Operation Cresset

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Cresset
Information
Country United States
Test site NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period 1977-1978
Number of tests 22
Test type underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 150 kilotonnes of TNT (630 TJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Fulcrum
Next test series Operation Quicksilver

The United States's Cresset nuclear test series[1] was a group of 22 nuclear tests conducted in 1977-1978. These tests [note 1] followed the Operation Fulcrum series and preceded the Operation Quicksilver series.

United States' Cresset series tests and detonations
Name [note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 3][2] Location [note 4] Elevation + height [note 5] Delivery [note 6]
Purpose [note 7]
Device [note 8] Yield [note 9] Fallout [note 10] References Notes
Bobstay 26 October 1977 14:15:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jb 37°00′27″N 116°01′03″W / 37.00759°N 116.01741°W / 37.00759; -116.01741 (Bobstay) 1,180 m (3,870 ft) - 381.3 m (1,251 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt I-131 venting detected, 0.000003 Ci (0.00011 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Hybla Gold 1 November 1977 18:06:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12e.20 37°11′16″N 116°12′50″W / 37.18773°N 116.21384°W / 37.18773; -116.21384 (Hybla Gold) 2,239 m (7,346 ft) - 384.99 m (1,263.1 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
10 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][4][5][6][7]
Sandreef 9 November 1977 22:00:00.075 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7aq 37°04′20″N 116°03′04″W / 37.07217°N 116.05115°W / 37.07217; -116.05115 (Sandreef) 1,221 m (4,006 ft) - 700.74 m (2,299.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
150 kt [1][3][6][7][8]
Seamount 17 November 1977 19:30:00.077 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3kp 37°01′14″N 116°01′33″W / 37.02055°N 116.02584°W / 37.02055; -116.02584 (Seamount) 1,186 m (3,891 ft) - 370.09 m (1,214.2 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
10 kt [1][6][7]
Rib 14 December 1977 15:00:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jv 37°01′03″N 116°01′07″W / 37.01752°N 116.01864°W / 37.01752; -116.01864 (Rib) 1,184 m (3,885 ft) - 212.84 m (698.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 t [1][6][7][8][9]
Farallones 14 December 1977 15:30:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fa 37°08′09″N 116°05′12″W / 37.13573°N 116.08658°W / 37.13573; -116.08658 (Farallones) 1,290 m (4,230 ft) - 668 m (2,192 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
150 kt Venting detected, 1 Ci (37 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Campos 13 February 1978 21:53:00.162 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9cp 37°07′34″N 116°01′57″W / 37.12607°N 116.03261°W / 37.12607; -116.03261 (Campos) 1,269 m (4,163 ft) - 319.6 m (1,049 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 t Venting detected, 1.3 kCi (48 TBq) [1][4][5][6][7]
Reblochon 23 February 1978 17:00:00.164 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2en 37°07′25″N 116°03′53″W / 37.12363°N 116.0647°W / 37.12363; -116.0647 (Reblochon) 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 658.4 m (2,160 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
120 kt Venting detected, 36 Ci (1,300 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Karab 16 March 1978 15:00:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U4ah 37°05′06″N 116°04′57″W / 37.08512°N 116.08249°W / 37.08512; -116.08249 (Karab) 1,247 m (4,091 ft) - 331 m (1,086 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.5 kt Venting detected [1][5][6][7]
Iceberg 23 March 1978 16:30:00.2 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U4g 37°06′07″N 116°03′08″W / 37.10182°N 116.05236°W / 37.10182; -116.05236 (Iceberg) 1,239 m (4,065 ft) - 640.29 m (2,100.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
120 kt [1][3][6][7][8]
Topmast 23 March 1978 16:30:00.114 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7ay 37°05′56″N 116°01′14″W / 37.09881°N 116.02049°W / 37.09881; -116.02049 (Topmast) 1,282 m (4,206 ft) - 457.81 m (1,502.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][6][7]
Backbeach 11 April 1978 17:45:00.073 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19x 37°14′00″N 116°22′10″W / 37.23344°N 116.36936°W / 37.23344; -116.36936 (Backbeach) 2,040 m (6,690 ft) - 671.78 m (2,204.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
100 kt [1][6][7]
Asco 25 April 1978 14:35:00.162 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10bc 37°09′16″N 116°02′08″W / 37.15452°N 116.03563°W / 37.15452; -116.03563 (Asco) 1,285 m (4,216 ft) - 183 m (600 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][6][7]
Transom 10 May 1978 15:00:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U4f 37°05′16″N 116°03′13″W / 37.08773°N 116.0535°W / 37.08773; -116.0535 (Transom) 1,231 m (4,039 ft) - 640 m (2,100 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
no yield [1][6][7] Fizzle? Device destroyed by Quicksilver/Hearts detonation on 1979.
Jackpots 1 June 1978 17:00:00.075 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3kj 37°01′14″N 116°01′58″W / 37.02062°N 116.03267°W / 37.02062; -116.03267 (Jackpots) 1,186 m (3,891 ft) - 304.22 m (998.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
600 t [1][6][7][9]
Satz 7 July 1978 14:00:00.167 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dq 37°06′43″N 116°04′41″W / 37.11185°N 116.07796°W / 37.11185; -116.07796 (Satz) 1,263 m (4,144 ft) - 315 m (1,033 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.5 kt Venting detected [1][5][6][7][8]
Lowball 12 July 1978 17:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7av 37°04′43″N 116°02′42″W / 37.07861°N 116.04493°W / 37.07861; -116.04493 (Lowball) 1,225 m (4,019 ft) - 564.88 m (1,853.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
99 kt [1][3][6][7][8]
Panir 31 August 1978 14:00:00.164 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19ys 37°16′33″N 116°21′30″W / 37.27587°N 116.35823°W / 37.27587; -116.35823 (Panir) 2,013 m (6,604 ft) - 681 m (2,234 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
140 kt [1][6][7]
Diablo Hawk 13 September 1978 15:15:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12n.10a 37°12′32″N 116°12′42″W / 37.20875°N 116.21165°W / 37.20875; -116.21165 (Diablo Hawk) 2,212 m (7,257 ft) - 388 m (1,273 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
8 kt [1][6][7]
Cremino - 1 27 September 1978 16:30:00.165 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U8e 37°10′15″N 116°05′17″W / 37.17096°N 116.08804°W / 37.17096; -116.08804 (Cremino - 1) 1,341 m (4,400 ft) - 210 m (690 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
250 t [1][6][7][9] Simultaneous, same hole.
Cremino-Caerphilly - 2 27 September 1978 16:30:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U8e 37°10′15″N 116°05′17″W / 37.17096°N 116.08804°W / 37.17096; -116.08804 (Cremino-Caerphilly - 2) 1,341 m (4,400 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][6][7] Simultaneous, same hole.
Draughts 27 September 1978 17:00:00.071 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7al 37°04′26″N 116°01′15″W / 37.07382°N 116.0207°W / 37.07382; -116.0207 (Draughts) 1,234 m (4,049 ft) - 441.59 m (1,448.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
25 kt [1][3][6][7][8]
Rummy 27 September 1978 17:20:00.076 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7au 37°04′47″N 116°03′09″W / 37.07974°N 116.05253°W / 37.07974; -116.05253 (Rummy) 1,226 m (4,022 ft) - 639.78 m (2,099.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
150 kt [1][3][6][7][8]
  1. ^ A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length". Mikhailov, V. N., Editor in Chief. Catalog of World Wide Nuclear Testing. Begell-Atom, LLC. 
  2. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight savings time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  4. ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  10. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radiation released.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  2. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Hechanova, Anthony E.; O'Donnell, James E. (1998-09-25), Estimates of yield for nuclear tests impacting the groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Science and Technology Division 
  4. ^ a b c d e Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2, National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1), DOE Nevada Operations Office, August 1996, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved 26 November 2013 
  9. ^ a b c Norris, Robert Standish; Cochran, Thomas B. (1 February 1994), "United States nuclear tests, July 1945 to 31 December 1992 (NWD 94-1)", Nuclear Weapons Databook Working Paper (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council), retrieved 2013-10-26