Opera Australia is the principal opera company in Australia. Based in Sydney, its performance season at the Sydney Opera House runs for approximately eight months of the year, with the remainder of its time spent in the Arts Centre Melbourne (where it is accompanied by Orchestra Victoria). In 2004, the company gave 226 performances in its subscription seasons in Sydney and Melbourne, attended by more than 294,000 people.
Like most opera companies, it is funded by a combination of government money, corporate sponsorship, private philanthropy, and ticket sales. The proportion of its revenue from ticket sales is considerably higher than that of most companies, approximately 75 per cent. The company is perhaps best known internationally for its association with Dame Joan Sutherland, and for Baz Luhrmann's production of Puccini's La bohème in the early 1990s.
By the end of 2004, Opera Australia provided employment to approximately 1,300 Australians. OzOpera (Opera Australia's education, access and development arm) presented the La bohème production in Victoria, Northern Territory and Western Australia, attended by 13,350 people, while OzOpera's Schools Company performed to over 63,500 primary age children in more than 360 performances in urban and regional New South Wales and Victoria. Many thousands of Australians also experienced the work of their national opera company through television, radio, video, compact disc, DVD, and the annual free performance of opera in the Domain in Sydney.
Australian Opera Company, 1956–57 
In 1956, the Australian Opera Company was formed in Sydney under the auspices of the Australian Elizabethan Theatre Trust. It commemorated the Mozart bicentenary by presenting four Mozart operas in all capital cities, travelling more than 10,000 kilometres, and giving 169 performances. A truly national company was in place.
Elizabethan Theatre Trust Opera Company, 1957–70 
By 1957, it changed its name to the Elizabethan Theatre Trust Opera Company.
In 1959 the company's laid-off singers gave the first of many regional tours (presented by state Arts Councils) with Rossini's The Barber of Seville using reduced scenery and conducted from the piano by Georg Tintner (Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland). Subsequent Arts Council tours included Rigoletto (1960; Victoria, Queensland, New South Wales), Così fan tutte (1961; New South Wales, Queensland) and La traviata (1962; New South Wales, Queensland), all conducted by Tintner. However, by 1963 a permanent nucleus of singers and staff was retained throughout the year and the company had made appearances at regional festivals, including the Adelaide Festival. It was also able to establish the first Elizabethan Trust Orchestra for the company by 1967 with additional government aid. During this time, Stefan Haag played an important role in the development of the company.
A major milestone for the company was a television recording of Puccini's Tosca filmed in 1968 at the Adelaide Festival. This starred Tito Gobbi as Scarpia alongside two Australian singers, soprano Marie Collier in the title role, and tenor Donald Smith as Cavaradossi, with the Argentinian born, Italian conductor Carlo Felice Cillario conducting. This was the commencement of a long and fruitful association between the Australian Opera and Maestro Cillario until his retirement in 2003. Some of his first rehearsals in the country involved conducting the Elizabethan Sydney Orchestra and the Australian Opera Chorus, both newly formed and on permanent contracts.
While not yet appearing with this company, Joan Sutherland, then an internationally known Australian soprano, and her husband, the conductor Richard Bonynge, helped the cause of opera in general in Australia during the 1960s. Sutherland's name was also linked to the progress of the Sydney Opera House, begun in 1957 and still undergoing a lengthy and controversial construction. By the time 'La Stupenda' appeared there in 1974, one year after the opening of the theatre, the company was a leading repertory company with a large chorus and a roster of experienced Australian principals supplemented by guest singers and conductors.
The Australian Opera, 1970–96 
In 1970, the company became known as The Australian Opera. The 1970s saw considerable changes both in administration and location. In 1972, Edward Downes, formerly associated with London's Royal Opera House, became Musical Director, and his first new production was the Australian premiere of Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier at the Princess Theatre, Melbourne, followed closely by Prokofiev's War and Peace as the opening night performance of the Sydney Opera House, a short time before the building's official opening.
The Sydney Opera House, as well as quickly becoming a distinctive cultural landmark in that city, gave the company a permanent performance home and thus helped to expand its repertoire and develop local audiences. Audiences were certainly boosted by Joan Sutherland's performances with The Australian Opera in Offenbach's The Tales of Hoffmann. In addition, in the 1974 season three Australian works were performed: The Affair by Felix Werder, Lenz by Larry Sitsky, and Rites of Passage by Peter Sculthorpe. (Rites of Passage was to have been the inaugural opera presentation at the Sydney Opera House, but was not ready in time.)
By 1976, Richard Bonynge had become Musical Director and he led the company on its first overseas tour to New Zealand with Verdi's Rigoletto and Janáček's Jenůfa, the latter conducted by Georg Tintner. This was followed in 1978 by the first Australian Opera country tour with orchestra to north-eastern New South Wales (Don Pasquale with the Queensland Theatre Orchestra, conducted by Tintner). From 1977 to 1990, the resident director was Elke Neidhardt.
In 1977, the New South Wales Friends of the Australian Opera and the Australian Elizabethan Theatre Trust established the Armstrong-Martin Scholarship to further the musical education of professional opera singers.
During the 1980s, after many years of recording performances by the Australian Opera for television, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) and The Australian Opera presented their first live simulcast, Johann Strauss's Die Fledermaus, and it was seen by more than two million people. Over the following years a series of simulcasts reached millions of Australian homes.
On the popular front, a big box office success was the appearance of Luciano Pavarotti and Joan Sutherland at the Concert Hall of the Sydney Opera House in 1983, with the Elizabethan Sydney Orchestra conducted by Richard Bonynge (the sister orchestra in Melbourne was known as the Elizabethan Melbourne Orchestra. Now they are known respectively as the Australian Opera and Ballet Orchestra, Sydney and Orchestra Victoria, Melbourne). This nationally simulcast performance broke box office records for an indoor event. Another successful concert with Sutherland and Marilyn Horne was held in the Concert Hall.
In addition, several innovative features characterised this period of the 1980s. The first "Esso Opera in the Park" in the Sydney Domain quickly became an annual event, and it is now called "Opera in the Domain". Typically, it attracts almost 100,000 people each year. A similar annual outdoor event, which attracts more than 25,000 people, is held in Melbourne. The second was the establishment of "The Esso Young Artists' Development Program" for the Australian Opera while the third was the "Australian Compositions Program" launched with a new production of Brian Howard's Metamorphosis.
Also another innovative program, "The National Opera Workshop", was established to enable selected Australian composers to present works in workshop form with artists from the Australian Opera. Lastly, "OperaAction", the "Youth Education Program" established a program of events, including three Youth performances of Puccini's Madama Butterfly and, in 1986, Winds of the Solstice, an original youth opera created by 70 students working on libretto, music, choreography and orchestration and presented at the Sydney Opera House.
The company re-organised its administration gradually throughout the decade, appointing Moffatt Oxenbould as Artistic Director in 1984, and announcing that Richard Bonynge would become Musical Director Emeritus and Principal Guest Conductor from 1987, after his decade long contract as musical director expired.
In 1988, in association with the Australian Bicentennial Authority, the company toured Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and the National Opera Workshop in Melbourne with The Ra Project, a music-theatre work composed with the direct participation from the earliest stages of the singers who performed it and marking director Baz Luhrmann's first association with the Australian Opera.
Dame Joan Sutherland gave her farewell performances for the Australian Opera in 1990 in a production of Meyerbeer's Les Huguenots. Two years later, the company named its major rehearsal studio after Dame Joan.
The early 1990s were to see two important changes in the way that the company worked: firstly, in 1991, with the formation of the "Artistic Associates of The Australian Opera", a body of people was created which comprised some of the most important figures in the Australian musical and performing arts world. Secondly, the Australian Opera and Ballet Orchestra was integrated with the Australian Opera to produce a permanent opera and ballet orchestra for the company.
In its first performances outside Australasia in 1994, the company performed Britten's A Midsummer Night's Dream at the Edinburgh International Festival. In addition, the Baz Luhrmann production of La bohème was screened over more than 300 North American television stations, followed by worldwide video release and a Broadway version.
Opera Australia, since 1996 
Opera Australia (OA) was formed by the merger of the Australian Opera and the Victoria State Opera (VSO) companies in 1996, following the financial collapse of the Melbourne based VSO. Adrian Collette was appointed General Manager of the new company, and evolved a three-year plan to restructure the company involving twice yearly seasons in both Sydney and Melbourne, integrating the OA and VSO staff and planning a viable financial structure so as to manage the inherited debt.
The first few years of the present century saw the retirement of Moffatt Oxenbould, Opera Australia's Artistic Director for 15 years, and the appointment of Simone Young as Musical Director. To honour the retiring director, the Young Artists' Program was renamed the "Moffatt Oxenbould Young Artists' Development Program". Immediately on taking up her position in 2001, Simone Young appointed the Australian director Stuart Maunder to the position of Artistic Director. Young proceeded to develop the company's core repertoire, including more German operas in the repertoire and diversifying the types of productions mounted and the standards of international and local artists employed. By late 2002 however, the OA Board, faced with mounting deficits, announced that Young's future visions for the company were 'unsustainable' and decided not to renew her contract after the end of 2003.
At the end of 2003, Richard Hickox was named Music Director-designate of Opera Australia, and took up the post full-time from January 2005. During his tenure, Hickox diversified the repertoire with the addition of more 20th century works such as The Love for Three Oranges, The Makropulos Affair, Rusalka and Arabella, recording live performances of many of these works for Chandos Records. The company's 50th anniversary was celebrated in 2006 with a Gala Concert in which tributes were paid to Joan Sutherland and Richard Bonynge, the principal artists, the chorus, production staff and the Australian Opera and Ballet Orchestra (the AOBO) for their 'artistry and talent' and the 'ensemble nature' of the company. In mid-2008, Hickox and Opera Australia were criticised for what was perceived as a decline in artistic standards since the start of Hickox's tenure. On returning to the UK in November 2008 following the Sydney Winter Season, Hickox died suddenly from a heart attack after conducting a rehearsal in Swansea. On 30 June 2009, Lyndon Terracini was announced as the new Artistic Director.
In 2013, Terracini announced that singers on 12-month contracts will be "rested" without pay for a period of six to twelve weeks in 2014; singers affected include Jacqueline Dark, Dominica Matthews and Warwick Fyfe.
Educational outreach 
OzOpera was established after the merger of the AO with the VSO in 1996 under the Directorship of Lindy Hume. Its aim is to present opera to audiences throughout metropolitan and regional Australia. Additionally it presents schools performances in primary schools across New South Wales and Victoria, adapting large-scale scores to suit young audiences. In 2009 it is expected that OzOpera will enable over 100,000 people to experience opera firsthand.
Modern Australian opera 
Opera Australia is committed to the long term development and performance of modern Australian operas. Since 1974, OA has fully staged 12 new Australian operas and workshopped over 20 new works in various stages of development. The main new works staged by the company have been The Little Mermaid by Anne Boyd (1985); Metamorphosis by Brian Howard (1985); Voss by Richard Meale (1986); Whitsunday by Howard (1988); Mer de glace by Richard Meale (1992); The Golem by Larry Sitsky (1993); The Eighth Wonder by Alan John (1995); Summer of the Seventeenth Doll by Richard Mills (1999); Batavia by Richard Mills (2001); Love in the Age of Therapy by Paul Grabowsky (OzOpera 2002); Lindy by Moya Henderson (2003); Madeline Lee by John Haddock (2004); Bliss (2010) by Brett Dean. Bliss was also performed at the Edinburgh International Festival and Hamburg State Opera.
Under Moffatt Oxenbould, a yearly National Opera Workshop was devised which enabled selected composers and creators to "access the resources and expertise of the National Company" and receive advice and encouragement from operatic experts. Since 2000 this workshop situation has ceased and a commissioning panel has been appointed to select future promising works.
Digital strategy 
In 2011, Opera Australia launched a new digital strategy in order to bring high-definition recordings of its operas to cinemas (in collaboration with CinemaLive), as well as launching DVD, Blu-ray and CD releases on its own label and broadcasting these recordings on ABC Television. This increase in video content has also meant an increase in participation on YouTube, including the more regular release of content on the Opera Australia YouTube channel. Alongside these changes, the company has also increased its presence on social media outlets Twitter and Facebook in 2010 and 2011, providing regular updates and answering customer questions. 2011 also saw the launch of the Weekly Audience Review competition as part of the Opera Australia Blog, providing incentives for audience members to post reviews of Opera Australia productions online, including pass giveaways and publication of reviews on the blog.
- Hall. S, "Opera Conductor a Humble Wizard in Oz", The Australian. 20 December 2007. Accessed 15 December 2008
- Adams, B. La Stupenda. Hutchinson Group. 1980 p. 126 ISBN 0-09-137410-3
- Adams. B, La Stupenda, Hutchinson Group. 1980. pp. 235–36 ISBN 0-09-137410-3
- Oxenbould. M, Timing Is Everything ABC Books, 2005 p. 419
- Gill, Ray (7 September 2003). "Opera takes diva into the red". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 2008.
- Oxenbould, M. Timing is Everything, 2005. p. 650
- Oxenbould. M, Timing is Everything, 2005 pp. 706–707
- Mattison, Ben (13 September 2002). "Opera Australia Fires Simone Young". andante Corp. Retrieved 2008.
- Opera Australia's 50th Anniversary Gala Programme Note. 2006. p. 3, Hickox.
- Roger Maynard (16 August 2008). "Soprano sounds off about 'disrespectful' Briton in charge of Opera Australia". The Independent (London). Retrieved 21 November 2008.
- Ashleigh Wilson (24 November 2008). "Opera Australia conductor Hickox dies suddenly". The Australian. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
- "Opera's artistic director Lyndon Terracini found close to home" by Corrie Perkin, The Australian (1 July 2009)
- "OA uproar as singers 'rested' without pay" by Matthew Westwood, The Australian, 4 May 2013 (subscription required)
- Opera Australia. "Life Amplified" 2009, p. 51
- Oxenbould. M, Timing is Everything, 2005. pp. 700–707. Not all repertoire lists are complete. Check bibliography for full in-text references.
- Oxenbould. M, Timing is Everything, 2005. p. 425
- "Opera Australia launches own DVD/CD label and TV broadcasts after successful debut at cinemas", Press Release (12 May 2011)
- "Officially announcing our new Weekly Review Competition", Opera Australia Blog (18 May 2011)
- "Introduction to the Opera Basics series", Opera Australia, 31 May 2011. Accessed 5 January 2013