Operation Anvil (nuclear test)

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Operation Anvil
Anvil Husky Pup - Test chamber 1.jpg
Anvil Husky Pup test chamber 1.
Information
Country United States
Test site NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period 1975-1976
Number of tests 21
Test type underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 1 megatonne of TNT (4.2 PJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Bedrock
Next test series Operation Fulcrum

Operation Anvil[1] was a series of 21 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1975-1976 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Bedrock series and preceded the Operation Fulcrum series.

United States' Anvil series tests and detonations
Name [note 1] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 2][2] Location [note 3] Elevation + height [note 4] Delivery [note 5]
Purpose [note 6]
Device [note 7] Yield [note 8] Fallout [note 9] References Notes
Marsh 6 September 1975 17:00:00.113 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3kb 37°01′25″N 116°01′45″W / 37.02362°N 116.02909°W / 37.02362; -116.02909 (Marsh) 1,187 m (3,894 ft) - 427.21 m (1,401.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt [3][4][5][6][1]
Peninsula
(aborted)
23 October 1975 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area near U2em 1,220 m (4,000 ft) + underground shaft,
no yield Became stuck in shaft while being lowered; abandoned, later destroyed by Tinderbox/Azul.
Husky Pup 24 October 1975 17:11:26.093 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12t.03 37°13′18″N 116°10′49″W / 37.22174°N 116.18019°W / 37.22174; -116.18019 (Husky Pup) 2,036 m (6,680 ft) - 327.96 m (1,076.0 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
15 kt [3][7][5][6][1]
Kasseri 28 October 1975 14:30:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20z 37°17′24″N 116°24′45″W / 37.29°N 116.41244°W / 37.29; -116.41244 (Kasseri) 1,957 m (6,421 ft) - 1,264.92 m (4,150.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 Mt Venting detected [8][7][5][6][1]
Deck 18 November 1975 15:30:00.113 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3kd 37°01′13″N 116°01′17″W / 37.02031°N 116.02143°W / 37.02031; -116.02143 (Deck) 1,185 m (3,888 ft) - 326.14 m (1,070.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt [5][6][1]
Inlet 20 November 1975 15:00:00.093 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19f 37°13′30″N 116°22′06″W / 37.2249°N 116.36845°W / 37.2249; -116.36845 (Inlet) 2,025 m (6,644 ft) - 818.33 m (2,684.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
500 kt [3][7][5][6][1]
Leyden 26 November 1975 15:30:00.163 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9cm 37°07′02″N 116°01′11″W / 37.11721°N 116.01975°W / 37.11721; -116.01975 (Leyden) 1,303 m (4,275 ft) - 326.11 m (1,069.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt [3][7][5][6][1]
Chiberta 20 December 1975 20:00:00.164 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ek 37°07′39″N 116°03′45″W / 37.1276°N 116.06244°W / 37.1276; -116.06244 (Chiberta) 1,264 m (4,147 ft) - 716 m (2,349 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
160 kt [3][4][5][6][1]
Muenster 3 January 1976 19:15:00.162 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19e 37°17′47″N 116°20′03″W / 37.2965°N 116.33407°W / 37.2965; -116.33407 (Muenster) 2,082 m (6,831 ft) - 1,452.4 m (4,765 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 kt [3][7][5][6][1]
Keelson 4 February 1976 14:20:00.112 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7ai 37°04′09″N 116°01′52″W / 37.06921°N 116.03103°W / 37.06921; -116.03103 (Keelson) 1,218 m (3,996 ft) - 639.62 m (2,098.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
150 kt [3][4][5][6][1]
Esrom 4 February 1976 14:40:00.163 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7ak 37°06′24″N 116°02′18″W / 37.10655°N 116.03829°W / 37.10655; -116.03829 (Esrom) 1,258 m (4,127 ft) - 654.6 m (2,148 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
160 kt Venting detected, 88 Ci (3,300 GBq) [3][9][8][5][6][1]
Fontina 12 February 1976 14:45:00.163 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20f 37°16′17″N 116°29′22″W / 37.27136°N 116.48934°W / 37.27136; -116.48934 (Fontina) 1,837 m (6,027 ft) - 1,219 m (3,999 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
900 kt [3][7][5][6][1]
Cheshire 14 February 1976 11:30:00.162 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20n 37°14′33″N 116°25′16″W / 37.242611°N 116.42113°W / 37.242611; -116.42113 (Cheshire) 1,947 m (6,388 ft) - 1,167 m (3,829 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
350 kt [3][7][5][6][1] See Whetstone/Cambric. A test of groundwater mobility in moving buried radiaoactives, this time in volcanic rock/soil.
Shallows 26 February 1976 14:50:00.091 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jf 37°01′43″N 116°00′59″W / 37.02851°N 116.01649°W / 37.02851; -116.01649 (Shallows) 1,188 m (3,898 ft) - 244.85 m (803.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2.5 kt Venting detected [4][8][5][6][1]
Estuary 9 March 1976 14:00:00.094 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19g 37°18′34″N 116°21′56″W / 37.30955°N 116.36549°W / 37.30955; -116.36549 (Estuary) 2,025 m (6,644 ft) - 856.79 m (2,811.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
350 kt [3][7][5][6][1]
Colby 14 March 1976 12:30:00.163 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20aa 37°18′21″N 116°28′21″W / 37.30594°N 116.47237°W / 37.30594; -116.47237 (Colby) 1,904 m (6,247 ft) - 1,273.4 m (4,178 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 kt Venting detected, 44 Ci (1,600 GBq) [8][7][5][6][1]
Pool 17 March 1976 14:15:00.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19p 37°15′21″N 116°19′46″W / 37.25584°N 116.32946°W / 37.25584; -116.32946 (Pool) 2,076 m (6,811 ft) - 881.18 m (2,891.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
500 kt [3][7][5][6][1]
Strait 17 March 1976 14:45:00.091 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U4a 37°06′26″N 116°03′16″W / 37.10716°N 116.05432°W / 37.10716; -116.05432 (Strait) 1,243 m (4,078 ft) - 782.42 m (2,567.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
210 kt [3][4][5][6][1]
Mighty Epic 12 May 1976 19:50:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12n.10 37°12′32″N 116°12′48″W / 37.20901°N 116.21333°W / 37.20901; -116.21333 (Mighty Epic) 2,224 m (7,297 ft) - 396.24 m (1,300.0 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
20 kt [5][6][1]
Rivoli 20 May 1976 17:30:00.162 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2eg 37°08′14″N 116°04′03″W / 37.13715°N 116.06745°W / 37.13715; -116.06745 (Rivoli) 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 199.64 m (655.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
600 t Venting detected [8][7][5][6][1]
Billet 27 July 1976 20:30:00.079 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7an 37°04′31″N 116°02′40″W / 37.07537°N 116.04456°W / 37.07537; -116.04456 (Billet) 1,222 m (4,009 ft) - 636.57 m (2,088.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
58 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [3][9][8][5][6][1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  2. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved 2014 March 08. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Hechanova, Anthony E.; O'Donnell, James E. (1998-09-25), Estimates of yield for nuclear tests impacting the groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Science and Technology Division 
  4. ^ a b c d e Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved 26 November 2013 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Norris, Robert Standish; Cochran, Thomas B. (1 February 1994), "United States nuclear tests, July 1945 to 31 December 1992 (NWD 94-1)", Nuclear Weapons Databook Working Paper (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council), retrieved 2013-10-26 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1), DOE Nevada Operations Office, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  9. ^ a b Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2, National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05