Operation Flintlock (nuclear test)

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Operation Flintlock
Long Shot film still.jpg
Flintlock Long Shot, on Amchitka Island in the Alaskan Aleutian Islands
Information
Country United States
Test site Amchitka Island, Alaska; NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 15; NTS Area 16, Shoshone Mountain; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS Areas 5, 11, Frenchman Flat; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period 1965-1966
Number of tests 47
Test type underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 365 kilotonnes of TNT (1,530 TJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Whetstone
Next test series Operation Latchkey

The United States's Flintlock nuclear test series[1] was a group of 47 nuclear tests conducted in 1965-1966. These tests [note 1] followed the Operation Whetstone series and preceded the Operation Latchkey series.

United States' Flintlock series tests and detonations
Name [note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 3][2] Location [note 4] Elevation + height [note 5] Delivery [note 6]
Purpose [note 7]
Device [note 8] Yield [note 9] Fallout [note 10] References Notes
Izzer 16 July 1965 13:04:24.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bp 37°06′54″N 116°01′59″W / 37.11495°N 116.03304°W / 37.11495; -116.03304 (Izzer) 1,273 m (4,177 ft) - 163.68 m (537.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected [1][3][4][5]
Pongee 22 July 1965 13:21:08.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ah 37°07′54″N 116°04′04″W / 37.13175°N 116.06773°W / 37.13175; -116.06773 (Pongee) 1,274 m (4,180 ft) - 135.03 m (443.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 6 Ci (220 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6]
Bronze 23 July 1965 17:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7f 37°05′53″N 116°02′01″W / 37.09794°N 116.03374°W / 37.09794; -116.03374 (Bronze) 1,257 m (4,124 ft) - 530.96 m (1,742.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
67 kt Venting detected, 1.7 kCi (63 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Mauve 6 August 1965 17:23:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3dp 37°01′04″N 116°02′27″W / 37.01771°N 116.04089°W / 37.01771; -116.04089 (Mauve) 1,185 m (3,888 ft) - 321 m (1,053 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
18 kt [1][4][5][7][8]
Ticking 21 August 1965 13:43:08.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bj 37°06′45″N 116°01′37″W / 37.11258°N 116.02689°W / 37.11258; -116.02689 (Ticking) 1,288 m (4,226 ft) - 210.31 m (690.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
250 t Venting detected, 2.6 kCi (96 TBq) [1][3][4][5][8]
Centaur 27 August 1965 13:51:13.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ak 37°08′14″N 116°04′15″W / 37.13729°N 116.07097°W / 37.13729; -116.07097 (Centaur) 1,283 m (4,209 ft) - 171.91 m (564.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected on site, 57 Ci (2,100 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][9]
Moa - 1 (with Screamer) 1 September 1965 20:08:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ed 37°02′14″N 116°00′53″W / 37.0373°N 116.01472°W / 37.0373; -116.01472 (Moa - 1) 1,194 m (3,917 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
2.5 kt Venting detected on site [1][4][5] simultaneous, separate.
Screamer - 2 (with Moa) 1 September 1965 20:08:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3dg 37°01′23″N 116°00′36″W / 37.02292°N 116.00987°W / 37.02292; -116.00987 (Screamer - 2) 1,184 m (3,885 ft) - 301.9 m (990 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
9 kt Venting detected on site, 63 kCi (2,300 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7] simultaneous, separate.
Elkhart 17 September 1965 15:08:23.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bs 37°06′40″N 116°02′08″W / 37.11098°N 116.03548°W / 37.11098; -116.03548 (Elkhart) 1,267 m (4,157 ft) - 219.46 m (720.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
6 kt Venting detected, 560 Ci (21,000 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Long Shot 29 October 1965 21:00:00.08 NST (-11 hrs)
Amchitka Island, Alaska 51°26′14″N 179°10′49″E / 51.43709°N 179.18032°E / 51.43709; 179.18032 (Long Shot) 42 m (138 ft) - 700 m (2,300 ft) underground shaft,
joint verification
80 kt [1][5] Designed to test detection of underground nuclear tests; see Vela Uniform.
Sepia 12 November 1965 18:00:00.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3en 37°03′00″N 116°01′22″W / 37.04996°N 116.02282°W / 37.04996; -116.02282 (Sepia) 1,202 m (3,944 ft) - 241.19 m (791.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt I-131 venting detected, 0.0011 Ci (0.041 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Kermet 23 November 1965 18:17:32.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2c 37°09′43″N 116°04′18″W / 37.16187°N 116.0718°W / 37.16187; -116.0718 (Kermet) 1,304 m (4,278 ft) - 198.12 m (650.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
500 t Venting detected on site, 18 Ci (670 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][8]
Corduroy 3 December 1965 15:13:02.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10k 37°09′53″N 116°03′11″W / 37.1646°N 116.05319°W / 37.1646; -116.05319 (Corduroy) 1,275 m (4,183 ft) - 681.53 m (2,236.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
120 kt Venting detected, 1.2 kCi (44 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Emerson 16 December 1965 15:39:18.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2al 37°08′27″N 116°03′51″W / 37.14079°N 116.06405°W / 37.14079; -116.06405 (Emerson) 1,280 m (4,200 ft) - 259.87 m (852.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3 kt Venting detected on site, 0.6 Ci (22 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Buff 16 December 1965 19:15:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3dh 37°04′21″N 116°01′48″W / 37.07251°N 116.02998°W / 37.07251; -116.02998 (Buff) 1,223 m (4,012 ft) - 500.41 m (1,641.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
51 kt [1][4][5][7][10]
Maxwell 13 January 1966 15:37:43.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9br 37°06′58″N 116°01′42″W / 37.11617°N 116.0284°W / 37.11617; -116.0284 (Maxwell) 1,283 m (4,209 ft) - 183.09 m (600.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 3 Ci (110 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6]
Lampblack 18 January 1966 18:35:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7i 37°05′30″N 116°01′10″W / 37.09165°N 116.01956°W / 37.09165; -116.01956 (Lampblack) 1,267 m (4,157 ft) - 561.48 m (1,842.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
38 kt [1][4][5][10]
Sienna 18 January 1966 18:35:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cj 37°02′14″N 116°01′09″W / 37.03726°N 116.01922°W / 37.03726; -116.01922 (Sienna) 1,193 m (3,914 ft) - 275.01 m (902.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
4 kt Venting detected [1][3][4][5][9]
Dovekie 21 January 1966 18:28:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cd 37°01′54″N 116°00′59″W / 37.0318°N 116.01649°W / 37.0318; -116.01649 (Dovekie) 1,189 m (3,901 ft) - 333.05 m (1,092.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt [1][4][5][7]
Reo 22 January 1966 15:17:19.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10m 37°09′26″N 116°02′23″W / 37.15718°N 116.03959°W / 37.15718; -116.03959 (Reo) 1,283 m (4,209 ft) - 213.36 m (700.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
150 t Venting detected on site, 10 Ci (370 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][8]
Plaid 2 3 February 1966 18:17:37.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2r 37°07′35″N 116°04′13″W / 37.12626°N 116.07034°W / 37.12626; -116.07034 (Plaid 2) 1,272 m (4,173 ft) - 270.05 m (886.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3.5 kt Venting detected on site, 7 Ci (260 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Rex 24 February 1966 15:55:07.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20h(e) 37°16′18″N 116°26′05″W / 37.27178°N 116.43472°W / 37.27178; -116.43472 (Rex) 1,971 m (6,467 ft) - 671.69 m (2,203.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
19 kt Venting detected, 310 Ci (11,000 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6]
Red Hot 5 March 1966 18:15:00.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12g.06 37°10′28″N 116°12′33″W / 37.17445°N 116.20924°W / 37.17445; -116.20924 (Red Hot) 2,299 m (7,543 ft) - 405.38 m (1,330.0 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
2 kt Venting detected off site, 1 MCi (37 PBq) [1][3][4][5][6]
Cinnamon - 2 (with Finfoot) 7 March 1966 18:41:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3dm 37°02′05″N 116°01′54″W / 37.03461°N 116.03166°W / 37.03461; -116.03166 (Cinnamon - 2) 1,192 m (3,911 ft) + underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site [1][4][5] simultaneous, separate.
Finfoot - 1 (with Cinnamon) 7 March 1966 18:41:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3du 37°02′14″N 116°01′49″W / 37.03736°N 116.03014°W / 37.03736; -116.03014 (Finfoot - 1) 1,193 m (3,914 ft) - 195.54 m (641.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][4][5][6][7] simultaneous, separate.
Clymer 12 March 1966 18:04:13.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ce 37°08′37″N 116°03′12″W / 37.14362°N 116.0534°W / 37.14362; -116.0534 (Clymer) 1,266 m (4,154 ft) - 397.09 m (1,302.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3 kt Venting detected, 450 Ci (17,000 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Purple 18 March 1966 19:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ds 37°00′33″N 116°00′36″W / 37.0092°N 116.00996°W / 37.0092; -116.00996 (Purple) 1,180 m (3,870 ft) - 332.79 m (1,091.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt [1][4][5][7]
Templar 24 March 1966 14:55:28.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bt 37°06′48″N 116°01′56″W / 37.11329°N 116.03223°W / 37.11329; -116.03223 (Templar) 1,275 m (4,183 ft) - 151 m (495 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
370 t I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][4][5][6] Plowshare - excavation device development.
Lime 1 April 1966 18:40:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7j 37°06′10″N 116°01′15″W / 37.10265°N 116.02081°W / 37.10265; -116.02081 (Lime) 1,291 m (4,236 ft) - 561.44 m (1,842.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][4][5]
Stutz 6 April 1966 13:57:17.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ca 37°08′22″N 116°08′31″W / 37.13941°N 116.14203°W / 37.13941; -116.14203 (Stutz) 1,458 m (4,783 ft) - 225.34 m (739.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt Venting detected, 1 Ci (37 GBq) [1][4][5][6][7][8]
Tomato 7 April 1966 22:27:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ek 37°01′03″N 115°59′35″W / 37.01737°N 115.99309°W / 37.01737; -115.99309 (Tomato) 1,195 m (3,921 ft) - 226.31 m (742.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
6 kt [1][4][5][7]
Duryea 14 April 1966 14:13:43.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20a1 37°14′33″N 116°25′55″W / 37.2425°N 116.43192°W / 37.2425; -116.43192 (Duryea) 1,960 m (6,430 ft) - 544.25 m (1,785.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
70 kt Venting detected, 2 Ci (74 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6]
Fenton 23 April 1966 14:55:26.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2m1 37°09′38″N 116°05′02″W / 37.16052°N 116.08381°W / 37.16052; -116.08381 (Fenton) 1,321 m (4,334 ft) - 167.64 m (550.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.4 kt Venting detected off site, 1.7 kCi (63 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][8]
Pin Stripe 25 April 1966 18:38:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U11b 36°53′15″N 115°56′30″W / 36.8874°N 115.94159°W / 36.8874; -115.94159 (Pin Stripe) 1,066 m (3,497 ft) - 295.66 m (970.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
5 kt Venting detected off site, 210 kCi (7,800 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][10]
Ochre 29 April 1966 13:33:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ec 37°02′37″N 116°01′24″W / 37.04364°N 116.02323°W / 37.04364; -116.02323 (Ochre) 1,196 m (3,924 ft) - 126.14 m (413.8 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][4][5]
Traveler 4 May 1966 13:32:17.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2cd 37°08′13″N 116°08′17″W / 37.13705°N 116.13807°W / 37.13705; -116.13807 (Traveler) 1,430 m (4,690 ft) - 196.76 m (645.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt Venting detected, 170 Ci (6,300 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Cyclamen 5 May 1966 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cx 37°03′02″N 116°02′19″W / 37.05056°N 116.03873°W / 37.05056; -116.03873 (Cyclamen) 1,203 m (3,947 ft) - 304.97 m (1,000.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
12 kt [1][4][5][7] included heavy element experiment.
Chartreuse 6 May 1966 15:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19d 37°20′53″N 116°19′22″W / 37.34795°N 116.32283°W / 37.34795; -116.32283 (Chartreuse) 2,064 m (6,772 ft) - 666.75 m (2,187.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
73 kt [1][4][5]
Tapestry 12 May 1966 19:37:26.2 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2an 37°08′03″N 116°04′19″W / 37.13423°N 116.07198°W / 37.13423; -116.07198 (Tapestry) 1,281 m (4,203 ft) - 247.19 m (811.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
10 kt Venting detected on site, 8.6 kCi (320 TBq) [1][4][5][6][7][8]
Piranha 13 May 1966 13:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7e 37°05′13″N 116°02′04″W / 37.08681°N 116.03431°W / 37.08681; -116.03431 (Piranha) 1,237 m (4,058 ft) - 548.72 m (1,800.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
120 kt [1][4][5][7][10]
Dumont 19 May 1966 13:56:28.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2t 37°06′40″N 116°03′32″W / 37.11109°N 116.05879°W / 37.11109; -116.05879 (Dumont) 1,252 m (4,108 ft) - 670.77 m (2,200.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 kt Venting detected, 35 Ci (1,300 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Discus Thrower 27 May 1966 20:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U8a 37°10′42″N 116°05′55″W / 37.17834°N 116.09862°W / 37.17834; -116.09862 (Discus Thrower) 1,380 m (4,530 ft) - 337.06 m (1,105.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
22 kt [1][4][5][7]
Pile Driver 2 June 1966 15:30:00.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U15a.01 37°13′37″N 116°03′23″W / 37.22701°N 116.0564°W / 37.22701; -116.0564 (Pile Driver) 1,525 m (5,003 ft) - 462.69 m (1,518.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
62 kt Venting detected on site, 37 kCi (1,400 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][10] Investigate the simulated effects of a nuclear surface detonation on a deeply buried, superhard command and control center in a granite rock formation.
Tan 3 June 1966 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7k 37°04′06″N 116°02′10″W / 37.06843°N 116.03606°W / 37.06843; -116.03606 (Tan) 1,213 m (3,980 ft) - 560.68 m (1,839.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
160 kt [1][4][5][7][10]
Puce 10 June 1966 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bs 37°03′34″N 116°02′23″W / 37.05937°N 116.03967°W / 37.05937; -116.03967 (Puce) 1,208 m (3,963 ft) - 485.55 m (1,593.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][4][5]
Double Play 15 June 1966 17:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U16a.03 37°00′35″N 116°12′14″W / 37.00959°N 116.20382°W / 37.00959; -116.20382 (Double Play) 1,954 m (6,411 ft) - 327.7 m (1,075 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
less than 20 kt Venting detected off site, 840 kCi (31,000 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6]
Kankakee 15 June 1966 18:02:47.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10p 37°10′17″N 116°02′59″W / 37.17148°N 116.04973°W / 37.17148; -116.04973 (Kankakee) 1,281 m (4,203 ft) - 455.25 m (1,493.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 kt Venting detected, 160 Ci (5,900 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Vulcan 25 June 1966 17:13:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bd 37°09′19″N 116°04′23″W / 37.15535°N 116.07312°W / 37.15535; -116.07312 (Vulcan) 1,300 m (4,300 ft) - 322.11 m (1,056.8 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
25 kt Venting detected, 250 Ci (9,200 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7] Project Plowshare - Device development, heavy element production.
Halfbeak 30 June 1966 22:15:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19b 37°18′57″N 116°17′59″W / 37.31575°N 116.29985°W / 37.31575; -116.29985 (Halfbeak) 2,043 m (6,703 ft) - 819.3 m (2,688 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
365 kt [1][4][5][7]
  1. ^ A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length". Mikhailov, V. N., Editor in Chief. "Catalog of World Wide Nuclear Testing". Begell-Atom, LLC. 
  2. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight savings time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  4. ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  10. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radiation released.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  2. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1), DOE Nevada Operations Office, August 1996, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
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  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2, National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05 
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