Operation Morvarid

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Operation Morvarid
Part of Iran-Iraq War
Date 28–29 November 1980
(1 day)
Location Iraq part of the Persian Gulf
Result Decisive Iranian victory
  • Destruction of 80% of the Iraqi Navy
  • Destruction of the oil terminals at Mina al Bakr and Khor-al-Amaya
  • Blocking of the port of Al Faw
  • Destruction of many Iraqi oil installations, early warning bases and SAM sites
Belligerents
Iranian Navy
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
Iraq Iraqi Navy
IQAF Symbol.svg Iraqi Air Force
Commanders and leaders
Iran Abulhassan Banisadr
Iran Bahram Afzali
Iran Javad Fakoori
Strength
6 amphibious vessels
2 missile boats
Unknown number of Marines and aircraft
8 motor-torpedo boats
5 fast-attack craft
Unknown number of ground forces
8 MiG-23 and several MiG-21 fighters
Several-SAM sites
Casualties and losses
1 Missile boat sunk
1 F-4 Phantom downed
1 F-4 Phantom damaged
Unknown Marine losses
5 Osa II boats sunk
4 P-6 boats sunk
1 Aérospatiale Super Frelon downed
6 MiG-23s downed
1 MiG-21 downed
Several SAM-sites destroyed
Several oil terminals destroyed
Unknown ground losses
The day of that naval victory (28 November 1980) is celebrated in Iran as Navy Day[1]

Operation Morvarid (Persian:عملیات مروارید "Operation Pearl") was an operation launched by the Iranian Navy and Iranian Air Force against the Iraqi Navy and Air Force on 28 November 1980 in response to Iraq positioning radar and monitoring equipment on the Al-Bakr and Khor-al-Amaya oil rigs to counter Iranian air operations. The operation resulted in a victory for Iran, which managed to destroy both oil rigs as well as much of the Iraqi Navy and inflicted significant damage to Iraqi ports and airfields. It should not be confused with the Operation Morvarid launched by the NLA in the 1990s.

Battle[edit]

On 28 November 1980, after Iranian technicians prepared as many aircraft and helicopters as possible, Iranian F-4 Phantoms and F-5 Tiger IIs attacked Iraqi airfields around Basra. They managed to destroy one Iraqi MiG-21 Fishbed on the ground.

During the night of 29 November, six ships of the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy's Task Force 421 deployed Iranian marines on the Iraqi oil terminals at Mina al Bakr and Khor-al-Amaya. The marines, supported by AH-1J Sea Cobras, Bell 214s and CH-47C Chinooks, gunned down most Iraqi defenders during a short firefight, then deployed a large number of bombs and mines. They were then evacuated by helicopter and left the Iraqi oil installations and early warning bases in flames.

At the same time, two Iranian Kaman class (La Combattante IIa missile boats) (Paykan and Joshan) blocked the ports of Al Faw and Umm Qasr, blocking 60 foreign ships and shelling both facilities.

In response the Iraqi Navy deployed P-6 torpedo boats and Osa II class fast-attack craft for a counter-attack. The boats engaged the two Iranian missile boats which managed to sink two Osas with Harpoon missiles. The remaining three Osa class missile boats continued to attack the missile boat Paykan. The crew of the "Paykan" called IRIAF for help which sent two F-4s (each armed with six AGM-65 Maverick missiles). By the time they arrived, however, the Paykan had been sunk after being hit by two Iraqi P-15 Termit missiles. In response, the F-4s targeted the remaining Iraqi ships and sunk three Osa IIs and four P-6s.

Soon another four Iranian F-4s arrived from Shiraz, bombed the port of Al Faw, and, together with F-5s, destroyed the surrounding Iraqi SAM sites. One Iranian F-4 was hit by an Iraqi SA-7 surface-to-air missile but managed to return to base.

Now Iranian F-14 Tomcat formations joined the battle[citation needed] and, together with several F-4s, covered the withdrawal of Task Force 421 and bombed the Iraqi oil rigs, destroying an Iraqi Aérospatiale Super Frelon helicopter. After this, they attacked the Mina al Bakr terminal. The Iraqis scrambled seven MiG-23 Floggers to defend the terminal. Iranian F-4s then engaged the Iraqi MiG-23MSs and downed three. One Iranian F-4 was downed during the battle. Four Iraqi MiG-23BNs attacked the Joshan, which managed to shoot two down with SA-7 missiles. Shortly after, an Iranian F-14 downed one of the two surviving MiGs, forcing the last one to flee.

Aftermath[edit]

The destruction of Iraqi SAM sites and radar and monitoring equipment made it possible for the IRIAF to attack via southern Iraq again. Also the Iraqi Navy never recovered from this operation, which destroyed 80% of its navy.

The Iranian missile boat Joshan which took part in this operation was later sunk during Operation Praying Mantis by U.S. Navy warships.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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