /ɒ/ has shifted up in emerging RP.
General American[14] thought [θɔːt] 'thought' Only in speakers without the cot–caught merger. It may be lower [ɒ].
Norfolk[15]
Older Received Pronunciation[16] Higher [ɔ̝ː] for most other speakers.
Scottish[17] Many Scottish dialects exhibit the cot-caught merger, the outcome of which is a vowel of [ɔ] quality.
Faroese góðan morgun [ˌɡɔuwan ˈmɔɹɡʊn] 'good morning'
French[18] sort [sɔ̜ːʁ] 'fate' See French phonology
Georgian[19] სწრი [st͡sʼɔɾi] 'correct'
German Standard[20] voll About this sound [fɔl]  'full' See German phonology
Italian[21] parola About this sound [päˈɾɔ̟ːlä]  'word' Fronted. See Italian phonology
Lao [bɔː] 'origin'
Lingala mbɔ́ngɔ [ᵐbɔ́ᵑɡɔ] 'money' See Lingala vowels.
Macedonian коњ [kɔɲ] 'horse' See Macedonian phonology
Occitan òme [ˈɔme] 'man'
Polish[22] kot About this sound [kɔt̪]  'cat' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[23] só [sɔ] 'alone' See Portuguese phonology
Swedish moll [mɔl] 'minor' See Swedish phonology
Tajik тоҷикӣ [tɔːdʒɪˈkiː] 'Tajik language'
Ukrainian вовк [ˈvɔwk] 'wolf' See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek O'zbek [ɔzˈbek] 'Uzbek'
Vietnamese to [tɔ] 'large' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian bôle [ˈbɔːɫə] 'bread'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  2. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  3. ^ Grønnum (1998)
  4. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005:245)
  5. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132)
  6. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132, 222 and 224)
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:222)
  8. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  9. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  10. ^ Wells (1982:305)
  11. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a)
  12. ^ Bauer et al. (2007:98)
  13. ^ Wikström (2013:45), "It seems to be the case that younger RP or near-RP speakers typically use a closer quality, possibly approaching Cardinal 6 considering that the quality appears to be roughly intermediate between that used by older speakers for the LOT vowel and that used for the THOUGHT vowel, while older speakers use a more open quality, between Cardinal Vowels 13 and 6."
  14. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b)
  15. ^ Lodge (2009:168)
  16. ^ Wells (1982:293)
  17. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  18. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  19. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261–262)
  20. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  21. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  22. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  23. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition, ISBN 9004103406 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Harrington, J.; Cox, F.; Evans, Z. (1997), "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics 17: 155–84, doi:10.1080/07268609708599550 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009a), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009b), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Wikström, Jussi (2013), "An acoustic study of the RP English LOT and THOUGHT vowels", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 37–47, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000345