Open collaboration

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Open Collaboration is a pattern of collaboration, innovation, and production. Open Collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants, who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and non-contributors alike".[1]

Open collaboration is the principle underlying Peer Production, Mass Collaboration, and Wikinomics. It was observed initially in open source software, but can also be found in many other instances, such as in internet forums,[2] mailing lists,[3] internet communities,[4] and many instances of open content, such as creative commons. Open Collaboration is also thought to be the operating principle underlining a gamut of diverse ventures, including BitCoin, TEDx, and Wikipedia.[5] It also explains some instances of Crowdsourcing, Collaborative Consumption, and Open Innovation.[6]

An annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of open collaboration is the International Symposium on Open Collaboration (OpenSym, formerly WikiSym).[7] The conference has been supported by variety of sponsors, including the Wikimedia Foundation, Creative Commons, Google, Microsoft, WikiHow, About Us, CosmoCode, XWiki, TWiki, Kaltura, University of Porto, University of Michigan, and the National Science Foundation.[8]


  1. ^ Levine, Sheen S., & Prietula, M. J. (2013). Open Collaboration for Innovation: Principles and Performance. Organization Science, doi: 10.1287/orsc.2013.0872
  2. ^ Lakhani, Karim R., & von Hippel, Eric (2003). How Open Source Software Works: Free User to User Assistance. Research Policy, 32, 923–943
  3. ^ Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Majchrzak, Ann (2008). Knowledge Collaboration Among Professionals Protecting National Security: Role of Transactive Memories in Ego-Centered Knowledge Networks. Organization Science, 19(2), 260-276
  4. ^ Faraj, S., Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Majchrzak, Ann (2011). Knowledge Collaboration in Online Communities. Organization Science, 22(5), 1224-1239
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  6. ^ Levine, Sheen S., & Prietula, Michael J. (2012). Where Can Open Collaboration Thrive? A Model of Performance. Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings, 1(January). doi: 10.5465/ambpp.2012.309 ,;2012/1/1-cj
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