Operation Grommet

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Operation Grommet
Information
Country United States
Test site Amchitka Island, Alaska; NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 16, Shoshone Mountain; NTS Areas 5, 11, Frenchman Flat; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period 1971-1972
Number of tests 34
Test type ug shaft, ug tunnel
Max. yield 4.8 megatonnes of TNT (20 PJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Emery
Next test series Operation Toggle

Operation Grommet[1] was a series of 34 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1971-1972 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Emery series and preceded the Operation Toggle series.

The United States test series summary table is here: United States' nuclear testing series.

The detonations [note 1] in the United States' Grommet series are listed below:

United States' Grommet series tests and detonations
Name[note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone[note 3] Location[note 4] Elevation + height[note 5] Delivery[note 6] Purpose[note 7] Device[note 8] Yield[note 9] Venting[note 10] References Notes
Diamond Mine 1 July 1971 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U16a.06 37°00′41″N 116°12′15″W / 37.01148°N 116.20427°W / 37.01148; -116.20427 (Diamond Mine) 1,896 m (6,220 ft) - 266.15 m (873.2 ft) ug tunnel joint verification less than 20 kt [2][3][1] Designed to test detection of underground nuclear tests; see Vela Uniform.
Miniata 8 July 1971 14:00:00.082 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bu 37°06′37″N 116°03′10″W / 37.11018°N 116.05268°W / 37.11018; -116.05268 (Miniata) 1,247 m (4,091 ft) - 528.83 m (1,735.0 ft) ug shaft peaceful research 83 kt Venting detected, 180 Ci (6,700 GBq) [4][5][6][2][3][1] Project Plowshare - Device development.
Bracken 9 July 1971 14:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10aq 37°09′52″N 116°02′01″W / 37.1644°N 116.0336°W / 37.1644; -116.0336 (Bracken) 1,297 m (4,255 ft) - 304.8 m (1,000 ft) ug shaft weapons development 250 t Venting detected, 1 Ci (37 GBq) [5][7][2][3][1]
Apodaca 21 July 1971 13:00:33.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gs 37°00′52″N 115°59′34″W / 37.01436°N 115.99265°W / 37.01436; -115.99265 (Apodaca) 1,195 m (3,921 ft) - 241.4 m (792 ft) ug shaft weapons development 250 t [7][2][3][1]
Barranca 4 August 1971 13:00:30.042 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3he 37°01′34″N 116°01′13″W / 37.02606°N 116.02031°W / 37.02606; -116.02031 (Barranca) 1,187 m (3,894 ft) - 270.74 m (888.3 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][1]
Nama-Amarylis - 1 5 August 1971 18:07:45.2 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsxy3 37°08′42″N 116°02′03″W / 37.14503°N 116.03417°W / 37.14503; -116.03417 (Nama-Amarylis - 1) 1,273 m (4,177 ft) - 272.8 m (895 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][1] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Nama-Mephisto - 2 5 August 1971 18:07:45.2 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsz27 37°08′26″N 116°01′56″W / 37.14062°N 116.03214°W / 37.14062; -116.03214 (Nama-Mephisto - 2) 1,276 m (4,186 ft) + ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][1] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Baltic 6 August 1971 14:00:31.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itss25 37°08′18″N 116°02′31″W / 37.13843°N 116.04182°W / 37.13843; -116.04182 (Baltic) 1,260 m (4,130 ft) - 411.48 m (1,350.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][1]
Algodones 18 August 1971 14:00:00.03 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jn 37°03′26″N 116°02′14″W / 37.05715°N 116.0372°W / 37.05715; -116.0372 (Algodones) 1,206 m (3,957 ft) - 527.61 m (1,731.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 67 kt [8][6][2][3][1]
Frijoles-Deming - 1 22 September 1971 14:00:00.037 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jw 37°01′18″N 116°01′01″W / 37.02158°N 116.01694°W / 37.02158; -116.01694 (Frijoles-Deming - 1) 1,186 m (3,891 ft) - 149.86 m (491.7 ft) ug shaft safety experiment 500 t [7][2][3][1] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Frijoles-Espuela - 2 22 September 1971 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ju 37°01′22″N 116°01′01″W / 37.02268°N 116.01707°W / 37.02268; -116.01707 (Frijoles-Espuela - 2) 1,186 m (3,891 ft) + ug shaft safety experiment less than 5 kt [2][3][1] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Frijoles-Guaje - 3 22 September 1971 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hf 37°01′28″N 116°00′58″W / 37.02438°N 116.01603°W / 37.02438; -116.01603 (Frijoles-Guaje - 3) 1,186 m (3,891 ft) + ug shaft weapons development less than 5 kt [2][3][1] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Frijoles-Petaca - 4 22 September 1971 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hz 37°01′19″N 116°01′11″W / 37.02193°N 116.01963°W / 37.02193; -116.01963 (Frijoles-Petaca - 4) 1,185 m (3,888 ft) + ug shaft weapons development less than 5 kt [2][3][1] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Pedernal 29 September 1971 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hg 37°00′40″N 116°00′29″W / 37.01101°N 116.00809°W / 37.01101; -116.00809 (Pedernal) 1,180 m (3,870 ft) - 378.68 m (1,242.4 ft) ug shaft weapons development 4 kt [8][2][3][1]
Chantilly 29 September 1971 14:00:30.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2di 37°07′28″N 116°05′17″W / 37.12447°N 116.08798°W / 37.12447; -116.08798 (Chantilly) 1,280 m (4,200 ft) - 330.71 m (1,085.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][1]
Cathay 8 October 1971 14:00:30.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ch 37°06′49″N 116°02′18″W / 37.11373°N 116.0382°W / 37.11373; -116.0382 (Cathay) 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 377.95 m (1,240.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 7 kt [7][6][2][3][1]
Lagoon 14 October 1971 14:00:30.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ar 37°10′48″N 116°03′14″W / 37.17987°N 116.05396°W / 37.17987; -116.05396 (Lagoon) 1,286 m (4,219 ft) - 304.8 m (1,000 ft) ug shaft weapons development 5 kt [2][3][1]
Cannikin 6 November 1971 22:00:00.06 HAST (-10 hrs)
Amchitka Island, Alaska 51°28′12″N 179°06′24″E / 51.4699°N 179.10671°E / 51.4699; 179.10671 (Cannikin) 63 m (207 ft) - 1,790 m (5,870 ft) ug shaft weapons development 4.8 Mt [6][3][1] A test of the Spartan ABM warhead. The largest underground nuclear test ever.
Diagonal Line 24 November 1971 20:00:15.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U11g 36°52′45″N 115°56′09″W / 36.8793°N 115.93587°W / 36.8793; -115.93587 (Diagonal Line) 1,010 m (3,310 ft) - 264.26 m (867.0 ft) ug shaft weapon effect 4 kt Venting detected off site, 6.8 kCi (250 TBq) [4][5][6][2][3][1] Picture of the "Ship of the Desert", a structure for capturing neutrons for experiments with this test: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NNSA-NSO-1347.jpg.
Parnassia 30 November 1971 15:00:45.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bc 37°09′38″N 116°04′16″W / 37.16045°N 116.07112°W / 37.16045; -116.07112 (Parnassia) 1,302 m (4,272 ft) - 330.71 m (1,085.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 10 kt [2][3][1]
Chaenactis 14 December 1971 21:09:59.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dl 37°07′26″N 116°05′26″W / 37.12393°N 116.09049°W / 37.12393; -116.09049 (Chaenactis) 1,281 m (4,203 ft) - 331.01 m (1,086.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 24 kt [7][6][2][3][1]
Hospah 14 December 1971 21:01:01.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3je 37°01′33″N 116°01′48″W / 37.02584°N 116.02992°W / 37.02584; -116.02992 (Hospah) 1,188 m (3,898 ft) - 302.03 m (990.9 ft) ug shaft weapons development 11 kt [2][3][1]
Yerba 14 December 1971 21:01:01.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U1c 37°01′23″N 116°03′34″W / 37.02317°N 116.05957°W / 37.02317; -116.05957 (Yerba) 1,202 m (3,944 ft) - 331.99 m (1,089.2 ft) ug shaft weapons development 5 kt [2][3][1]
Mescalero 5 January 1972 15:00:10.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gu 37°02′44″N 116°01′49″W / 37.04565°N 116.03032°W / 37.04565; -116.03032 (Mescalero) 1,198 m (3,930 ft) - 120.24 m (394.5 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][1]
Cowles 3 February 1972 21:00:45.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hx 37°00′04″N 116°01′13″W / 37.00105°N 116.02016°W / 37.00105; -116.02016 (Cowles) 1,178 m (3,865 ft) - 301.78 m (990.1 ft) ug shaft weapons development 2 kt [9][7][2][3][1]
Dianthus 17 February 1972 19:00:02.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10at 37°09′56″N 116°03′26″W / 37.16566°N 116.05711°W / 37.16566; -116.05711 (Dianthus) 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 304.8 m (1,000 ft) ug shaft weapons development 3.5 kt Venting detected, 18 Ci (670 GBq) [5][7][2][3][1]
Sappho 23 March 1972 18:00:50.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dh2 37°06′47″N 116°04′54″W / 37.113°N 116.08169°W / 37.113; -116.08169 (Sappho) 1,266 m (4,154 ft) - 197.82 m (649.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 4 kt Venting detected, 9 Ci (330 GBq) [9][5][2][3][1]
Ocate - 2 (with Onaja) 30 March 1972 21:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jp 37°00′16″N 116°00′56″W / 37.00449°N 116.01565°W / 37.00449; -116.01565 (Ocate - 2) 1,179 m (3,868 ft) + ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][1]
Onaja - 1 (with Ocate) 30 March 1972 21:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3js 37°00′20″N 116°01′15″W / 37.0055°N 116.02078°W / 37.0055; -116.02078 (Onaja - 1) 1,180 m (3,870 ft) - 279.04 m (915.5 ft) ug shaft weapons development 8 kt [2][3][1]
Longchamps 19 April 1972 16:00:32.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dm 37°07′19″N 116°05′05″W / 37.12204°N 116.08486°W / 37.12204; -116.08486 (Longchamps) 1,276 m (4,186 ft) - 326.44 m (1,071.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 8 kt [6][2][3][1]
Jicarilla 19 April 1972 16:00:42.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jm 37°00′24″N 116°01′02″W / 37.00661°N 116.01734°W / 37.00661; -116.01734 (Jicarilla) 1,180 m (3,870 ft) - 148.11 m (485.9 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][1]
Misty North 2 May 1972 19:00:15.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12n.05 37°12′27″N 116°12′35″W / 37.20762°N 116.20963°W / 37.20762; -116.20963 (Misty North) 2,199 m (7,215 ft) - 376.08 m (1,233.9 ft) ug tunnel weapon effect 19 kt [8][7][2][3][1]
Kara 11 May 1972 14:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dh3 37°06′45″N 116°05′07″W / 37.11247°N 116.08525°W / 37.11247; -116.08525 (Kara) 1,267 m (4,157 ft) - 259.08 m (850.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 500 t Venting detected, 7 Ci (260 GBq) [5][7][2][3][1]
Zinnia 17 May 1972 14:00:10.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dk 37°07′14″N 116°05′20″W / 37.12056°N 116.08883°W / 37.12056; -116.08883 (Zinnia) 1,277 m (4,190 ft) - 322.78 m (1,059.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 8 kt Venting detected, 7 Ci (260 GBq) [4][7][6][2][3][1]
Monero 19 May 1972 17:00:00.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jg 37°03′53″N 116°00′09″W / 37.06469°N 116.0025°W / 37.06469; -116.0025 (Monero) 1,245 m (4,085 ft) - 537.35 m (1,763.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 12 kt [8][2][3][1]
Merida 7 June 1972 15:00:20.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dn 37°06′57″N 116°05′10″W / 37.11579°N 116.08619°W / 37.11579; -116.08619 (Merida) 1,271 m (4,170 ft) - 204.22 m (670.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 800 t Venting detected, 10 Ci (370 GBq) [5][7][2][3][1]
Capitan 28 June 1972 14:00:41.19 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jj 36°59′33″N 116°01′23″W / 36.99256°N 116.02302°W / 36.99256; -116.02302 (Capitan) 1,175 m (3,855 ft) - 134.48 m (441.2 ft) ug shaft weapons development 600 t [7][2][3][1]
Tajique 28 June 1972 16:00:30.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7aa 37°04′10″N 115°59′34″W / 37.06958°N 115.99286°W / 37.06958; -115.99286 (Tajique) 1,274 m (4,180 ft) - 332.31 m (1,090.3 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [2][3][1]
Haplopappus 28 June 1972 16:03:03.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsw22 37°08′07″N 116°02′10″W / 37.13515°N 116.03614°W / 37.13515; -116.03614 (Haplopappus) 1,264 m (4,147 ft) - 184.4 m (605 ft) ug shaft weapons development 6 kt [2][3][1]

Table notes:

  1. ^ A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length". Mikhailov, V. N., Editor in Chief. Catalog of World Wide Nuclear Testing. Begell-Atom, LLC. 
  2. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China have not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions - Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 - 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight savings time, add one additional hour. If the result is less than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it's greater than or equal to 24:00, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day.
  4. ^ Rough place name and a Latitude/Longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceeding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. ^ Estimated energy yield in tonnes, kilotonnes, and megatonnes (all metric units).
  10. ^ Emissions to atmosphere, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and everything if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radiation released.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  4. ^ a b c Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2, National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1), DOE Nevada Operations Office, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Bolt, Bruce A. (1976), Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil, San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Norris, Robert Standish; Cochran, Thomas B. (1 February 1994), "United States nuclear tests, July 1945 to 31 December 1992 (NWD 94-1)", Nuclear Weapons Databook Working Paper (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council), retrieved 2013-10-26 
  8. ^ a b c d Hechanova, Anthony E.; O'Donnell, James E. (1998-09-25), Estimates of yield for nuclear tests impacting the groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Science and Technology Division 
  9. ^ a b Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved 26 November 2013