Operation Kutschera

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The site of the assassination
Memorial to two the Polish resistance fighters "Juno" and "Sokół" who were killed in action during Operation Kutschera.

Operation Kutschera was the code name for the successful assassination of Franz Kutschera, SS and Reich's Police Chief in German-occupied Warsaw, who was executed on 1st February 1944 by Polish Resistance fighters of the Home Army's anti-Gestapo unit Agat. This action was a part of the larger Operation Heads - the code name of a series of assassinations of Nazi officials by the Polish Resistance.

Background[edit]

SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Polizei Franz Kutschera became SS and Police Leader of the Warsaw District on 25th September 1943. During his earlier posting in the Mogilev District of the Soviet Union he proved himself as a ruthless officer, prone to brutal and unscrupulous methods.

Soon after his arrival in Warsaw he stepped up terror measures directed against the civilian population. The number of public executions and łapanka round-ups were increased, and lists of hostages to be shot in reprisal for civil disobedience or any attack on a German soldier were published daily. These actions, based on a decree by Hans Frank, were intended to crush the will to resist among the Polish population. As a result, the Polish underground leadership included Kutschera in its "Operation Heads" list.

Kutschera's whereabouts in Warsaw were a closely guarded secret but were discovered by Aleksander Kunicki (code name "Rayski"), head of intelligence of the Agat company, while he was investigating two other assassination targets: Dr Ludwig Hahn, Chief of the Sicherheitspolizei and Sicherheitsdienst in occupied Warsaw and SS-Sturmbannführer Walter Stamm.

In the course of his surveillance of the area around the Gestapo HQ on Aleje Szucha, Rayski one day noticed an Opel Admiral limousine entering the drive of the building at Aleje Ujazdowskie number 23, which was then the SS headquarters in Warsaw (and now houses the Hungarian Embassy). The SS-man who emerged from the car wore the insignia of a general, and Rayski began to monitor his arrivals and departures from the building. The SS-man was soon identified as Kutschera, who actually lived only 150 metres away, at Aleja Róż number 2. Rayski also discovered that despite the short distance from his home to the SS headquarters, Kutschera always used his car to get there.

Preparations[edit]

Rayski filed a report about Kutschera to Kedyw commander Emil August Fieldorf (code name "Nil") and several days later Kutschera was sentenced to death by a "Special Court" of the Polish Underground State. Adam Borys (code name "Pług"), commander of the Parasol Battalion of the Armia Krajowa, selected Parasol's 1st Platoon to carry out the assassination. Platoon commander Bronisław Pietraszewicz (code name "Lot") was appointed as leader of the assassination team and planned the operation in close cooperation with Pług.

The first attempt on Kutschera's life was prepared for 28th January 1944 but had to be aborted after Kutschera failed to leave his home that day. After the assassination team broke up, one member of the platoon, Jan Kordulski (code name "Żbik"), was wounded by a German patrol. He was replaced in the team by Zbigniew Gęsicki (code name "Juno") and Stanisław Huskowski (code name "Ali").

The second attempt took place on the morning of 1st February 1944. The assassination team was in position at 8:50AM and included:

  1. "Lot" (Bronisław Pietraszewicz) – commander and 1st executioner (armed with: MP 40 submachine gun, Vis pistol, Filipinka hand grenade).
  2. "Ali" (Stanisław Huskowski) – second-in-command and security screen (grenades).
  3. "Kruszynka" (Zdzisław Poradzki) – 2nd executioner (Sten submachine gun, grenades).
  4. "Miś" (Michał Issajewicz) – 3rd executioner, driving an Adler Trumpf-Junior and armed with a Parabellum pistol and grenades.
  5. "Cichy" (Marian Senger) – cover (Sten submachine gun, Parabellum pistol, grenades).
  6. "Olbrzym" (Henryk Humięcki) – cover (Sten submachine gun, Parabellum pistol, grenades).
  7. "Juno" (Zbigniew Gęsicki) – cover (Sten submachine gun, Vis pistol, hand grenades).
  8. "Bruno" (Bronisław Hellwig) – driving an Opel Kapitän and armed with 2 Parabellums and grenades.
  9. "Sokół" (Kazimierz Sott) – driving a Mercedes 170 V and armed with 2 Parabellums and grenades.
  10. "Kama" (Maria Stypułkowska-Chojecka) – signals.
  11. "Dewajtis" (Elżbieta Dziębowska) – signals.
  12. "Hanka" (Anna Szarzyńska-Rewska) – signals.

The assassination[edit]

Kutschera's funeral procession in Adolf Hitler Platz in Warsaw
Payment receipt for a 30 Zloty reparation/repercussion payment due from all residents of Warsaw and surrounding areas as retribution for the Polish underground's Operation Kutschera - the successful assassination of Franz Kutschera, SS General and SS and Police Leader, Warsaw district

At 9:09AM Kama (who was standing near the entrance to Ujazdowski Park) signalled that Kutschera was leaving his house at Aleja Róż number 2, in his limousine. As he approached the gate of the SS HQ, he was blocked by the car driven by Miś.

Lot and Kruszynka then ran up to the limousine and opened fire on Kutschera from close range. Miś jumped out of his car and together with Kruszynka finished off the wounded Kutschera and searched him for documents. Meanwhile the two other getaway vehicles moved into position and German guards stationed nearby opened fire on the assassins. An intensive firefight ensued between the Germans and the covering team (Cichy, Olbrzym and Juno). At this critical moment Ali was not able to open his briefcase in which several hand grenades were concealed. Cichy, Lot and Olbrzym were all wounded in the firefight.

Due to his injury, Lot's call to withdraw was not loud enough to be heard and as a result the shootout was unnecessarily prolonged, but all the assassins were able to eventually get into the cars and drive away.

A frantic search for a hospital willing to defy the Germans and operate on the heavily wounded Cichy and Lot began, since the originally planned medvac scheme failed. It took several hours and five attempts before a hospital finally admitted them. As a result of the delay, both men died within a couple of days. Meanwhile, Sokół and Juno were intercepted while driving across the Kierbedź Bridge. After a short exchange of fire, they jumped into the Vistula river where they were either shot or drowned.

Aftermath[edit]

Kutschera's funeral ceremony was held by the Germans in the Brühl palace. His body was then transported to Berlin on a special train. The Germans demanded 100 million zloty as retribution from the city of Warsaw. The next day, 2nd February 1944, 100 civilian hostages were shot in one of the last public executions in the city before the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising.

In popular culture[edit]

The assassination of Kutschera was the subject of the 1959 movie Zamach by Jerzy Passendorfer. Every year the operation is commemorated by Polish Scouts.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Richard C. Lukas "Forgotten holocaust - The Poles under German Occupation 1939-1944" Hippocrene Books 1997 ISBN 0-7818-0901-0

See also[edit]

References[edit]