Operation Herrick

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Operation Herrick
Part of War on Terror
British Army soldier in Afghanistan, May 2006.jpg
A British soldier of 21 (Gibraltar 1779-83)(Air Assault) Battery, Royal Artillery) raising the Union Jack during a transfer of authority ceremony in Lashkar Gah, Helmand Province in May 2006.
Date 20 June 2002 – 12 December 2014
Location Afghanistan, Asia
Result Conflicts ongoing;
  • Taliban regime overthrown but their forces still fight ISAF and Afghan government forces
  • Death of Osama bin Laden
Belligerents
 United Kingdom
 Denmark
 Estonia
Insurgent groups: Afghanistan Taliban
Al-Qaeda
Commanders and leaders
United Kingdom David Cameron Afghanistan Mohammed Omar

Operation Herrick is the codename under which all British operations in the War in Afghanistan have been conducted since 2002. It consists of the British contribution to the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and support to the American-led Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). Since 2003, Operation Herrick has increased in size and breadth to match ISAF's growing geographical intervention in Afghanistan.

Operation Herrick superseded two previous efforts in Afghanistan. The first of these was Operation Veritas, which consisted of support to the War in Afghanistan in October 2001. The last major action of this was a sweep in east Afghanistan by 1,700 Royal Marines during Operation Jacana, which ended in mid-2002. The second was Operation Fingal, which involved leadership and a 2,000 strong contribution for a newly formed ISAF in Kabul after December 2001. Command was subsequently transferred to Turkey several months later and the British contingent was scaled back to 300. Since then, all operations in Afghanistan have been conducted under Operation Herrick.

In December 2012 Prime Minister David Cameron announced that 3,800 troops - almost half of the force serving in Helmand Province - would be withdrawn during 2013 with numbers to fall to approximately 5,200.[1] Combat operations were projected to end sometime during 2014. Between 2001 and 12 December 2014 a total of 453 British military personnel have died on operations in Afghanistan.[2] The UK ceased all combat operations in Afghanistan and withdrew the last of its combat troops on the 27 October 2014.[3] [4]

Strategy[edit]

It is the UK Governments position that the UK cannot disengage from Afghanistan and retains an active military presence (particularly Helmand province) because of the continued terrorist threat facing Britain and the world.[5][6] Building a strong Afghan state is a long and difficult task.[5][7] The Liberal-Conservative coalition government (May 2010 - Current) has declared that Afghanistan is the UK's top foreign policy priority.[6]

Kabul and north Afghanistan[edit]

Between 2002 and 2003, the primary component of Herrick remained the 300 personnel providing security in Kabul and training to the new Afghan National Army (ANA).[8]

In mid-2003, the operation became battalion strength when a provincial reconstruction team (PRT) was established in Mazari Sharif and in Maymana. The UK also provided a rapid reaction force for the area.[9] Overall command of the PRTs was transferred to ISAF in 2004. Sweden and Norway took over these PRTs in 2005 and 2006 respectively to allow the UK to focus on south Afghanistan.[8]

In early 2006, the NATO Headquarters Allied Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC) became the headquarters of ISAF for a year. The attached British infantry and signals personnel raised the number of troops based in Kabul to 1,300.[10]

Kandahar[edit]

In 2004, a detachment of six Royal Air Force fighters from Joint Force Harrier was based at Kandahar Airfield to support American OEF forces there.[8] A planned withdrawal in mid-2006 was postponed to provide air support for the new ISAF expansion across the south. The force was later reinforced with more Harriers and an RAF Regiment squadron. The Harriers were withdrawn in 2009 and replaced by a Panavia Tornado GR4 squadron on rotation.[11][12]

On 2 September 2006, a Hawker Siddeley Nimrod MR2 patrol aircraft, serial number XV230 supporting Canadian forces in Operation Medusa crashed near Kandahar, killing all 14 service members aboard. It was an accident relating to fuel lines.[13]

4 more Harrier GR9s were committed in May 2007 bringing them to a total of eleven, along with an extra C130 transport plane and four Westland Sea Kings from the Fleet Air Arm. Harriers have been succeeded by Tornados. Merlin and Chinook helicopters are also based there.

The majority of aircraft deployed for Herrick are based at Kandahar.[12]

Helmand[edit]

Mission[edit]

Map showing Helmand province in Afghanistan where British troops were mostly located.

In January 2006, Defence Secretary John Reid announced the UK would send a PRT with several thousand personnel to Helmand for at least three years. This had been planned as part of the gradual expansion of ISAF's area of responsibility from the Kabul region to the rest of Afghanistan. An initial strength of 5,700 personnel in Afghanistan was planned, which would stabilise to around 4,500 for the rest of the deployment.[10]

The move was to be a coordinated effort with other NATO countries to relieve the predominantly American OEF presence in the south. To this end, the Netherlands and Canada would lead similar deployments in Oruzgan and Kandahar respectively.[10] Several other countries would support this move with troops. In the case of Helmand, Denmark sent 750 troops while Estonia would increase their Helmand force to 150 soldiers.[14][15]

Local Taliban figures voiced opposition to the incoming force and pledged to resist it.[16][17]

Activities[edit]

A front end loader filling HESCO barriers during a project at Camp Bastion

Before the main deployment, the Royal Engineers constructed a central fortification, Camp Bastion, to serve as a main base. A camp for an Afghan force (Camp Shorabak, initially for 3rd Brigade, 205th Corps) was built nearby. On 1 May, the US OEF force was relieved in a ceremony.[18] At the same time, the United States began a major offensive, Operation Mountain Thrust, against the insurgency in south Afghanistan. This brought ISAF forces into open conflict with the Taliban.[19]

British forces originally tried to provide security to reconstruction, but instead became engaged in combat. Platoon houses were soon established in northern settlements, due to pressure from the provincial governor for an aggressive stance.[20] However, these quickly became a focus for heavy fighting.[21] One of these was in Sangin, which was cut off and surrounded by the Taliban in early July. Eleven soldiers were killed in Sangin District over the subsequent period. On 16 July, with support from American and Canadian forces, 200 paratroopers were airlifted to take the town.[22][23]

In early August, 500 paratroopers and Afghan National Army ANA soldiers were airlifted to Musa Quala after violence flared around the platoon house. One British soldier was killed in the battle.[24] On 25 August, several hundred soldiers were involved in a second operation to escort a group of Afghan policemen as a show of force.[25]

The Taliban made direct assaults on the British-held compounds, attacking with small arms fire, RPGs, and mortar rounds at short range. The British responded with airstrikes and artillery, often aimed right outside their compound walls, in what became a close quarter battle.

Casualties increased on both sides, with many more Taliban casualties as their assault had exposed them to the full scope of NATO's heavier firepower. Numbers of civilian casualties and damage to local infrastructure increased. The NATO forces grew increasingly concerned that they were alienating residents with heavy-handed tactics, in spite of their intention to win "hearts and minds". It was also becoming clear that the British did not have the number of troops and helicopters to sustain the platoon house strategy indefinitely under the circumstances. Realising that the situation could not carry on unchanged, British commanders approached local tribal leaders to organise a temporary ceasefire.[26][27]

Through pressure from the local tribal elders and their mounting casualties, the Taliban agreed to withdraw from the contested towns at the same time as the British, having been unable to realise their goal of forcibly expelling the foreign troops. NATO estimated Taliban losses over the summer period to be around 1,000 killed in Helmand alone.[28][29]

The British commander, Brigadier Ed Butler, later said the deal had come just 48 hours before Musa Quala was planned to be abandoned because of the risks support helicopters were taking.[20] As a result of the deal, British forces peacefully withdrew from the settlement in mid October.[30] The truce drew criticism from American commanders who believed it showed a sign of weakness on NATO's part[citation needed]. The deal would again be called into question when the Taliban retook the town of Musa Qala by surprise in February 2007, following the killing of a leading commander in an American airstrike.[31] The town was eventually retaken by British and Afghan forces.

By late September, 31 British soldiers had died in Afghanistan over the year. Two, Corporal Bryan Budd, awarded the Victoria Cross and Corporal Mark Wright, were posthumously awarded the British Armed Forces' highest awards for gallantry. Brigadier Butler declared the Taliban to have been "tactically defeated" for the time being.[20][32]

Response[edit]

The stress of operations was admitted to be unexpected by the Ministry of Defence,[33] and there was increasing pressure to send more forces to Helmand.[34] Lieutenant General David J. Richards said that this was the heaviest persistent combat the British Armed Forces had experienced since the Korean War or the Second World War.[35]

As a result, Operation Herrick was increased to 7,700 personnel.[36] Additional aircraft, artillery pieces (including 4GMLRS) and armoured vehicles (such as Warrior IFVs), an additional Platoon of Snipers were also sent.[37]

Operation Mar Karadad[edit]

Main article: Battle of Musa Qala
3 Para in combat in near Kajaki

As of December 7, 2007, an alleged 2000 Taliban rebels occupied Musa Qala. Coalition forces prepared for a siege of the town. Operation Mar Karadad [38] (translated as Operation Snakebite) was commanded by HQ Task Force Helmand, a bolstered HQ 52 Infantry Brigade, supported by 82nd Airborne Task Force Corsair. Afghan troops supported by British, Danish and US troops fought for control of the town, which was a major Taliban drug trafficking station and the Taliban's only occupied village in the strategically crucial Helmand province. It was considered to be of symbolic importance to both international forces and insurgents operating in the area. There has been some civilian evacuation, partly aided by the aerial dropping of leaflets warning of the impending battle. In preparation, it was believed that the village was heavily mined by Taliban fighters. Sergeant Lee Johnson of the 2nd Bn The Yorkshire Regiment was killed shortly after 10am on 8 December 2007, whilst taking part in an operation to recapture the town, when a land mine exploded.[39] The Taliban insurgents withdrew from the area by midday on 10 December leaving the Afghan army and NATO forces in control of the town.[40] This was the major operation of Operation HERRICK 7 for Task Force Helmand.

Operation Volcano[edit]

Main article: Operation Volcano

In early February 2007, at the end of a six-week operation, the Royal Marines cleared 25 Taliban compounds in the proximity of the Kajaki hydroelectric dam in order to allow repair work to be conducted on the machinery.[41]

Operation Achilles[edit]

British Land Rovers patrol Sangin.
Main article: Operation Achilles

In between early March to late May 2007, the British led Operation Achilles, NATO's drive to push the Taliban out of Helmand.

In early May 2007 Operation Silver, a sub-operation of Achilles, successfully expelled Taliban fighters from the town of Sangin. It was followed in mid-May by Operation Silicon, where British led forces removed the Taliban from Gereshk and much of the surrounding countryside. The Royal Engineers then set up three camps in the area for the Afghan National Army. The book "The Junior Officers Reading Club" documents Operation Silicon.

Operation Lastay Kulang[edit]

A follow up to Achilles, Operation Lastay Kulang was launched on 30 May 2007 near the village of Kajaki Sofle, 10 kilometres to the south-west of Kajaki, to remove a Taliban force encamped there. A force of 1000 British troops, another thousand ISAF soldiers, and elements of the Afghan National Army moved into the area to confront the insurgents. On the night of 30 May the American 82nd Airborne Division conducted an air assault on enemy positions during which one of their Chinook helicopters crashed, apparently due to enemy fire, killing five Americans, a Briton and a Canadian.[42] By the second of June, ISAF and Afghan forces had isolated several pockets of insurgent fighters in the north and south of the Upper Sangin valley. In an effort to win over local support, the Royal Engineers have started work on several reconstruction projects, such as digging irrigation ditches to help farmers in the area.[43] Operation Lastay Kulang is described in the book, Attack State Red, about the Royal Anglian Battle Group in Helmand.

Taliban spring offensive[edit]

A British Member of the Kajaki Operational Mentoring Liaison Team, discusses the local situation with a local resident via a translator and Afghan National Army soldier during a patrol north of the Kajaki Dam.

By late May 2007 the Taliban spring offensive promised for March 2007 had failed to materialise. This is put down in part to the massive casualties the Taliban took while trying to storm British strongholds across Helmand and by systematic attacks on their mid-level commanders during operations over the winter, which has hampered their ability to coordinate large troop movements.[44][45]

The Daily Telegraph reported[46] that they wouldn't "discount the Taliban as a spent force just yet", as an "increase in enemy tempo" was expected. As of October 2008 the number of clashes has risen from five a day to 15, lasting from 10 minutes to 11 hours.

In a new development, it has been reported that the Taliban may be recruiting child soldiers from the tribal areas of neighbouring Pakistan to fight coalition forces.[47]

Build-up to summer offensive[edit]

In February 2008 the Taliban prepared for the summer offensive with a number of attacks on JTAC Hill[48]

British Royal family involvement[edit]

On 28 February an American website, the Drudge Report, reported that Prince Harry, a member of the Household Cavalry, was operating as a Forward Air Controller on JTAC Hill with a Gurkha unit. The MoD had made agreements with the British and a few other countries' media not to reveal that he was there until he came home or the news was otherwise released. An Australian weekly women’s magazine New Idea initially broke the story in January, but it was not followed up at the time. New Idea editors claimed ignorance of any news blackout. Then a German newspaper, the Berliner Kurier, published a short piece on 28 February 2008, also before Drudge.

Kajaki Dam Convoy[edit]

In late August one of the largest operations by British and NATO forces in Helmand province took place, with the aim of bringing electricity to the region. A convoy of 100 vehicles took five days to move massive sections of an electric turbine for the Kajaki Dam, covering 180 km (110 mi). The operation involved 2,000 British troops, 1,000 other NATO troops from Australia, Canada, Denmark and the US, and 1,000 Afghan soldiers. The Canadians covered the first leg and the British took over at a meeting point in the desert, using 50 BVS10 Viking armoured vehicles to escort the convoy. Hundreds of special forces troops went in first, sweeping the area and although difficult to verify, British commanders estimated that more than 200 insurgents were killed, without any NATO casualties. British Harrier GR9 and WAH-64 Apaches, Dutch, French and US aircraft, helicopters and unmanned drones provided aerial reconnaissance and fire support.[49]

Last British Chinook flight out of FOB Shawqat before handover to Afghan forces in August 2013

Withdrawals from FOBs[edit]

A number of Forward operating bases (FOBs) have been closed as British deployments have been reduced in size.

The last bases to be handed over to the Afghan Armed Force is expected to be Camp Bastion and three other unknown bases.

British casualties[edit]

Memorial Wall at Camp Bastion

As of 12 December 2014, British forces have suffered 453 fatalities.[2] The vast majority of these fatalities have taken place since the redeployment of British forces to the Taliban stronghold of Helmand province; only 5 men died between April 2002 and early March 2006. Full casualty records, including non-fatal cases, are currently available only for the period after 1 January 2006. Since that date 1,579 British personnel have been wounded, injured or fallen ill (396 wounded in action), 1186 of whom required aeromedical evacuation. Totals including the period 2003-2006 will be greater. Operation Panther's Claw, which began in July 2009, resulted in the highest number of losses in a month for British Forces in Afghanistan.[citation needed]

404 fatalities are classed as "KIA", and 49 are a result of illness, non-combat injuries or accidents, or have not yet officially been assigned a cause of death pending the outcome of an investigation.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c "British fatalities - Operations in Afghanistan - British fatalities in Afghanistan". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ [3]
  5. ^ a b The Prime Minister Gordon Brown speech to the International Institute for Strategic Studies on Afghanistan - National Security and Regional Stability, 4 September 2009, accessed: 16 October 2009, http://www.number10.gov.uk/Page20515
  6. ^ a b Mr David Cameron, Prime Minister's Statement on Afghanistan, 14 June 2010, http://www.number10.gov.uk/news/statements-and-articles/2010/06/pm-statement-on-afghanistan-51813
  7. ^ Operations in Afghanistan: Our Strategy, Ministry of Defence, http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/FactSheets/OperationsFactsheets/OperationsInAfghanistanOurStrategy.htm
  8. ^ a b c Operations in Afghanistan: Background Briefing 1[dead link] Ministry of Defence
  9. ^ Operations in Afghanistan: Background Briefing 1[dead link] Ministry of Defence
  10. ^ a b c "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 26 January 2006"
  11. ^ "UK to send RAF jet to Afghanistan". BBC News 18 September 2006.
  12. ^ a b 34 Squadron RAF Regiment will deploy to Kandahar Airfield[dead link] Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom) 15 June 2006.
  13. ^ "'Fire reported' by crashed Nimrod ". BBC News 4 September 2006.
  14. ^ "Danish Military Liaison Team to United States Central Command "[dead link] The Scotsman 17 July 2006
  15. ^ "Estonia To Increase Troops in Afghanistan" Defensenews.com 3 November 2005
  16. ^ "Taleban threat to kill UK troops". BBC News 25 April 2006.
  17. ^ "Taleban vow to defeat UK troops". BBC News 7 June 2006.
  18. ^ "UK troops take over Afghan duties" BBC News 1 May 2006.
  19. ^ "Revived Taliban waging 'full-blown insurgency'" USA Today 20 June 2006.
  20. ^ a b c "Paras almost retreated under Taliban assault" The Telegraph 2 October 2006.
  21. ^ "Troops die as UK holds back Afghan reinforcements" The Times 10 September 2006 .
  22. ^ "UK troops take Taleban stronghold" BBC News 16 July 2006
  23. ^ "Siege of Sangin crushed" The Scotsman 17 July 2006
  24. ^ "Operation Snakebite dislodges Taliban Forces in Musa Qaleh" Ministry of Defence 8 August 2006.
  25. ^ "British and Afghan forces flex their muscles in Musa Qaleh" Ministry of Defence 25 August 2006.
  26. ^ "British troops in secret truce with the Taliban" The Times . 1 October 2006 .
  27. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | Can change in Afghan tactics bring peace?
  28. ^ Taliban losses in Afghanistan, gains in Pakistan - The Long War Journal
  29. ^ We're on the way to defeating Taliban - Telegraph
  30. ^ "UK troops redeploy from Musa Qala as Afghan Government hands security to local elders" Ministry of Defence 18 October 2006.
  31. ^ BBC NEWS | South Asia | Taleban forces retake Afghan town
  32. ^ "Can change in Afghan tactics bring peace?" BBC News 17 October 2006.
  33. ^ "Taleban fight 'hard but winnable'". BBC News 19 September 2006.
  34. ^ "'Aircraft needed' in Afghanistan". BBC News 1 July 2006.
  35. ^ "UK general warns of Afghan threat" BBC News 10 August 2006.
  36. ^ "1,400 extra UK troops to deploy to Afghanistan" Ministry of Defence 26 February 2007.
  37. ^ [ARCHIVED CONTENT] Ministry of Defence | Defence News | Equipment and Logistics | British troops to be armed with "60km Sniper" (VIDEO)
  38. ^ Sunday Mirror Article. Fight to Death
  39. ^ Yorkshire Regiment News Page
  40. ^ BBC Online article
  41. ^ [ARCHIVED CONTENT] Ministry of Defence | Defence News | Military Operations | Marines clear Taliban from key Afghan dam (VIDEO)
  42. ^ [ARCHIVED CONTENT] Ministry of Defence | Defence News | Military Operations | UK-led operation helps ISAF take control in northern Helmand (VIDEO)
  43. ^ [ARCHIVED CONTENT] Ministry of Defence | Defence News | Military Operations | Success of Sangin operation allows troops to engage with Afghan locals
  44. ^ Taliban 'stalled by lack of commanders' - Telegraph
  45. ^ http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/04/18/news/afghan.php
  46. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1552398/Taliban-stalled-by-lack-of-commanders.html
  47. ^ BBC NEWS | South Asia | Recruiting Taleban 'child soldiers'
  48. ^ British troops hold out at Afghan fort against Taliban[dead link]
  49. ^ - UK troops in huge turbine mission - BBC - 2 September 2008

External links[edit]