Operation Anvil (nuclear test)
|Operation Anvil (Nuclear test)|
Anvil Husky Pup test chamber 1.
|Test site||NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat|
|Number of tests||21|
|Test type||ug shaft, ug tunnel|
|Max. yield||1 megatonne of TNT (4.2 PJ)|
|Previous test series||Operation Bedrock|
|Next test series||Operation Fulcrum|
Operation Anvil was a series of 21 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1975-1976 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Bedrock series and preceded the Operation Fulcrum series.
The United States test series summary table is here: United States' nuclear testing series.
The detonations in the United States' Anvil series are listed below:
|Name[note 1]||Date time (UT)||Local time zone[note 2]||Location[note 3]||Elevation + height[note 4]||Delivery[note 5]||Purpose[note 6]||Device[note 7]||Yield[note 8]||Venting[note 9]||References||Notes|
|Marsh||6 September 1975 17:00:00.113||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U3kb||1,187 m (3,894 ft) - 427.21 m (1,401.6 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||7 kt|||
|23 October 1975||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area near U2em||1,220 m (4,000 ft) +||ug shaft||no yield||Became stuck in shaft while being lowered; abandoned, later destroyed by Tinderbox/Azul.|
|Husky Pup||24 October 1975 17:11:26.093||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U12t.03||2,036 m (6,680 ft) - 327.96 m (1,076.0 ft)||ug tunnel||weapon effect||15 kt|||
|Kasseri||28 October 1975 14:00:30.16||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U20z||1,957 m (6,421 ft) - 1,264.92 m (4,150.0 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||1 Mt||Venting detected|||
|Deck||18 November 1975 15:00:30.113||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U3kd||1,185 m (3,888 ft) - 326.14 m (1,070.0 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||5 kt|||
|Inlet||20 November 1975 15:00:00.093||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U19f||2,025 m (6,644 ft) - 818.33 m (2,684.8 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||500 kt|||
|Leyden||26 November 1975 15:00:30.163||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U9cm||1,303 m (4,275 ft) - 326.11 m (1,069.9 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||5 kt|||
|Chiberta||20 December 1975 20:00:00.164||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U2ek||1,264 m (4,147 ft) - 716 m (2,349 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||160 kt|||
|Muenster||3 January 1976 19:00:15.162||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U19e||2,082 m (6,831 ft) - 1,452.4 m (4,765 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||800 kt|||
|Keelson||4 February 1976 14:00:20.112||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U7ai||1,218 m (3,996 ft) - 639.62 m (2,098.5 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||150 kt|||
|Esrom||4 February 1976 14:00:40.163||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U7ak||1,258 m (4,127 ft) - 654.6 m (2,148 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||160 kt||Venting detected, 88 Ci (3,300 GBq)|||
|Fontina||12 February 1976 14:00:45.163||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U20f||1,837 m (6,027 ft) - 1,219 m (3,999 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||900 kt|||
|Cheshire||14 February 1976 11:00:30.162||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U20n||1,947 m (6,388 ft) - 1,167 m (3,829 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||350 kt||||See Whetstone/Cambric. A test of groundwater mobility in moving buried radiaoactives, this time in volcanic rock/soil.|
|Shallows||26 February 1976 14:00:50.091||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U3jf||1,188 m (3,898 ft) - 244.85 m (803.3 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||2.5 kt||Venting detected|||
|Estuary||9 March 1976 14:00:00.094||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U19g||2,025 m (6,644 ft) - 856.79 m (2,811.0 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||350 kt|||
|Colby||14 March 1976 12:00:30.163||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U20aa||1,904 m (6,247 ft) - 1,273.4 m (4,178 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||800 kt||Venting detected, 44 Ci (1,600 GBq)|||
|Pool||17 March 1976 14:00:15.09||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U19p||2,076 m (6,811 ft) - 881.18 m (2,891.0 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||500 kt|||
|Strait||17 March 1976 14:00:45.091||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U4a||1,243 m (4,078 ft) - 782.42 m (2,567.0 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||210 kt|||
|Mighty Epic||12 May 1976 19:00:50.17||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U12n.10||2,224 m (7,297 ft) - 396.24 m (1,300.0 ft)||ug tunnel||weapon effect||20 kt|||
|Rivoli||20 May 1976 17:00:30.162||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U2eg||1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 199.64 m (655.0 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||600 t||Venting detected|||
|Billet||27 July 1976 20:00:30.079||PST (-8 hrs)
||NTS Area U7an||1,222 m (4,009 ft) - 636.57 m (2,088.5 ft)||ug shaft||weapons development||58 kt||I-131 venting detected, 0|||
- The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China have not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions - Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 - 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
- To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight savings time, add one additional hour. If the result is less than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it's greater than or equal to 24:00, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day.
- Rough place name and a Latitude/Longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
- Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
- Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
- Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
- Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceeding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
- Estimated energy yield in tonnes, kilotonnes, and megatonnes (all metric units).
- Emissions to atmosphere, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and everything if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radiation released.
- Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research
- Hechanova, Anthony E.; O'Donnell, James E. (1998-09-25), Estimates of yield for nuclear tests impacting the groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Science and Technology Division
- Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved 26 November 2013
- Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18
- United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18
- Norris, Robert Standish; Cochran, Thomas B. (1 February 1994), "United States nuclear tests, July 1945 to 31 December 1992 (NWD 94-1)", Nuclear Weapons Databook Working Paper (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council), retrieved 2013-10-26
- Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1), DOE Nevada Operations Office, retrieved 2013-10-31
- Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2, National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05