Operation Days of Penitence

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Operation "Days of Penitence"
Part of the Second Intifada
Date 29 September – 16 October 2004
Location Gaza Strip
Result Israeli victory
Belligerents
 Israel (IDF) Flag of Hamas.svg Gaza
Casualties and losses
1 soldier c. 130 Palestinians
including 50-70 militants

Operation "Days of Penitence" (Hebrew: מבצע ימי תשובה), otherwise known as Operation "Days of Repentance"[1][2] was the name used by Israel to describe an Israel Defense Forces invasion of the northern Gaza Strip conducted between 29 September and 16 October 2004. The operation, focused on the town of Beit Hanoun and Beit Lahia and Jabalia refugee camps, which were said to have been used as launching sites of Qassam rockets on the Israeli town of Sderot and Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, and in particular in response to the death of two children in Sderot. The operation resulted in the deaths of some 130 Palestinians, and 1 Israeli.

The operation's name corresponds to the Hebrew name for the High Holiday season during which the operation was carried out.

Overview[edit]

Following the death of two Israeli children from a Qassam rocket launched by Palestinian militants, Israel launched a major military invasion of the northern Gaza strip, focusing on the towns of Beit Hanoun and Beit Lahia and the Jabaliya refugee camp. The stated goal of the operation, code-named "Days of Penitence" (ימי תשובה) by the Israeli Defence Force, was to prevent Palestinians from launching rockets and mortar shells into Israeli settlements in Gaza and the town of Sderot in Israel.

During this 17 day attack the Israeli military killed some 130 Palestinians; demolished at least 85 houses and damaged hundreds more;[3][4] damaged public facilities, including schools, kindergartens and mosques, and destroyed farmland. According to Israeli soldiers, many of the buildings that were demolished were used by Palestinian militants as a cover for launching Qassam rockets and for shooting anti-tank missiles.

During the UN Security Council deliberations over censuring Israel for this military attack, Israel accused the United Nations Relief and Welfare Agency (UNRWA) of complicity in Palestinian attacks by allowing its vehicles to transport rockets. The Israeli government released a video claiming that it showed rockets being loaded into the UNRWA ambulance. UNRWA denied the accusation and demanded an apology stating that the object was a stretcher, not a rocket (the person in the video was carrying the lightweight object with just one hand). On October 6, Israel retracted the accusation.(Reuters) See further discussion here.

The attack resulted in a proposed Security Council resolution condemning the Israeli action, calling for Israeli withdrawal and respect for human rights of Palestinians. The resolution was vetoed by the United States on October 5 who criticized it for ignoring terrorism against Israelis.

Over the weekend of October 17, the Israeli military announced that its troops withdrew from the Jabalia refugee camp and other populated areas and redeployed to positions nearby and proclaimed the attack a success, with a warning that the troops would return if the rocket attacks resume, which analysts from both sides say is likely. [1]

Both sides claimed victory in the operation.

Capt. Jacob Dallal, an Israeli Defence Forces spokesman, acclaimed the operation's success: "We really impaired the ability to shoot Qassams from Jabalya. We engaged many cells and now there are fewer Hamas members to shoot rockets," he says. "We dealt a hard blow to the whole Hamas infrastructure in Jabalia." [2]

The Palestine Information Center published a statement by Hamas spokesman Ismail Hanneya who asserted that the problem was not in resistance or in Qassam missiles but rather in what Hamas views as the Israeli occupation of Palestinian land: "Hamas achieved a victory over the Zionist enemy ... the blows of the resistance and the steadfastness of the people caused the occupying forces to withdraw without achieving any of their goals." [3]

Timeline[edit]

September 29[edit]

September 30[edit]

  • Israel launched a major offensive into the Jabalia refugee camp killing at least 23 gunmen and civilians. Earlier this morning, a column of Israeli tanks moved into the center of the camp, followed by bulldozers. At least three Palestinian civilians have been killed thus far. Homes are being demolished, forcing people to flee. 72 Palestinians are known to have been wounded. (BBC) (Reuters)
  • Two Palestinians are killed by Israeli troops returning fire after an Israeli soldier was killed at an observation post in the northern Gaza strip. The troops have been engaged in that part of the northern Gaza Strip since yesterday, September 29. (AP)

October 1[edit]

October 2[edit]

October 3[edit]

October 4[edit]

October 5[edit]

  • The United States vetoed a Security Council resolution demanding an immediate end to military operations in the northern Gaza Strip and the withdrawal of Israeli forces. The vote in the 15-member Security Council was 11 in favor and one against, with Britain, Germany and Romania abstaining. (ABC News)
  • A 13-year-old girl, Iman Darweesh Al Hams, was shot by soldiers from an Israeli military post near Rafah, while she was on her way to school. According to Israeli forces, the area was restricted and they suspected that Iman’s schoolbag contained a bomb. IDF chief of staff Moshe Yaalon said she was sent there as a decoy by Palestinian militants. Platoon soldiers accused their commander of shooting 20 rounds at close range to "confirm the kill". The Israeli army chief prosecutor ordered an investigation of the allegations.[6][7]
  • Palestinians claim an Israeli unmanned drone aircraft fired a missile towards the Al Ajramy street in Jabalia camp. Two brothers were killed, Hasan Abdul Hai Darweesh, 30, and Mousa Abdul Hai Darweesh, 24, both from the neighboring Mashrou' neighborhood. Six others were injured, two of whom critically. (Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights)
  • In Gaza City, Bashir al-Dabbash, a leader in the Palestinian militant group Islamic Jihad, is killed by a missile fired from an Israeli aircraft. (INN) (BBC)
  • Three Hamas militants are killed after infiltrating the Israeli settlement of Kfar Darom. One of the militants blew up when hit by Israeli gunfire, killing a Thai worker in addition to himself. The other two militants were killed by IDF forces. Gaza Strip. (Haaretz) (INN) (IMRA)

October 6[edit]

October 7[edit]

  • Suleyman abu Foul, 15, and his 14-year-old nephew Raed abu Zaid, were killed by Israeli fire in Jabalia. Israeli military sources said Suleyman and his nephew were killed by a missile fired from a helicopter after an airborne drone spotted two suspicious figures who appeared to be launching a Qassam rocket. A 16-year-old from Jabalia, Muhammad Abu Saif, died from wounds received by Israeli bullets in the neck and the chest on October 1. (Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights)
  • Their deaths—plus the death of a 13-year-old Palestinian boy who had been injured earlier—pushed the toll from the latest fighting to more than 80. Late in the day, Israeli forces shot a 12-year-old girl, Samah Mu'een Udeh, in the head in the Beit Hanoun community. (Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights)(Boston Globe)
  • Witnesses say that two Palestinian children were killed when the Israeli military shelled a crowd near the Jabaliya refugee camp. Israel says that an Israeli helicopter gunship fired at two people attempting to launch a Qassam rocket. (BBC)

October 8[edit]

October 9[edit]

  • Israeli troops shot and killed a local leader of the Hamas’ military wing in Jabalia, Abed Rauf Nabhan, as he was preparing to fire an anti-tank missile at Israel Defense Forces tanks invading the Jabalia refugee camp. The Israeli military claimed that Nabhan was responsible for the launching of the rocket that killed two young children in Sderot on Sukkot eve, triggering the army offensive in northern Gaza. Abed Nabhan, 25, was one of five Palestinians killed Saturday. (ABC News) (Maariv)
  • Israeli tanks fired shells towards a 6-story residential building, owned by the Salim family, in the town of Beit Lahia. It hit the sixth floor and killed Ameen Mahmud Salim, 36 Sufiyan Mousa Salim, 28. Three of the family members were injured in the attack: Dawoud Salim, Ahmad Salim and Muhammad Salim. (Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights)
  • Palestinian anti-tank missile hit a house in Beit Hanoun, causing to collapse on the people inside. (Maariv)

October 10[edit]

  • At approximately 3am today, Sunday 10 October 2004, explosion is heard at the Center of the town of Beit Hanoun. Palestinian say a missile hit close to the UNRWA Women's Center and injured two Palestinians critically.(Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights)
  • Raid Muhammad Al Mabhouh, 22, from Jabalia camp died from wounds sustained on October 1, 2004. (Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights)
  • Israeli forces fired a missile at a house owned by Adnan Al Ajrami and a crafts factory in a densely populated neighborhood in Jabalia camp. The house and factory were destroyed and nine neighboring homes were severely damaged. A schoolteacher, Mahir Muhammad Zaqout, 39, was killed on his way to school and nine people were injured, including 4 children. The IDF said it targeted bomb-planters.(Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights)
  • An Israeli drone launched a missile towards Al Ajrami Street in Jabalia refugee camp. Four Palestinians were injured, one of whom, 21-ear-old Sameh Zamil Al Wheedy, died at hospital a few hours later. (Al-Mezan Center for Human Rights)

October 11[edit]

October 12[edit]

  • About 8:15am, several mortar shells were fired at the community of Ganei Tal. (INN)
  • At approximately 11:00 am, Palestinian security and hospital sources claim that Israeli soldiers at the Neve Dekalim settlement shot at UNRWA Al Khalidyeh Primary School in Khan Younis refugee camp critically injuring 10-year-old Ghadeer Jaber Mkheemar in the chest while she was inside her classroom.[8][9] Israeli military sources claim that the soldiers where shooting at a mortar emplacement either next to or within the school grounds. (CNN)
  • About 12:30pm, an anti-tank missile was fired at Israeli soldiers near Rafah. (INN)
  • About 1:15pm, a bomb was detonated against Israeli soldiers operating in Jabaliah. (INN)
  • About 4:22pm, Israeli soldiers fire at fighters attempting to launch a missile from within the area of a mosque in Khan Yunis. The missile launch is prevented. (INN)
  • Mortar attack in southern Gaza. (INN)

October 13[edit]

October 14[edit]

October 15[edit]

  • Israeli Defence Forces prevented a launch of Qassam rocket from Jabalia refugee camp. According to soldiers from the Golani Brigade, militants were accompanied by children, who helped carry the rockets to the launch site. The army refrained from using a helicopter gunship because of the presence of children allegedly being used as human shields. Israeli forces report that infantry units engaged the militants with warning shots causing them to flee, abandoning the launcher and other equipment. (Haaretz)
  • At 12:05am today, Israeli forces launched a missile towards Block (7) in Jabalia camp. Two Palestinians, Muhyi Ad Din Al Madhoun, 19, and Nidal Harb Masoud, 20, were killed. Several homes were also damaged in the attack.
  • Three armed militants, two of al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades and one of Hamas were killed in Jabalia by Israeli Air Force strike. (Haaretz)
  • IDF begins to redeploy in northern Gaza area. Troops, armored forces and engineers pull-back from Jabalia, Beit Lahia and Beit Hanoun. The forces remain on alert to reenter the area if a Qassam rocket should be launched. (Haaretz)
  • An IDF investigation regarding the death of Iman Darweesh Al Hams in Rafah on October 5 cleared the Givati Brigade platoon commander on the scene of charges by fellow soldiers that he emptied his rifle magazine into the girl's body as she lay wounded. The IDF accepted the commander's claim that he fired into the ground near the girl after coming under fire in a dangerous area. The officer was suspended from duty pending the final outcome of a police investigation. (BBC)(Maariv)
  • In Rafah, two soldiers are lightly injured from an anti-tank missile. (Haaretz)
  • The Israeli army in the evening began withdrawing from Jabalia, Beit Lahiya and Beit Hanoun in northern Gaza[10][11] as "a gesture to the Palestinians ahead of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan", which began that Friday and entered Rafah in southern Gaza, to continue their military operations.[4]

October 16[edit]

  • One al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades militant, hit on Friday, dies from his wounds. (Haaretz)
  • The US State Department welcomed the Israeli withdrawal and stressed the U.S. government position that Palestinians were responsible "for ending violence and terror, and particularly for ensuring that this area - that no area is used for attacks on Israel with rockets."[4]

Allegations of Israeli war crimes[edit]

Human Rights groups accused Israel to have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity during Operation Rainbow as well as Operation Days of Penitence.

In 2005 and 2006 Adalah requested the Military Advocate General (MAG) to initiate a criminal investigation into events that took place during Operation Rainbow. In 2007 also for Operation Days of Penitence. All requests had been denied. On 15 April 2007, Adalah, PCHR and Al-Haq filed a petition, in which they asked the Israeli High Court of Justice to order a criminal investigation, referring to many local and international organizations who had accused Israel of committing war crimes.[12] Not earlier than two years later, on 6 May 2009, the Court held a hearing.[1] Another 1.5 years later, on 8 December 2011, the Court rejected the petition because, according to the Israeli judges, the request was too late and too unspecific, the aim of the operations was justified, and a criminal investigation was not the most appropriate tool.[13]

Casualties[edit]

Number of casualties from 28 September to 16 October 2004 is as follows: * [14]

Israelis[edit]

Palestinians[edit]

  • According to Al Mezan Center for Human Rights, from 28 September to 14 October: 129 people killed, including 31 children[3]
  • According to Haaretz: 129 Palestinians: 68 members of the military wing of Hamas and the Islamic Jihad; 42 civilians[4]
  • According to B'Tselem: 133 Palestinians, including at least 50 civilians[2]
  • According to IDF: Circa 130 people: most of them armed militants; 9 or 10 civilians[4]
  • According to Reuters: some 50 Hamas fighters; at least 62 militants and 43 other Palestinians believed to be civilians[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Court unmoved by demand for probe into 2004 IDF Gaza op. Dan Izenberg, Jerusalem Post, 6 May 2009
  2. ^ a b Disproportionate Force Suspected in Northern Gaza Strip. B'Tselem, 18 October 2004
  3. ^ a b c Al Mezan Center for Human Rights, 14 October 2004. IOF expand their Operations in North Gaza and Rafah: 550 Palestinians killed and injured
  4. ^ a b c d e 129 Palestinians killed during IDF's Gaza raid. Haaretz, 15 October 2004
  5. ^ Al Mezan Center for Human Rights, 4 October 2004. 320 Palestinians Killed and Injured in IOF Incursion of North Gaza; Many of whom are Children
  6. ^ Israeli army under fire after killing girl. Christian Science Monitor, 26 November 2004
  7. ^ IDF probing if officer fired at already-wounded Gaza girl. Haaretz, 11 October 2004
  8. ^ Al Mezan Center for Human Rights, 12 October 2004. The slaughter of children in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) must stop now
  9. ^ UNRWA, 13 October 2004. Child Shot in UNRWA School Dies
  10. ^ a b Army pulls back from Gaza leaving 100 Palestinians dead. The Guardian, 16 October 2004
  11. ^ a b Palestinians sift rubble after Israel's Gaza assault. Reuters, 16 October 2004
  12. ^ High Court to start hearing Adalah petition on possible IDF war crimes in Gaza. Yuval Yoaz, Haaretz, 15 April 2007
  13. ^ Supreme Court Approves MAG's Decision Not to Initiate Criminal Investigations into Operations "Rainbow" and "Days of Penitence", Terrorism and Democracy | Issue No. 36 . Ido Rosenzweig, Yuval Shany, Israel Democracy Institute (IDI). Retrieved 21 November 2013
  14. ^ Note: No reliable sources for figures, gathered some time after the conflict. No reliable sources for the number of killed fighters.

External links[edit]