Operation Latchkey

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Operation Latchkey
Information
Country United States
Test site NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS Areas 5, 11, Frenchman Flat; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat; Salmon Site, near Lumberton, Mississippi
Period 1966-1967
Number of tests 38
Test type ug shaft, ug tunnel
Max. yield 870 kilotonnes of TNT (3,600 TJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Flintlock (nuclear test)
Next test series Operation Crosstie

Operation Latchkey[1] was a series of 38 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1966-1967 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Flintlock (nuclear test) series and preceded the Operation Crosstie series.

The United States test series summary table is here: United States' nuclear testing series.

The detonations in the United States' Latchkey series are listed below:

United States' Latchkey series tests and detonations
Name[note 1] Date time (UT) Local time zone[note 2] Location[note 3] Elevation + height[note 4] Delivery[note 5] Purpose[note 6] Device[note 7] Yield[note 8] Venting[note 9] References Notes
Saxon 28 July 1966 15:03:33.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2cc 37°08′26″N 116°08′03″W / 37.14044°N 116.13404°W / 37.14044; -116.13404 (Saxon) 1,411 m (4,629 ft) - 153.04 m (502.1 ft) ug shaft peaceful research 1.2 kt Venting detected, 0.5 Ci (19 GBq) [2][3][4][5][1] Project Plowshare - excavation device development.
Rovena 10 August 1966 13:00:16.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10s 37°10′07″N 116°02′55″W / 37.16864°N 116.04862°W / 37.16864; -116.04862 (Rovena) 1,278 m (4,193 ft) - 195.25 m (640.6 ft) ug shaft weapons development 1 kt Venting detected, 2 Ci (74 GBq) [2][3][6][4][5][1]
Tangerine 12 August 1966 15:00:36.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3eb 37°02′47″N 116°01′48″W / 37.04629°N 116.03007°W / 37.04629; -116.03007 (Tangerine) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 87.88 m (288.3 ft) ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt [4][5][1]
Derringer 12 September 1966 15:00:30.54 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U5i 36°52′33″N 115°57′05″W / 36.87595°N 115.95136°W / 36.87595; -115.95136 (Derringer) 1,013 m (3,323 ft) - 255.12 m (837.0 ft) ug shaft weapon effect 7.8 kt Venting detected off site, 12 kCi (440 TBq) [7][2][3][4][5][1]
Daiquiri 23 September 1966 18:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7o 37°06′12″N 116°02′12″W / 37.1033°N 116.03657°W / 37.1033; -116.03657 (Daiquiri) 1,260 m (4,130 ft) - 561.15 m (1,841.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [4][5][1]
Newark 29 September 1966 14:04:35.09 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10u 37°10′07″N 116°02′49″W / 37.16862°N 116.04693°W / 37.16862; -116.04693 (Newark) 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 228.63 m (750.1 ft) ug shaft weapons development 4 kt Venting detected, 290 Ci (11,000 GBq) [2][8][6][4][5][1]
Khaki 15 October 1966 19:00:00.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3et 37°02′49″N 116°01′04″W / 37.04704°N 116.01772°W / 37.04704; -116.01772 (Khaki) 1,202 m (3,944 ft) - 232.55 m (763.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt [4][5][1]
Simms 5 November 1966 14:00:45.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10w 37°10′12″N 116°02′53″W / 37.1699°N 116.04809°W / 37.1699; -116.04809 (Simms) 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 198.15 m (650.1 ft) ug shaft peaceful research 2.3 kt Venting detected, 11 Ci (410 GBq) [2][3][6][4][5][1] Plowshare - evaluate clean nuclear explosives for excavation.
Ajax 11 November 1966 12:00:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9al 37°08′04″N 116°03′03″W / 37.13449°N 116.05095°W / 37.13449; -116.05095 (Ajax) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 238.45 m (782.3 ft) ug shaft weapons development 5 kt Venting detected on site, 1 Ci (37 GBq) [2][3][6][4][5][1]
Cerise 18 November 1966 15:00:02.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3eu 37°02′34″N 116°00′41″W / 37.04273°N 116.0113°W / 37.04273; -116.0113 (Cerise) 1,202 m (3,944 ft) - 211.09 m (692.6 ft) ug shaft weapons development 7 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [2][6][4][5][1]
Vigil 22 November 1966 15:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ad 37°10′10″N 116°02′57″W / 37.16934°N 116.04918°W / 37.16934; -116.04918 (Vigil) 1,278 m (4,193 ft) - 93.68 m (307.3 ft) ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 0.0014 Ci (0.052 GBq) [2][3][4][5][1]
Sterling 3 December 1966 12:00:15.05 CST (-6 hrs)
Salmon Site, near Lumberton, Mississippi 31°08′32″N 89°34′12″W / 31.14229°N 89.57001°W / 31.14229; -89.57001 (Sterling) 74 m (243 ft) - 830 m (2,720 ft) ug shaft joint verification 380 t [5][1] Project Vela Uniform/Dribble. Exploded inside the cavity created by Whetstone/Salmon in Tatum salt dome.
Sidecar 13 December 1966 17:00:50.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ez 37°02′05″N 116°00′27″W / 37.03478°N 116.00751°W / 37.03478; -116.00751 (Sidecar) 1,195 m (3,921 ft) - 240.27 m (788.3 ft) ug shaft weapons development 1 kt Venting detected on site, 0.041 Ci (1.5 GBq) [2][3][8][4][5][1]
New Point 13 December 1966 21:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U11c 36°52′38″N 115°56′20″W / 36.8772°N 115.93875°W / 36.8772; -115.93875 (New Point) 1,003 m (3,291 ft) - 243.84 m (800.0 ft) ug shaft weapon effect 7 kt Venting detected on site, 3 Ci (110 GBq) [2][3][6][4][5][1]
Greeley 20 December 1966 15:00:30.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20g - 37°18′08″N 116°24′35″W / 37.30231°N 116.40966°W / 37.30231; -116.40966 (Greeley) 1,945 m (6,381 ft) - 1,214.63 m (3,985.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 870 kt [6][4][5][1]
Rivet 1 18 January 1967 14:00:55.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10aa 37°09′54″N 116°02′51″W / 37.16507°N 116.04742°W / 37.16507; -116.04742 (Rivet 1) 1,276 m (4,186 ft) - 152.1 m (499 ft) ug shaft weapons development 150 t [2][8][4][5][1]
Nash 19 January 1967 16:00:45.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ce 37°08′37″N 116°08′10″W / 37.1437°N 116.13619°W / 37.1437; -116.13619 (Nash) 1,425 m (4,675 ft) - 363.78 m (1,193.5 ft) ug shaft weapons development 39 kt Venting detected off site, 69 kCi (2,600 TBq) [2][8][6][4][5][1]
Bourbon 20 January 1967 17:04:04.41 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7n 37°05′59″N 116°00′17″W / 37.09981°N 116.0047°W / 37.09981; -116.0047 (Bourbon) 1,306 m (4,285 ft) - 559.72 m (1,836.4 ft) ug shaft weapons development 41 kt [7][6][4][5][1]
Rivet 2 26 January 1967 16:00:30.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10z 37°09′53″N 116°02′56″W / 37.16475°N 116.04893°W / 37.16475; -116.04893 (Rivet 2) 1,274 m (4,180 ft) - 197.78 m (648.9 ft) ug shaft weapons development 800 t Venting detected on site, 0.1 Ci (3.7 GBq) [2][3][8][4][5][1]
Ward 8 February 1967 15:00:15.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10x 37°10′03″N 116°02′53″W / 37.16748°N 116.04801°W / 37.16748; -116.04801 (Ward) 1,277 m (4,190 ft) - 257.25 m (844.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 11 kt [8][6][4][5][1]
Persimmon 23 February 1967 18:00:34.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3dn 37°01′03″N 116°01′00″W / 37.01756°N 116.01662°W / 37.01756; -116.01662 (Persimmon) 1,184 m (3,885 ft) - 299.11 m (981.3 ft) ug shaft weapons development 4 kt [8][6][4][5][1]
Agile 23 February 1967 18:00:50.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2v 37°07′37″N 116°04′02″W / 37.12681°N 116.06726°W / 37.12681; -116.06726 (Agile) 1,270 m (4,170 ft) - 731.52 m (2,400.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 200 kt [7][6][4][5][1]
Rivet 3 2 March 1967 15:00:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10y 37°09′57″N 116°02′58″W / 37.16581°N 116.04957°W / 37.16581; -116.04957 (Rivet 3) 1,275 m (4,183 ft) - 271.27 m (890.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 2.5 kt Venting detected [3][6][4][5][1]
Mushroom 3 March 1967 15:00:19.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ef 37°02′22″N 116°00′39″W / 37.03946°N 116.01093°W / 37.03946; -116.01093 (Mushroom) 1,198 m (3,930 ft) - 179.55 m (589.1 ft) ug shaft weapons development 600 t Venting detected on site, 0.4 Ci (15 GBq) [2][3][8][4][5][1]
Fizz 10 March 1967 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fr 37°02′46″N 116°01′51″W / 37.04612°N 116.03073°W / 37.04612; -116.03073 (Fizz) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 117.73 m (386.3 ft) ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt [4][5][1]
Oakland 4 April 1967 14:00:20.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bi 37°09′43″N 116°04′59″W / 37.16195°N 116.08313°W / 37.16195; -116.08313 (Oakland) 1,321 m (4,334 ft) - 165.35 m (542.5 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt Venting detected, 100 Ci (3,700 GBq) [3][4][5][1]
Heilman 6 April 1967 15:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2cg 37°08′14″N 116°08′01″W / 37.13728°N 116.13355°W / 37.13728; -116.13355 (Heilman) 1,405 m (4,610 ft) - 152.7 m (501 ft) ug shaft weapons development less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 8 Ci (300 GBq) [2][3][4][5][1]
Fawn 7 April 1967 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3eo 37°03′16″N 116°01′23″W / 37.05439°N 116.02296°W / 37.05439; -116.02296 (Fawn) 1,206 m (3,957 ft) - 271.06 m (889.3 ft) ug shaft weapons development 1 kt [6][4][5][1]
Chocolate 21 April 1967 15:00:09.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3es 37°01′09″N 116°02′17″W / 37.01928°N 116.03818°W / 37.01928; -116.03818 (Chocolate) 1,186 m (3,891 ft) - 240.45 m (788.9 ft) ug shaft weapons development 7 kt [8][6][4][5][1]
Effendi 27 April 1967 14:00:45.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ap 37°08′19″N 116°03′51″W / 37.13873°N 116.06407°W / 37.13873; -116.06407 (Effendi) 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 219.29 m (719.5 ft) ug shaft weapons development 800 t [6][4][5][1]
Mickey 10 May 1967 13:00:40.041 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7m 37°04′40″N 115°59′46″W / 37.07781°N 115.99617°W / 37.07781; -115.99617 (Mickey) 1,278 m (4,193 ft) - 499.63 m (1,639.2 ft) ug shaft weapons development 22 kt [7][6][4][5][1]
Commodore 20 May 1967 15:00:00.2 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2am 37°07′48″N 116°03′55″W / 37.13011°N 116.0652°W / 37.13011; -116.0652 (Commodore) 1,271 m (4,170 ft) - 746.46 m (2,449.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 250 kt Venting detected, less than 1 Ci (37 GBq) [2][3][6][4][5][1]
Scotch 23 May 1967 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19as 37°16′30″N 116°22′15″W / 37.27503°N 116.37086°W / 37.27503; -116.37086 (Scotch) 2,034 m (6,673 ft) - 977.39 m (3,206.7 ft) ug shaft weapons development 155 kt [4][5][1]
Absinthe 26 May 1967 12:00:30.03 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ep 37°02′42″N 116°01′11″W / 37.045°N 116.01979°W / 37.045; -116.01979 (Absinthe) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 118.65 m (389.3 ft) ug shaft safety experiment less than 20 kt [4][5][1]
Knickerbocker 26 May 1967 15:00:01.5 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20d 37°14′52″N 116°28′52″W / 37.24789°N 116.48106°W / 37.24789; -116.48106 (Knickerbocker) 1,878 m (6,161 ft) - 630.63 m (2,069.0 ft) ug shaft weapons development 76 kt Venting detected, 110 Ci (4,100 GBq) [2][3][4][5][1]
Switch 22 June 1967 13:00:10.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bv 37°07′32″N 116°01′46″W / 37.12551°N 116.02954°W / 37.12551; -116.02954 (Switch) 1,277 m (4,190 ft) - 301.75 m (990.0 ft) ug shaft peaceful research 3.1 kt Venting detected off site, less than 1 Ci (37 GBq) [2][3][4][5][1] Project Plowshare - evaluate clean nuclear explosives for excavation.
Midi Mist 26 June 1967 16:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12n.02 37°12′07″N 116°12′31″W / 37.20206°N 116.20871°W / 37.20206; -116.20871 (Midi Mist) 2,200 m (7,200 ft) - 374.9 m (1,230 ft) ug tunnel weapon effect 20 kt Venting detected, 4.5 kCi (170 TBq) [2][3][8][4][5][1]
Umber 29 June 1967 11:00:25.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3em 37°01′43″N 116°01′24″W / 37.02849°N 116.0233°W / 37.02849; -116.0233 (Umber) 1,188 m (3,898 ft) - 310.24 m (1,017.8 ft) ug shaft weapon effect 10 kt Venting detected off site, 26 kCi (960 TBq) [2][8][6][4][5][1]

Table notes:

  1. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China have not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions - Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 - 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  2. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight savings time, add one additional hour. If the result is less than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it's greater than or equal to 24:00, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day.
  3. ^ Rough place name and a Latitude/Longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  4. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  5. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  6. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  7. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceeding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  8. ^ Estimated energy yield in tonnes, kilotonnes, and megatonnes (all metric units).
  9. ^ Emissions to atmosphere, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and everything if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radiation released.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2, National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1), DOE Nevada Operations Office, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Bolt, Bruce A. (1976), Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil, San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co. 
  7. ^ a b c d Hechanova, Anthony E.; O'Donnell, James E. (1998-09-25), Estimates of yield for nuclear tests impacting the groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Science and Technology Division 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Norris, Robert Standish; Cochran, Thomas B. (1 February 1994), "United States nuclear tests, July 1945 to 31 December 1992 (NWD 94-1)", Nuclear Weapons Databook Working Paper (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council), retrieved 2013-10-26