Operation Latchkey

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Operation Latchkey
Information
Country United States
Test site NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS Areas 5, 11, Frenchman Flat; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat; Salmon Site, near Lumberton, Mississippi
Period 1966-1967
Number of tests 38
Test type underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 870 kilotonnes of TNT (3,600 TJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Flintlock (nuclear test)
Next test series Operation Crosstie

Operation Latchkey[1] was a series of 38 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1966-1967 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Flintlock (nuclear test) series and preceded the Operation Crosstie series.

United States' Latchkey series tests and detonations
Name [note 1] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 2][2] Location [note 3] Elevation + height [note 4] Delivery [note 5]
Purpose [note 6]
Device [note 7] Yield [note 8] Fallout [note 9] References Notes
Saxon 28 July 1966 15:33:30.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2cc 37°08′26″N 116°08′03″W / 37.14044°N 116.13404°W / 37.14044; -116.13404 (Saxon) 1,411 m (4,629 ft) - 153.04 m (502.1 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
1.2 kt Venting detected, 0.5 Ci (19 GBq) [3][4][5][6][1] Project Plowshare - excavation device development.
Rovena 10 August 1966 13:16:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10s 37°10′07″N 116°02′55″W / 37.16864°N 116.04862°W / 37.16864; -116.04862 (Rovena) 1,278 m (4,193 ft) - 195.25 m (640.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected, 2 Ci (74 GBq) [3][4][7][5][6][1]
Tangerine 12 August 1966 15:36:00.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3eb 37°02′47″N 116°01′48″W / 37.04629°N 116.03007°W / 37.04629; -116.03007 (Tangerine) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 87.88 m (288.3 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [5][6][1]
Derringer 12 September 1966 15:30:00.54 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U5i 36°52′33″N 115°57′05″W / 36.87595°N 115.95136°W / 36.87595; -115.95136 (Derringer) 1,013 m (3,323 ft) - 255.12 m (837.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
7.8 kt Venting detected off site, 12 kCi (440 TBq) [8][3][4][5][6][1]
Daiquiri 23 September 1966 18:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7o 37°06′12″N 116°02′12″W / 37.1033°N 116.03657°W / 37.1033; -116.03657 (Daiquiri) 1,260 m (4,130 ft) - 561.15 m (1,841.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [5][6][1]
Newark 29 September 1966 14:45:30.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10u 37°10′07″N 116°02′49″W / 37.16862°N 116.04693°W / 37.16862; -116.04693 (Newark) 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 228.63 m (750.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
4 kt Venting detected, 290 Ci (11,000 GBq) [3][9][7][5][6][1]
Khaki 15 October 1966 19:00:00.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3et 37°02′49″N 116°01′04″W / 37.04704°N 116.01772°W / 37.04704; -116.01772 (Khaki) 1,202 m (3,944 ft) - 232.55 m (763.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [5][6][1]
Simms 5 November 1966 14:45:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10w 37°10′12″N 116°02′53″W / 37.1699°N 116.04809°W / 37.1699; -116.04809 (Simms) 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 198.15 m (650.1 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
2.3 kt Venting detected, 11 Ci (410 GBq) [3][4][7][5][6][1] Plowshare - evaluate clean nuclear explosives for excavation.
Ajax 11 November 1966 12:00:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9al 37°08′04″N 116°03′03″W / 37.13449°N 116.05095°W / 37.13449; -116.05095 (Ajax) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 238.45 m (782.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt Venting detected on site, 1 Ci (37 GBq) [3][4][7][5][6][1]
Cerise 18 November 1966 15:02:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3eu 37°02′34″N 116°00′41″W / 37.04273°N 116.0113°W / 37.04273; -116.0113 (Cerise) 1,202 m (3,944 ft) - 211.09 m (692.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [3][7][5][6][1]
Vigil 22 November 1966 15:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ad 37°10′10″N 116°02′57″W / 37.16934°N 116.04918°W / 37.16934; -116.04918 (Vigil) 1,278 m (4,193 ft) - 93.68 m (307.3 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 0.0014 Ci (0.052 GBq) [3][4][5][6][1]
Sterling 3 December 1966 12:15:00.05 CST (-6 hrs)
Salmon Site, near Lumberton, Mississippi 31°08′32″N 89°34′12″W / 31.14229°N 89.57001°W / 31.14229; -89.57001 (Sterling) 74 m (243 ft) - 830 m (2,720 ft) underground shaft,
joint verification
380 t [6][1] Project Vela Uniform/Dribble. Exploded inside the cavity created by Whetstone/Salmon in Tatum salt dome.
Sidecar 13 December 1966 17:50:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ez 37°02′05″N 116°00′27″W / 37.03478°N 116.00751°W / 37.03478; -116.00751 (Sidecar) 1,195 m (3,921 ft) - 240.27 m (788.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected on site, 0.041 Ci (1.5 GBq) [3][4][9][5][6][1]
New Point 13 December 1966 21:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U11c 36°52′38″N 115°56′20″W / 36.8772°N 115.93875°W / 36.8772; -115.93875 (New Point) 1,003 m (3,291 ft) - 243.84 m (800.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
7 kt Venting detected on site, 3 Ci (110 GBq) [3][4][7][5][6][1]
Greeley 20 December 1966 15:30:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20g - 37°18′08″N 116°24′35″W / 37.30231°N 116.40966°W / 37.30231; -116.40966 (Greeley) 1,945 m (6,381 ft) - 1,214.63 m (3,985.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
870 kt [7][5][6][1]
Rivet 1 18 January 1967 14:55:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10aa 37°09′54″N 116°02′51″W / 37.16507°N 116.04742°W / 37.16507; -116.04742 (Rivet 1) 1,276 m (4,186 ft) - 152.1 m (499 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
150 t [3][9][5][6][1]
Nash 19 January 1967 16:45:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ce 37°08′37″N 116°08′10″W / 37.1437°N 116.13619°W / 37.1437; -116.13619 (Nash) 1,425 m (4,675 ft) - 363.78 m (1,193.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
39 kt Venting detected off site, 69 kCi (2,600 TBq) [3][9][7][5][6][1]
Bourbon 20 January 1967 17:40:04.41 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7n 37°05′59″N 116°00′17″W / 37.09981°N 116.0047°W / 37.09981; -116.0047 (Bourbon) 1,306 m (4,285 ft) - 559.72 m (1,836.4 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
41 kt [8][7][5][6][1]
Rivet 2 26 January 1967 16:30:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10z 37°09′53″N 116°02′56″W / 37.16475°N 116.04893°W / 37.16475; -116.04893 (Rivet 2) 1,274 m (4,180 ft) - 197.78 m (648.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 t Venting detected on site, 0.1 Ci (3.7 GBq) [3][4][9][5][6][1]
Ward 8 February 1967 15:15:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10x 37°10′03″N 116°02′53″W / 37.16748°N 116.04801°W / 37.16748; -116.04801 (Ward) 1,277 m (4,190 ft) - 257.25 m (844.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
11 kt [9][7][5][6][1]
Persimmon 23 February 1967 18:34:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3dn 37°01′03″N 116°01′00″W / 37.01756°N 116.01662°W / 37.01756; -116.01662 (Persimmon) 1,184 m (3,885 ft) - 299.11 m (981.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
4 kt [9][7][5][6][1]
Agile 23 February 1967 18:50:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2v 37°07′37″N 116°04′02″W / 37.12681°N 116.06726°W / 37.12681; -116.06726 (Agile) 1,270 m (4,170 ft) - 731.52 m (2,400.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 kt [8][7][5][6][1]
Rivet 3 2 March 1967 15:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10y 37°09′57″N 116°02′58″W / 37.16581°N 116.04957°W / 37.16581; -116.04957 (Rivet 3) 1,275 m (4,183 ft) - 271.27 m (890.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2.5 kt Venting detected [4][7][5][6][1]
Mushroom 3 March 1967 15:19:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ef 37°02′22″N 116°00′39″W / 37.03946°N 116.01093°W / 37.03946; -116.01093 (Mushroom) 1,198 m (3,930 ft) - 179.55 m (589.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
600 t Venting detected on site, 0.4 Ci (15 GBq) [3][4][9][5][6][1]
Fizz 10 March 1967 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fr 37°02′46″N 116°01′51″W / 37.04612°N 116.03073°W / 37.04612; -116.03073 (Fizz) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 117.73 m (386.3 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [5][6][1]
Oakland 4 April 1967 14:20:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bi 37°09′43″N 116°04′59″W / 37.16195°N 116.08313°W / 37.16195; -116.08313 (Oakland) 1,321 m (4,334 ft) - 165.35 m (542.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 100 Ci (3,700 GBq) [4][5][6][1]
Heilman 6 April 1967 15:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2cg 37°08′14″N 116°08′01″W / 37.13728°N 116.13355°W / 37.13728; -116.13355 (Heilman) 1,405 m (4,610 ft) - 152.7 m (501 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 8 Ci (300 GBq) [3][4][5][6][1]
Fawn 7 April 1967 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3eo 37°03′16″N 116°01′23″W / 37.05439°N 116.02296°W / 37.05439; -116.02296 (Fawn) 1,206 m (3,957 ft) - 271.06 m (889.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt [7][5][6][1]
Chocolate 21 April 1967 15:09:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3es 37°01′09″N 116°02′17″W / 37.01928°N 116.03818°W / 37.01928; -116.03818 (Chocolate) 1,186 m (3,891 ft) - 240.45 m (788.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt [9][7][5][6][1]
Effendi 27 April 1967 14:45:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ap 37°08′19″N 116°03′51″W / 37.13873°N 116.06407°W / 37.13873; -116.06407 (Effendi) 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 219.29 m (719.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 t [7][5][6][1]
Mickey 10 May 1967 13:40:00.041 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7m 37°04′40″N 115°59′46″W / 37.07781°N 115.99617°W / 37.07781; -115.99617 (Mickey) 1,278 m (4,193 ft) - 499.63 m (1,639.2 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
22 kt [8][7][5][6][1]
Commodore 20 May 1967 15:00:00.2 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2am 37°07′48″N 116°03′55″W / 37.13011°N 116.0652°W / 37.13011; -116.0652 (Commodore) 1,271 m (4,170 ft) - 746.46 m (2,449.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
250 kt Venting detected, less than 1 Ci (37 GBq) [3][4][7][5][6][1]
Scotch 23 May 1967 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19as 37°16′30″N 116°22′15″W / 37.27503°N 116.37086°W / 37.27503; -116.37086 (Scotch) 2,034 m (6,673 ft) - 977.39 m (3,206.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
155 kt [5][6][1]
Absinthe 26 May 1967 12:30:00.03 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ep 37°02′42″N 116°01′11″W / 37.045°N 116.01979°W / 37.045; -116.01979 (Absinthe) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 118.65 m (389.3 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [5][6][1]
Knickerbocker 26 May 1967 15:00:01.5 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20d 37°14′52″N 116°28′52″W / 37.24789°N 116.48106°W / 37.24789; -116.48106 (Knickerbocker) 1,878 m (6,161 ft) - 630.63 m (2,069.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
76 kt Venting detected, 110 Ci (4,100 GBq) [3][4][5][6][1]
Switch 22 June 1967 13:10:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bv 37°07′32″N 116°01′46″W / 37.12551°N 116.02954°W / 37.12551; -116.02954 (Switch) 1,277 m (4,190 ft) - 301.75 m (990.0 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
3.1 kt Venting detected off site, less than 1 Ci (37 GBq) [3][4][5][6][1] Project Plowshare - evaluate clean nuclear explosives for excavation.
Midi Mist 26 June 1967 16:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12n.02 37°12′07″N 116°12′31″W / 37.20206°N 116.20871°W / 37.20206; -116.20871 (Midi Mist) 2,200 m (7,200 ft) - 374.9 m (1,230 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
20 kt Venting detected, 4.5 kCi (170 TBq) [3][4][9][5][6][1]
Umber 29 June 1967 11:25:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3em 37°01′43″N 116°01′24″W / 37.02849°N 116.0233°W / 37.02849; -116.0233 (Umber) 1,188 m (3,898 ft) - 310.24 m (1,017.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
10 kt Venting detected off site, 26 kCi (960 TBq) [3][9][7][5][6][1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  2. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved 2014 March 08. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2, National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1), DOE Nevada Operations Office, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Bolt, Bruce A. (1976), Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil, San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co. 
  8. ^ a b c d Hechanova, Anthony E.; O'Donnell, James E. (1998-09-25), Estimates of yield for nuclear tests impacting the groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Science and Technology Division 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Norris, Robert Standish; Cochran, Thomas B. (1 February 1994), "United States nuclear tests, July 1945 to 31 December 1992 (NWD 94-1)", Nuclear Weapons Databook Working Paper (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council), retrieved 2013-10-26