Open-mid front rounded vowel

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Open-mid front rounded vowel
œ
IPA number 311
Encoding
Entity (decimal) œ
Unicode (hex) U+0153
X-SAMPA 9
Kirshenbaum W
Braille ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
Sound

The open-mid front rounded vowel, or low-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is œ. The symbol œ is a lowercase ligature of the letters o and e. Note that ɶ, a small caps version of the Œ ligature, is used for a distinct vowel sound: the open front rounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is open-mid, also known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel (a low vowel) and a mid vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that they're in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Azeri öküz [œˈcyz] 'ox'
Afrikaans suid [sœjt] 'south'
Armenian Western Armenian Էօժենի [œʒɛˈni] 'Eugenie'
Chinese Cantonese hoe1 [hœː˥] 'boots' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin y [ɥœ˥˩] 'moon' See Mandarin phonology
Wu [ɰœ˩˧] 'bowl'
Danish høne [ˈhœːnə] 'hen' See Danish phonology
Dutch Southern uit [œːt] 'out' Some dialects, corresponds to [œy] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
The Hague[1] Corresponds to [œy] in standard Dutch.
Limburg hut [hœt] 'hut' Some dialects. Corresponds to [ɵ] in standard Dutch.
English Cockney[2] bird [bœ̈ːd] 'bird' Centralized. May as well be unrounded [ɜ̟ː], or the RP variant /ɜː/.
New Zealand[3] Centralized; may be [ɵ̟ː] or [ø̞̈ː] instead. See English phonology
General
South African[4]
go [ɡœː] 'go' Some speakers. Can be a diphthong of the type [œʉ]~[œɤ̈] instead. Other South African varieties don't monophthongize.
Faroese løgdu [lœdːʊ] 'laid' (pl.)
French[5] jeune [ʒœn] 'young' See French phonology
German Standard[6] Hölle [ˈhœ̞̈lə] 'hell' Centralized and lowered. See German phonology
Lori shö [ʃœ] 'night'
Icelandic þö [θœ] 'however'
North Frisian blömk [blœmk] 'flower'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[7] øl [œ̈l̪] 'beer' Centralized. See Norwegian phonology
Mongolian Chakhar ᠣᠨᠢᠰᠤ [œnʲs] 'lock' The standard dialect in Inner Mongolia.
Occitan Auvergnat puei [pœj] 'then' Some dialects, especially the northern ones
Limousin
Western Lombard fioeu [fjœː] 'son' Old Milanese; now an allophone of /ø/

The vowel transcribed /œ/ in Central Standard Swedish is in fact mid [œ̝].[8]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition, ISBN 9004103406 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982), Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press