Operation Long Jump

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Operation Long Jump
Date October–November 1943
Location Tehran, Iran
Result Plot discovered and aborted
Belligerents
 Nazi Germany  Soviet Union
 United States
 United Kingdom
Commanders and leaders
Nazi Germany Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Nazi Germany Otto Skorzeny
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin
United Kingdom Winston Churchill
United States Franklin D. Roosevelt

Operation Long Jump (German: Unternehmen Weitsprung) was an alleged German plan to simultaneously assassinate Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Franklin Roosevelt at the 1943 Tehran Conference during World War II.[1] The operation to kill the "Big Three" Allied leaders in Iran was to be led by SS-Obersturmbannführer Otto Skorzeny from the Waffen SS. A group of agents from the Soviet Union, led by Soviet spy Gevork Vartanian, uncovered the plot before its inception and the mission was never launched.[2] The assassination plan and its disruption has been popularized by the Russian media with appearances in films and novels.

Operation[edit]

Beginnings[edit]

According to Soviet sources, German military intelligence discovered, after breaking a U.S. Navy code, that a major conference would be held at Tehran in mid-October 1943.[3] Based on this information, Adolf Hitler approved a scheme to kill all three Allied leaders. Operational control was passed to Ernst Kaltenbrunner, chief of the Reich Main Security Office, who chose Skorzeny to head the mission. The German agent Elyesa Bazna (codenamed "Cicero"), in Ankara, Turkey, was also brought into the operation.

Counter-intelligence[edit]

Skorzeny in 1943

The NKVD alleged that, despite German secrecy, it quickly uncovered the plot following a tip-off from Soviet agent Nikolai Kuznetsov, who was posing as Paul Siebert, an Oberleutnant in the Wehrmacht from Nazi-occupied Ukraine. He got the information from an SS-Sturmbannführer named von Ortel, who was known to become "talkative" when drinking. The Soviet agent learned about the operation by getting him drunk.[4]

The Soviets got more information from 19-year-old Soviet spy Gevork Vartanian, whose team of seven intelligence officers in 1940-41 had identified more than 400 Nazi agents, all of whom had been arrested by Soviet troops.[2] In 1943, in their efforts to foil the assassination plot devised by the Nazis, Vartanyan’s group located an advance party of six German radio operators who had dropped by parachute near Qum, 60 km (37 mi) from Tehran. The Soviet agents tailed the German spies to the Iranian capital, where an existing Abwehr network set them up in a villa. From this location, the German observers radioed intelligence reports back to Berlin. However, unknown to them, all their transmissions were being intercepted, recorded and decoded by NKVD operatives. The decrypts revealed that a second group of operatives, led by Skorzeny, would be dropped into Iran for the actual assassination attempt in mid October. The NKVD claimed that this supported existing intelligence about the involvement of the SS commander because Vartanian's group had already tailed Skorzeny during his own reconnaissance mission to Tehran.[3]

Vartanian later told the following details,

We followed them to Tehran, where the Nazi field station had readied a villa for their stay. They were travelling by camel, and were loaded with weapons. While we were watching the group, we established that they had contacted Berlin by radio, and recorded their communication... When we decrypted these radio messages, we learnt that the Germans were preparing to land a second group of subversives for a terrorist act — the assassination or abduction of the 'Big Three’. The second group was supposed to be led by Skorzeny himself.[2]

All the members of the first group were arrested and forced to contact their handlers under Soviet supervision. The operation got off track and the main group led by Skorzeny never went to Tehran. This way the success of Vartanian's group in locating the Nazi advance party prevented the Nazi attempt to assassinate the 'Big Three'.[2][5]

Cancellation[edit]

According to the NKVD, with October approaching the mission was aborted; Berlin is said to have received a secret code from Tehran indicating that its agents had discovered they were under surveillance.[4]

In 1984, Vartanian was recognised for his role in uncovering Operation Long Jump. He was awarded the Gold Star medal of the Hero of the Soviet Union for his service in World War II and the Cold War.[3] In 2007 he met with Winston Churchill's granddaughter and was congratulated for his great service to the Allies.[2] In 2003, relying on declassified documents, Yuri Lvovich Kuznets published a book called Tehran-43 or Operation Long Jump, which detailed Vartanyan’s role at the Tehran Conference. A Soviet film, Tegeran-43, which featured the French actor Alain Delon, was released in 1981.[2]

Western scepticism[edit]

When Stalin informed Churchill and Roosevelt about the plan, some members within the American and British delegations doubted the existence of a plot because all evidence of its existence was provided by Soviet intelligence. In Britain, the Joint Intelligence Committee of the War Cabinet, considering the matter afterwards in London, concluded that the so-called Nazi plot against the Big Three was "complete baloney".[6]

There have been debates about the veracity of the story. The skeptics brought up a number of arguments in this regard. Firstly, the German espionage network in Iran had been destroyed in mid-1943, well before Tehran was chosen as a meeting place. Secondly, more than 3,000 NKVD security troops guarded the city for the duration of the conference without incident. Thirdly, both Roosevelt and Churchill travelled on foot or open jeep throughout their four-day stay in Tehran.[7]

Otto Skorzeny denied the story after the war. In his memoirs, he recalled a meeting with Hitler and SS-Brigadeführer Walter Schellenberg, from the foreign intelligence branch of the Sicherheitsdienst, when they did discuss the feasibility of assassinating Churchill. But Skorzeny said he told the Fuhrer the idea was unworkable and Hitler agreed with his assessment. Skorzeny wrote "Long Jump has really only existed in the imagination of a little bunch of truth-loving hacks [...]". He also castigated Russian sources for continually referring to Sturmbannführer Paul von Oertel, who Skorzeny said simply never existed.[8]

Historiography[edit]

In Russia the story remains a subject of great interest. In 2003, the Russian writer Yuri Kusnez held a press conference in the Foreign Intelligence ministry in Moscow to promote his book:Tehran-43.[9] In 2007, a Russian television company promoted a documentary with the working title The Lion and the Bear. It documented Long Jump and was to be presented by Churchill's granddaughter Celia Sandys.[10]

Pavel Sudoplatov in his memoirs brings up the details of how Kuznetsov recruited German officer Oster. According to Sudoplatov the training of German saboteurs was taking place in the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains where the group led by the intelligence officer Kuznetsov, who was disguised as a Wehrmacht lieutenant, was working. Oster, who owed Kunetsov some money, offered to pay back the debt by Persian carpets after his trip to Tehran; this suggested that the plot about the assassination attempt during the Tehran conference was quite feasible.[11]

French journalist Laslo Havas wrote a book about Operation Long jump after the war where he confirmed that Soviet intelligence had disrupted the German plot.[4]

Professor Miron Rezun, a political scientist from University of New Brunswick, states that Operation Long Jump was not the work of a Soviet misinformation campaign because German commandos had carried out other daring raids. He notes that Roosevelt recorded that he was personally informed of the plot by Stalin himself. The diary of Alexander Cadogan, a British diplomat, also mentions that he received information from the Russians about a plan to murder the Big Three. Rezun says some researchers and journalists in Germany deny the existence of the planned operation and accuse Laslo Havas of believing the Soviet misinformation. For example, Heinz Höhne, a famous historian and specialist on the history of the Third Reich (as well as writing a complete biography of Wilhelm Canaris, chief of the Abwehr), wrote in an article in Der Spiegel that no such German plot ever existed. But Rezun notes that Höhne omits from the article the fact that Canaris had visited Tehran on the eve of the German attack on the Soviet Union. [12]

British military historian Nigel West wrote about the plot in the book, Historical dictionary of World War II intelligence. He states that following the arrest of Franz Meyer, a German resident in Iran, in August 1943 only remnants of a German spy network remained. Between the 22 and 27 November, six groups of parachutists under the command of a Rudolf von Holten-Pflug were dropped near Qom and another eight groups, containing 60 people, under the command of a Vladimir Shkvarev were dropped near Kazvin. The NKVD quickly arrested the teams led by Shkvarev. Further units were led by SD agents Lothar Schollhorn and Winifred Oberg, but they did not suspect the Soviets knew about them because of Meyer. Stalin offered to let Roosevelt and Churchill stay in the Soviet embassy during the conference, however Roosevelt insisted on staying at the US embassy on the other side of the city. But the planned ambush of the Big Three was disrupted because the British arrested Holten-Pflug and his group on the night of 31 November. On the 2 December six more German agents were arrested, who had been informed on by double agent Ernst Merser.[13]

See also[edit]

  • Teheran 43, Soviet-French drama film from 1981 about an assassination attempt on Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt during the Teheran Conference in 1943

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nikolai Dolgopolov (November 29, 2007). "How "The Lion And The Bear" Were Saved". Rossiiskaya Gazeta. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f The Telegraph, 11 Jan 2012, Gevork Vartanyan
  3. ^ a b c "Tehran-43: Wrecking the plan to kill Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill". RIA Novosti. October 16, 2007. 
  4. ^ a b c Havas, Laslo (1967). Hitler's Plot to Kill the Big Three. Cowles Book Co. p. 164. 
  5. ^ RIA Novosti - Opinion & analysis - Tehran-43: Wrecking the plan to kill Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill
  6. ^ Eubank, Keith (1985). Summit at Teheran. William Morrow publishing. pp. 161–197. 
  7. ^ O'Sullivan, Donal (2010). Dealing with the Devil. New York. pp. 203–204. 
  8. ^ Skorzeny, Otto (2007). Meine Kommandounternehmen. Winkelried, Dresden. pp. 190–192. ISBN 978-3-938392-11-9. 
  9. ^ Юрий Львович Кузнец: Тегеран-43 : Крах операции "Длин. прыжок. ЭКСМО, Moskau 2003, ISBN 5-8153-0146-9
  10. ^ Dolgopolov, Nikolai (January 2007). Triple jeopardy: the Nazi plan to kill WWII leaders in Tehran. RIA Nowosti vom 4. 
  11. ^ Pavel Sudoplatov. Special Operations: Lubyanka and Kremlin 1930—1950 // ОЛМА-press, 2003. p. 205
  12. ^ Miron Rezun. The Soviet Union and the Iran: Soviet Policy in Iran from the Beginnings of the Pahlavi Dynasty Until the Soviet Invasion in 1941 // Collection de relations internationales / Institut universitaire de hautes études internationales, Université de Genève // Institut Universiatire des Hautes Études Series, Brill Archive, 1981. Р. 363
  13. ^ West, Nigel (2008). Historical dictionary of World War II intelligence. Scarecrow Press. pp. 140–141.