Operation Bowline

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Operation Bowline
Bowline Schooner 001d.jpg
Bowline Schooner
Information
Country United States
Test site NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 16, Shoshone Mountain; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS Areas 5, 11, Frenchman Flat; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period 1968-1969
Number of tests 47
Test type cratering, ug shaft, ug tunnel
Max. yield 1.2 megatonnes of TNT (5.0 PJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Crosstie
Next test series Operation Mandrel

Operation Bowline[1] was a series of 47 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1968-1969 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Crosstie series and preceded the Operation Mandrel series.

The United States test series summary table is here: United States' nuclear testing series.

The detonations [note 1] in the United States' Bowline series are listed below:

United States' Bowline series tests and detonations
Name[note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone[note 3] Location[note 4] Elevation + height[note 5] Delivery[note 6] Purpose[note 7] Device[note 8] Yield[note 9] Venting[note 10] References Notes
Spud 17 July 1968 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fy 37°00′03″N 115°59′59″W / 37.00095°N 115.99962°W / 37.00095; -115.99962 (Spud) 1,178 m (3,865 ft) - 240.29 m (788.4 ft) ug shaft weapons development 1.5 kt [2][3][4][1]
Tanya 30 July 1968 13:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dt 37°07′59″N 116°04′59″W / 37.13317°N 116.08312°W / 37.13317; -116.08312 (Tanya) 1,271 m (4,170 ft) - 381 m (1,250 ft) ug shaft weapons development 20 kt Venting detected, 140 Ci (5,200 GBq) [5][6][2][3][4][1]
Imp 9 August 1968 13:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bj 37°09′42″N 116°04′41″W / 37.16176°N 116.07808°W / 37.16176; -116.07808 (Imp) 1,314 m (4,311 ft) - 178.46 m (585.5 ft) ug shaft weapons development 350 t Venting detected on site, 4.2 kCi (160 TBq) [5][6][2][3][4][1]
Rack 15 August 1968 17:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ap 37°07′25″N 116°02′57″W / 37.12373°N 116.0491°W / 37.12373; -116.0491 (Rack) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 199.72 m (655.2 ft) ug shaft weapons development 1 kt Venting detected, 10 Ci (370 GBq) [6][2][3][4][1]
Diana Moon 27 August 1968 16:00:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U11e 36°52′38″N 115°55′55″W / 36.87718°N 115.93195°W / 36.87718; -115.93195 (Diana Moon) 1,004 m (3,294 ft) - 242.01 m (794.0 ft) ug shaft weapon effect 9 kt Venting detected on site, 12 kCi (440 TBq) [5][6][7][3][4][1]
Sled 29 August 1968 22:00:45.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19j 37°15′01″N 116°20′52″W / 37.25028°N 116.34777°W / 37.25028; -116.34777 (Sled) 2,057 m (6,749 ft) - 728.88 m (2,391.3 ft) ug shaft weapons development 200 kt [8][2][3][4][1]
Noggin 6 September 1968 14:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bx 37°08′09″N 116°02′54″W / 37.13597°N 116.04824°W / 37.13597; -116.04824 (Noggin) 1,259 m (4,131 ft) - 581.99 m (1,909.4 ft) ug shaft weapons development 120 kt Venting detected, 16 Ci (590 GBq) [5][6][7][3][4][1]
Knife-A 12 September 1968 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fb 37°01′54″N 116°00′45″W / 37.03178°N 116.01237°W / 37.03178; -116.01237 (Knife-A) 1,190 m (3,900 ft) - 331.8 m (1,089 ft) ug shaft weapons development 20 kt [3][4][1]
Stoddard 17 September 1968 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2cms 37°07′11″N 116°07′42″W / 37.11981°N 116.12835°W / 37.11981; -116.12835 (Stoddard) 1,370 m (4,490 ft) - 467.87 m (1,535.0 ft) ug shaft peaceful research 31 kt Venting detected, 16 Ci (590 GBq) [5][6][7][3][4][1] Project Plowshare - clean excavation device development.
Hudson Seal 24 September 1968 17:00:51.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12n.04 37°12′17″N 116°12′26″W / 37.20473°N 116.20727°W / 37.20473; -116.20727 (Hudson Seal) 2,168 m (7,113 ft) - 344.42 m (1,130.0 ft) ug tunnel weapon effect 20 kt [8][2][3][4][1]
Welder 3 October 1968 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fs 37°02′48″N 116°01′50″W / 37.04665°N 116.03048°W / 37.04665; -116.03048 (Welder) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 117.66 m (386.0 ft) ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt [3][4][1]
Knife-C 3 October 1968 14:00:29.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3er 37°01′33″N 115°59′38″W / 37.02591°N 115.99396°W / 37.02591; -115.99396 (Knife-C) 1,201 m (3,940 ft) - 301.44 m (989.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 3 kt [2][7][3][4][1]
Vat 10 October 1968 14:00:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9cf 37°08′00″N 116°02′35″W / 37.13327°N 116.04318°W / 37.13327; -116.04318 (Vat) 1,256 m (4,121 ft) - 194.92 m (639.5 ft) ug shaft weapons development 1 kt [2][3][4][1]
Hula 29 October 1968 15:00:36.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bu 37°06′48″N 116°02′30″W / 37.11321°N 116.0418°W / 37.11321; -116.0418 (Hula) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 198.46 m (651.1 ft) ug shaft weapons development 250 t Venting detected on site, 7 Ci (260 GBq) [5][6][2][3][4][1]
Bit - 1 31 October 1968 18:00:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gt 37°02′49″N 116°01′49″W / 37.04701°N 116.03021°W / 37.04701; -116.03021 (Bit - 1) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 148.31 m (486.6 ft) ug shaft safety experiment 1 kt [2][3][4][1] simultaneous, separate holes.
Bit - 2 31 October 1968 18:00:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gt 37°02′49″N 116°01′49″W / 37.04699°N 116.03034°W / 37.04699; -116.03034 (Bit - 2) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) + ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt [3][4][1] simultaneous, separate holes.
File 31 October 1968 18:00:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gb 37°01′01″N 116°02′11″W / 37.01708°N 116.03649°W / 37.01708; -116.03649 (File) 1,185 m (3,888 ft) - 228.95 m (751.1 ft) ug shaft weapons development 7 kt [3][4][1]
Crew - 1 4 November 1968 15:00:15.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2db 37°07′50″N 116°05′15″W / 37.13043°N 116.08738°W / 37.13043; -116.08738 (Crew - 1) 1,287 m (4,222 ft) - 603.5 m (1,980 ft) ug shaft weapons development 22 kt [2][7][3][4][1] Simultaneous, same hole.
Crew - 2 4 November 1968 15:00:16.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2db 37°07′50″N 116°05′15″W / 37.13042°N 116.08738°W / 37.13042; -116.08738 (Crew - 2) 1,287 m (4,222 ft) + ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [3][4][1] Simultaneous, same hole.
Crew - 3 4 November 1968 15:00:16.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2db 37°07′50″N 116°05′15″W / 37.13042°N 116.08738°W / 37.13042; -116.08738 (Crew - 3) 1,287 m (4,222 ft) + ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][4][1] Simultaneous, same hole.
Auger 15 November 1968 15:00:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fx 37°02′52″N 116°00′02″W / 37.04765°N 116.00058°W / 37.04765; -116.00058 (Auger) 1,222 m (4,009 ft) - 240.62 m (789.4 ft) ug shaft weapons development 1 kt [2][3][4][1]
Knife-B 15 November 1968 15:00:45.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3dz 37°01′34″N 116°02′03″W / 37.02609°N 116.03412°W / 37.02609; -116.03412 (Knife-B) 1,188 m (3,898 ft) - 362.94 m (1,190.7 ft) ug shaft weapons development 8 kt [2][7][3][4][1]
Ming Vase 20 November 1968 18:00:00.03 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U16a.04 37°00′35″N 116°12′26″W / 37.00973°N 116.2072°W / 37.00973; -116.2072 (Ming Vase) 1,931 m (6,335 ft) - 307.94 m (1,010.3 ft) ug tunnel weapon effect 16 kt [8][2][3][4][1]
Tinderbox 22 November 1968 16:00:19.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9az 37°08′24″N 116°02′35″W / 37.13987°N 116.04312°W / 37.13987; -116.04312 (Tinderbox) 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 439.52 m (1,442.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 3 kt Venting detected, 2 Ci (74 GBq) [5][6][2][3][4][1]
Schooner 8 December 1968 16:00:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20u 37°20′36″N 116°34′00″W / 37.34326°N 116.56661°W / 37.34326; -116.56661 (Schooner) 1,668 m (5,472 ft) - 111.22 m (364.9 ft) cratering peaceful research 30 kt Venting detected off site, 3.7 MCi (140 PBq) [5][9][6][3][4][1] Plowshare - excavation experiment in hard, dry rock.
Bay Leaf 12 December 1968 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gq 37°02′49″N 116°01′52″W / 37.04702°N 116.03104°W / 37.04702; -116.03104 (Bay Leaf) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 130.16 m (427.0 ft) ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt [3][4][1] simultaneous, separate holes.
Tyg - 1 12 December 1968 15:00:10.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dc1e 37°07′15″N 116°04′53″W / 37.1209°N 116.08145°W / 37.1209; -116.08145 (Tyg - 1) 1,273 m (4,177 ft) - 228.3 m (749 ft) ug shaft weapons development 20 kt Venting detected on site, 6.8 kCi (250 TBq) [5][6][2][3][4][1]
Tyg - 2 12 December 1968 15:00:10.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dc2d 37°07′03″N 116°04′49″W / 37.11758°N 116.08035°W / 37.11758; -116.08035 (Tyg - 2) 1,270 m (4,170 ft) - 251 m (823 ft) ug shaft weapons development 3 kt Venting detected on site [5][10][6][3][4][1]
Tyg - 3 12 December 1968 15:00:10.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dc3c 37°07′05″N 116°04′40″W / 37.11804°N 116.07788°W / 37.11804; -116.07788 (Tyg - 3) 1,268 m (4,160 ft) - 228.3 m (749 ft) ug shaft weapons development 2 kt Venting detected on site [5][10][6][3][4][1]
Tyg - 4 12 December 1968 15:00:10.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dc4a 37°07′16″N 116°04′45″W / 37.12124°N 116.0791°W / 37.12124; -116.0791 (Tyg - 4) 1,272 m (4,173 ft) + ug shaft weapons development 1 kt Venting detected on site [5][3][4][1]
Tyg - 5 12 December 1968 15:00:10.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dc5b 37°07′11″N 116°04′39″W / 37.11985°N 116.07744°W / 37.11985; -116.07744 (Tyg - 5) 1,270 m (4,170 ft) + ug shaft weapons development 3 kt Venting detected on site [5][3][4][1]
Tyg - 6 12 December 1968 15:00:10.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dc6f 37°07′08″N 116°04′58″W / 37.11879°N 116.08278°W / 37.11879; -116.08278 (Tyg - 6) 1,273 m (4,177 ft) + ug shaft weapons development 4 kt Venting detected on site [5][3][4][1]
Scissors 12 December 1968 15:00:20.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gh 37°00′14″N 116°02′24″W / 37.00391°N 116.04°W / 37.00391; -116.04 (Scissors) 1,181 m (3,875 ft) - 240.58 m (789.3 ft) ug shaft weapons development 1 kt Venting detected on site [5][6][2][3][4][1]
Benham 19 December 1968 16:00:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20c - 37°13′53″N 116°28′28″W / 37.23142°N 116.47448°W / 37.23142; -116.47448 (Benham) 1,887 m (6,191 ft) - 1,402.08 m (4,600.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 1.2 Mt [3][4][1]
Packard 15 January 1969 19:00:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2u 37°08′52″N 116°04′00″W / 37.14787°N 116.06654°W / 37.14787; -116.06654 (Packard) 1,288 m (4,226 ft) - 246.89 m (810.0 ft) ug shaft weapon effect 10 kt Venting detected on site, 7 Ci (260 GBq) [5][6][7][3][4][1]
Wineskin 15 January 1969 19:00:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12r 37°12′33″N 116°13′35″W / 37.20909°N 116.22627°W / 37.20909; -116.22627 (Wineskin) 2,263 m (7,425 ft) - 518.16 m (1,700.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 40 kt [8][2][3][4][1]
Shave 22 January 1969 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gk 37°00′56″N 115°59′43″W / 37.01544°N 115.99516°W / 37.01544; -115.99516 (Shave) 1,191 m (3,907 ft) - 240.75 m (789.9 ft) ug shaft weapons development 2 kt [2][3][4][1]
Vise 30 January 1969 15:00:00.038 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ej 37°03′12″N 116°01′48″W / 37.0533°N 116.02998°W / 37.0533; -116.02998 (Vise) 1,204 m (3,950 ft) - 454.06 m (1,489.7 ft) ug shaft weapons development 20 kt [8][7][3][4][1]
Biggin 30 January 1969 15:00:17.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bz 37°08′00″N 116°02′28″W / 37.13326°N 116.04113°W / 37.13326; -116.04113 (Biggin) 1,257 m (4,124 ft) - 242.32 m (795.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [3][4][1]
Nipper 4 February 1969 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gl 37°00′09″N 116°00′36″W / 37.00262°N 116.01°W / 37.00262; -116.01 (Nipper) 1,178 m (3,865 ft) - 240.73 m (789.8 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [3][4][1]
Winch 4 February 1969 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gf 37°00′34″N 116°02′35″W / 37.00941°N 116.04304°W / 37.00941; -116.04304 (Winch) 1,185 m (3,888 ft) - 240.63 m (789.5 ft) ug shaft weapons development 600 t [2][3][4][1]
Cypress 12 February 1969 16:01:28.88 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12g.09 37°10′08″N 116°12′42″W / 37.16901°N 116.2116°W / 37.16901; -116.2116 (Cypress) 2,265 m (7,431 ft) - 359.66 m (1,180.0 ft) ug tunnel weapon effect 15 kt [8][2][3][4][1]
Valise 18 March 1969 14:00:30.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9by 37°08′21″N 116°02′30″W / 37.13909°N 116.04171°W / 37.13909; -116.04171 (Valise) 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 90.25 m (296.1 ft) ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt Venting detected [6][3][4][1]
Chatty 18 March 1969 14:00:40.43 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bn 37°09′44″N 116°04′36″W / 37.16224°N 116.07679°W / 37.16224; -116.07679 (Chatty) 1,312 m (4,304 ft) - 194.77 m (639.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 800 t Venting detected, 0.7 Ci (26 GBq) [6][2][3][4][1]
Barsac 20 March 1969 18:00:12.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gc 37°01′19″N 116°01′52″W / 37.02203°N 116.03098°W / 37.02203; -116.03098 (Barsac) 1,187 m (3,894 ft) - 304.13 m (997.8 ft) ug shaft weapons development 10 kt Venting detected on site, 43 Ci (1,600 GBq) [5][2][7][3][4][1]
Coffer 21 March 1969 14:00:30.41 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2de 37°08′00″N 116°05′15″W / 37.13325°N 116.0876°W / 37.13325; -116.0876 (Coffer) 1,291 m (4,236 ft) - 464.82 m (1,525.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 26 kt Venting detected, 10 Ci (370 GBq) [5][6][2][3][4][1]
Gourd-Amber - 1 24 April 1969 13:00:04.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bf 37°09′50″N 116°04′50″W / 37.16393°N 116.08061°W / 37.16393; -116.08061 (Gourd-Amber - 1) 1,320 m (4,330 ft) - 181.3 m (595 ft) ug shaft weapons development 800 t [10][2][3][4][1] simultaneous, separate holes.
Gourd-Brown - 2 24 April 1969 13:00:04.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bl 37°09′36″N 116°04′55″W / 37.15998°N 116.08186°W / 37.15998; -116.08186 (Gourd-Brown - 2) 1,317 m (4,321 ft) + ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [3][4][1] simultaneous, separate holes.
Blenton 30 April 1969 17:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7p 37°04′53″N 116°00′53″W / 37.08145°N 116.01481°W / 37.08145; -116.01481 (Blenton) 1,255 m (4,117 ft) - 557.73 m (1,829.8 ft) ug shaft weapons development 51 kt Venting detected on site [8][5][6][3][4][1]
Thistle 30 April 1969 17:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7t 37°05′25″N 116°00′23″W / 37.09023°N 116.00651°W / 37.09023; -116.00651 (Thistle) 1,281 m (4,203 ft) - 560.47 m (1,838.8 ft) ug shaft weapons development 38 kt [8][3][4][1]
Purse 7 May 1969 13:00:45.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20v 37°16′58″N 116°30′06″W / 37.28283°N 116.50153°W / 37.28283; -116.50153 (Purse) 1,828 m (5,997 ft) - 598.75 m (1,964.4 ft) ug shaft weapons development 90 kt [2][7][3][4][1]
Aliment 15 May 1969 18:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2gj 37°00′43″N 115°59′09″W / 37.01185°N 115.98583°W / 37.01185; -115.98583 (Aliment) 1,207 m (3,960 ft) - 240.51 m (789.1 ft) ug shaft weapons development 2 kt [2][3][4][1]
Ipecac - 1 27 May 1969 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hka 37°00′54″N 116°00′11″W / 37.01498°N 116.00292°W / 37.01498; -116.00292 (Ipecac - 1) 1,181 m (3,875 ft) - 124.18 m (407.4 ft) ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt Venting detected on site [5][6][3][4][1] simultaneous, separate holes.
Ipecac - 2 27 May 1969 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hkb 37°00′53″N 116°00′03″W / 37.01482°N 116.00086°W / 37.01482; -116.00086 (Ipecac - 2) 1,182 m (3,878 ft) + ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt Venting detected on site [5][3][4][1] simultaneous, separate holes.
Torrido 27 May 1969 14:00:15.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7w 37°04′30″N 115°59′46″W / 37.07506°N 115.99617°W / 37.07506; -115.99617 (Torrido) 1,270 m (4,170 ft) - 514.72 m (1,688.7 ft) ug shaft weapons development 22 kt [8][7][3][4][1]
Tapper 12 June 1969 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3go 37°00′32″N 116°01′52″W / 37.00879°N 116.03109°W / 37.00879; -116.03109 (Tapper) 1,181 m (3,875 ft) - 303 m (994 ft) ug shaft weapons development 10 kt Venting detected on site [5][2][7][3][4][1]
Bowl - 1 26 June 1969 16:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bo1 37°09′45″N 116°04′46″W / 37.16244°N 116.07949°W / 37.16244; -116.07949 (Bowl - 1) 1,316 m (4,318 ft) - 198.12 m (650.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 2 kt [2][3][4][1] simultaneous, separate holes.
Bowl - 2 26 June 1969 16:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bo2 37°09′39″N 116°04′48″W / 37.16072°N 116.0801°W / 37.16072; -116.0801 (Bowl - 2) 1,315 m (4,314 ft) + ug shaft weapons development 3 kt [3][4][1] simultaneous, separate holes.

Table notes:

  1. ^ A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length". Mikhailov, V. N., Editor in Chief. Catalog of World Wide Nuclear Testing. Begell-Atom, LLC. 
  2. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China have not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions - Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 - 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight savings time, add one additional hour. If the result is less than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it's greater than or equal to 24:00, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day.
  4. ^ Rough place name and a Latitude/Longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceeding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. ^ Estimated energy yield in tonnes, kilotonnes, and megatonnes (all metric units).
  10. ^ Emissions to atmosphere, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and everything if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radiation released.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
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