Operation Odyssey Dawn

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Operation Odyssey Dawn
Part of the 2011 military intervention in Libya and the Libyan Civil War
USS Barry fires Tomahawk missile Libya.png
The USS Barry (DDG-52) fires a Tomahawk cruise missile during Operation Odyssey Dawn.
Date 19–31 March 2011
Location Libya
Result Decisive NATO victory
Effective no-fly zone established[1]
Operations handed over to NATO Operation Unified Protector
Belligerents
 Belgium
 Canada
 Denmark
 Italy
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Qatar
 Spain
 United Arab Emirates
 United States of America
 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Commanders and leaders
United States Barack Obama
President of the United States and
Commander in Chief of U.S. Armed Forces

United States Robert Gates
U.S. Secretary of Defense

United States GEN Carter Ham, USA
U.S. Africa Command Commander

United States ADM Samuel Locklear, USN
Joint Task Force Commander

United States VADM Harry Harris, USN
Joint Forces Maritime Component Commander

United States Maj Gen Margaret Woodward, USAF
Joint Forces Air Component Commander
Libya Muammar Gaddafi 
De facto Commander-in-Chief

Libya Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr 
Minister of Defense

Libya Khamis al-Gaddafi 
Khamis Brigade Commander

Libya Ali Sharif al-Rifi
Air Force Commander
Strength
See deployed forces 490 tanks
240 mobile rocket launchers
35 helicopters
113 air-land attack fighters
229 air fighters
7 bombers[2]
Casualties and losses
United States 1 F-15E (mechanical failure,[3] aircrew survived[4])
1 MQ-8B Fire Scout (possibly shot down[5])
Multiple anti-aircraft defenses and air force targets damaged or destroyed
114 civilians killed and 445 wounded (Libyan health ministry claim)*[6]
40 civilians killed (in Tripoli; Vatican claim)[7]
*Libyan health ministry claim has not been independently confirmed and Libyan government figures have been shown as unreliable or misinformation.[8] The U.S. military claims it has no knowledge of civilian casualties.[9]

Operation Odyssey Dawn was the U.S. code name[Note 1] for the American role in the international military operation in Libya to enforce United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973[11][12][13][14][15] during the initial period of 19–31 March 2011, which continued afterwards under NATO command as Operation Unified Protector. The initial operation implemented a no-fly zone that was proposed during the Libyan Civil War to prevent government forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi from carrying out air attacks on Anti-Gaddafi forces. On 19 March 2011, several countries prepared to take immediate military action at a summit in Paris.[16] Operations commenced on the same day with a strike by French fighter jets, then U.S. and UK forces conducting strikes from ships and submarines via 110 Tomahawk cruise missiles and air assets bombing Gaddafi forces near Benghazi.[17] The goal of coalition forces has been to impose a no-fly zone and to destroy forces that threaten civilians – in effect this has meant forces loyal to Gaddafi.

The U.S. initially had strategic command of the military intervention, coordinated missions between coalition members and set up Joint Task Force Odyssey Dawn on the USS Mount Whitney for the tactical command and control in the area of operations.[12][13] but passed complete military command of the operation to NATO and took up a support role on 31 March 2011.[18] Prior to that, an agreement to pass command of the arms embargo to NATO was reached on 23 March,[19] and a handover of enforcement of the no-fly zone to NATO was agreed to on 24 March and became effective the following day.[20] With the handover of coalition command to NATO, Operation Odyssey Dawn became the name for only the activities of U.S. forces,[21] and the coalition's objectives continued to be carried out under Operation Unified Protector. However, NATO's objectives do not include aiding the rebel forces' efforts to take control of territory currently held by Gaddafi.[22]

The British name for its military support of Resolution 1973 is Operation Ellamy,[23] the Canadian participation is Operation Mobile,[24] and the French participation is Opération Harmattan.[25] NATO's military activity is Operation Unified Protector.[20]

Command[edit]

The strategic command of Operation Odyssey Dawn was under the authority of General Carter Ham, the Combatant Commander of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM), a Unified Combatant Command of the Department of Defense. Tactical command in the theater of operations was under command of Admiral Sam Locklear, the Commander of United States Naval Forces Africa on board the command ship USS Mount Whitney in the Mediterranean Sea.[14][26] Vice Admiral Harry B. Harris, Commander, U.S. Sixth Fleet, assumed responsibilities as the Joint Forces Maritime Component Commander, also stationed aboard USS Mount Whitney.[27] Major General Margaret H. Woodward was commander of US Air Force aircraft involved in the operation.[28] On 21 March 2011, President Obama stated the U.S. military action would be scaled back soon[29] and was considering handing over command of the operation to either France, the UK or NATO. On 24 March 2011, NATO took command of enforcing the no-fly zone in Libya and was considering taking control of the rest of the mission.[30] On 24 March 2011, the coalition agreed to have NATO command the no-fly zone,[31] and the U.S. Department of Defense stated that the U.S. would relinquish command of Operation Odyssey Dawn as early as 28 March.[32]

Deployed forces[edit]

Summary of action[edit]

  • Day 1: 19 March 2011

21h: The first main strike involved the launch of 112 Tomahawk cruise missiles from U.S. and UK ships against shoreline air defenses of the Gaddafi regime.[14][65][66][67] The U.S. Department of Defense reports that the dismantling of Libya's ability to hinder the enforcement of the UN no-fly zone was only the first of multiple stages in the operation.[68] USMC Harriers participated in an air strike against a large military convoy outside Benghazi.[56]

  • Day 2: 20 March 2011
Damage to aircraft shelters at Ghardabiya Airfield near Sirte, 20 March

Sustained anti-aircraft fire erupted in Tripoli at around 2:33 am Libyan time.[69] Three B-2 Spirit bombers targeted 45 hardened aircraft shelters at a Libyan airfield near Sirte.[56] At the same time, U.S. Air Force fighter jets conducted missions searching for Libyan ground forces to attack. U.S. Navy EA-18G Growlers jammed Libyan radar and communications.[70][71] No U.S. aircraft were lost during the missions.[72] The warplanes included Marine Corps AV-8B Harrier IIs (attacking pro-Gaddafi's ground forces),[73] Air Force B-2 Spirit stealth bombers, and F-15E Strike Eagle and F-16C Fighting Falcon fighter jets.[74] Admiral Mike Mullen, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, states that there would be continuous allied air cover over Benghazi, and that the no-fly zone "is effectively in place".[75] An EC-130J was recorded warning Libyan shipping "If you attempt to leave port, you will be attacked and destroyed immediately" in Arabic, French and English.[76] Four Royal Danish Air Force F-16 flew their first mission over Libya[77][78]

  • Day 3: 21 March 2011

All fixed SA-2 Guideline, SA-3 Goa and SA-5 Gammon sites were taken out. Only SA-6 Gainful, hand held SA-7 Grail and SA-8 Gecko mobile SAMs are still a possible threat to aircraft.[79] In the early hours of the day a building from Moammar Gadhafi's compound in Tripoli was completely destroyed by a cruise missile.[80] Twelve more cruise missiles were fired at command and air defense sites.[81]

  • Day 4: 22 March 2011

At approximately 22:30 CET (evening of 21 March), a USAFE F-15E 91-0304 operating out of Aviano Air Base crashed about 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Benghazi. Both crew members ejected at high altitude and were subsequently separated. A MV-22 Osprey, supported by two AV-8Bs, two CH-53E Super Stallions, and a KC-130J Hercules from the 26th MEU initially recovered the pilot,[4] while the weapons officer was recovered later after being rescued by rebel forces in the area.[4] Two Marine Harriers accompanying the rescue force dropped two 500 lb bombs at the request of the ejected pilot, prior to the MV-22 landing in an attempt to deter an unidentified group of people heading towards the area.[4][82] The UK had a "peripheral involvement" in the rescue of the U.S. pilots.[83][83][84][85][86][87]

Six local villagers, including a young boy, were reported to have been injured by gunfire from the rescuing U.S. forces,[88][89] Although a Marine spokesperson aboard USS Kearsarge denied that shots were fired: "The Osprey is not armed, and the Marines barely got off the aircraft. I was in the landing center the whole time, where we were monitoring what was going on, and firing was never reported",[82] Pentagon sources were later reported to have confirmed that shots were fired.[4][90]

The source of the civilian casualties is still being investigated.[82] Overnight, the U.S. bombed the wreckage of the downed F-15E "to prevent materials from getting into the wrong hands."[91]

In a 24-hours period; 175 air sorties were conducted (113 US, 62 coalition).[92] Around this time, the U.S. changed its target priorities from air defenses to Libyan ground forces.[93]

  • Day 6: 24 March 2011
24 March

Royal Norwegian Air Force F-16s were assigned to the U.S. African command and Operation Odyssey Dawn. A number of Norwegian F-16s took off from the Souda Bay Air Base on the island of Crete, Greece for their first mission over Libya.[94][95]

  • Day 7 25 March 2011

Three laser-guided bombs were launched from 2 F-16s of the Royal Norwegian Airforce against Libyan tanks.[96] F-16s from the Royal Norwegian Airforce bombed an airfield in Libya during the night.[97] Coalition planes flew 164 sorties and coalition leaders reported damage to Gadhafi's ground forces.[98]

  • Days 8 and 9 26 and 27 March 2011

Lockheed AC-130 gunships and Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II ground attack aircraft began operations, attacking ground forces.[99] These were the first aircraft used against troops; previous strikes had targeted command and anti-aircraft infrastructure.[99] Two B-1 bombers from Ellsworth Air Force Base attacked undisclosed targets in Libya.[100]

Attack submarine USS Providence (SSN-719) completed all assigned strike missions and has left the area for previous duties. The U.S. is responsible for 80% of air refueling, 75% of aerial surveillance hours and 100% of electronic warfare missions.[101]

  • Days 10 and 11 28 and 29 March 2011

On 28 March, a USAF A-10 and a USN P-3 attack one Libyan Coast Guard vessel and two smaller craft. The P-3 fired AGM-65F Maverick missiles at a Vittoria-class[clarification needed] patrol boat, forcing the crew to beach her. The A-10 strafed the other two smaller boats with its 30mm GAU-8 Avenger cannon rounds, sinking one and forcing the crew to abandon the other. The Libyan vessels were attacked after U.S forces observed them firing into Misurata and at merchant vessels. The USS Barry provided situational awareness for the aircraft by managing the airspace and maintaining the maritime picture.[102]

  • Day 13 31 March 2011

From 06:00 GMT, NATO took sole command of air operations over Libya under Operation Unified Protector, taking over from U.S. Africa Command.[103][104][105] The four Danish F-16 fighters flew a total of 43 missions and dropped 107 precision munitions in operation Odyssey Dawn before transiting to NATO command.[106]

Criticism[edit]

There has been criticism over the handling of the operation and the belief that the Obama administration failed to adequately consult the U.S. Congress. The Obama administration defended its handling of the Libyan crisis, drawing a clear line between military and political objectives. On 24 March White House Press Secretary Jay Carney told reporters "We are not engaged in militarily-driven regime change." Instead, the administration is engaged in "time-limited, scope-limited" action with other countries to protect civilians from forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi.[107] However, this conflicts with multiple statements seeming to imply regime change as at least one objective of the Operation, including a report made to Congress as required by House Resolution 292:

"Establishing these conditions would pave the way for a genuine political transition – of which Qadhafi's departure is a critical component. To bring about this objective, along with the international community, the United States responded to this crisis by developing, implementing, and monitoring sanctions and freezing billions in Government of Libya assets, building a broad international coalition focused on escalating diplomatic pressure on Qadhafi and increasing his isolation, and initiating and sustaining political support for military operations. ... Politically, U.S. leadership continues to play an important role in maintaining and expanding this international consensus that Qadhafi must step down, sending an unambiguous message to the regime. We continue working with the international community to enhance the capabilities of the Libyan opposition and increase the ability to achieve political transition. After many meetings with senior opposition members in Washington and abroad, combined with daily interactions with the U.S. mission in Benghazi, we have stated that the TNC has demonstrated itself to be the legitimate interlocutor of the Libyan people, in contrast to the Qadhafi regime that has lost all legitimacy to rule."[108]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ From Wired, "The U.S. military's nickname for the no-fly zone in Libya sounds like the beginning of a long adventure. But Defense Department officials insist that there's no hidden meaning behind 'Operation Odyssey Dawn.' It's just the product of the Pentagon's semi-random name-generating system."[10]
  2. ^ USS Providence left the area some time around 27–28 March.[49]
References
  1. ^ Cohen, Tom (20 March 2011). "Mullen: No-fly zone effectively in place in Libya". CNN. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  2. ^ "Gaddafi Attacked City of Misrata; US to Bomb More". The World Reporter. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  3. ^ Ackerman, Spencer (22 March 2011). "F-15 Crew Ejects Over Libya After Mechanical Failure". Danger Room, Wired.com. Condé Nast. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Lamothe, Dan (22 March 2011). "Details of Marines’ pilot rescue released". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  5. ^ Joshua Stewart (5 August 2011). "Navy: UAV likely downed by pro-Gadhafi forces". Navy Times. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  6. ^ "Mid-East crisis as it happened: 25 March ". BBC News. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  7. ^ "Vatican: Airstrikes killed 40 civilians in Tripoli". 31 March 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  8. ^ "Gaddafi denounces foreign intervention". Al Jazeera English. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  9. ^ CNN Wire Staff (21 March 2011). "Coalition targets Gadhafi compound". CNN. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  10. ^ Rawnsley, Adam (21 March 2011) What's in a Name? 'Odyssey Dawn' Is Pentagon-Crafted Nonsense Wired
  11. ^ General Carter Ham, Commander, U.S. Africa Command (19 March 2011). "STATEMENT: AFRICOM Commander on Commencement of Military Strikes in Libya". US AFRICOM. 
  12. ^ a b U.S. AFRICOM Public Affairs (20 March 2011). "Overview of 1st Day of U.S. Operations to Enforce UN Resolution 1973 Over Libya". US AFRICOM. 
  13. ^ a b U.S. Department of State (27 March 2011). "TRANSCRIPT: NATO Enforcing All Aspects of UNSCR 1973 in Libya". US AFRICOM. 
  14. ^ a b c "News Article: Coalition Launches Operation Odyssey Dawn". Defense.gov. 19 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  15. ^ "DOD News Briefing by Vice Adm. Gortney on Operation Odyssey Dawn". Defense.gov. 19 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  16. ^ Judd, Terri (19 March 2011). "Operation Ellamy: Designed to strike from air and sea". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  17. ^ "Gunfire, explosions heard in Tripoli". CNN. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  18. ^ Slobodan Lekic (31 March 2011). "Secretary-General says NATO has taken sole control of air operations over Libya". StarTribune. Retrieved 5 April 2011. [dead link]
  19. ^ Norington, Brad (23 March). "Deal puts NATO at head of Libyan operation". The Australian. Retrieved 23 March 2011.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ a b NATO No-Fly Zone over Libya Operation Unified Protector Fact Sheet, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  21. ^ Operation Odyssey Dawn GlobalSecurity.org
  22. ^ Ola Galal and Alaa Shahine (27 March 2011). "NATO Takes Command of Libya Operation as Allies Step Up Attacks". Bloomberg news. Retrieved 27 March 2011. 
  23. ^ "Coalition operations in Libya to continue". Ministry of Defence of the United Kingdom. 21 March 2011. 
  24. ^ Operation MOBILE: National Defence and the Canadian Forces Response to the Situation in Libya National Defence and the Canadian Forces, Canadian Department of National Defense
  25. ^ Libye : point de situation de l'opération Harmattan n°1 (23 March 2011) Opérations, Ministère de la Défense et des anciens combattants. (French) English translation
  26. ^ General Carter Ham, U.S. Army (19 March 2011). "STATEMENT: AFRICOM Commander on Commencement of Military Strikes in Libya". U.S. Africa Command. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  27. ^ "News Article: Admiral Harris Says Libya Campaign Sustainable". Chattanogga Time Free Press. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  28. ^ Green, Peter S. (29 March 2011). "Woodward First Woman to Command U.S. Air Attack in Libya 'No-Fly' Mission". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  29. ^ Ian Pannell (21 March 2011). "Libya: US 'to reduce role in military campaign'". BBC News. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  30. ^ Sanskar Shrivastava (22 March 2011). "US to Hand Over The Command of Military Operation in Libya to UK, France or NATO". The World Reporter. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  31. ^ Mary Beth Sheridan and Greg Jaffe (24 March 2011) Coalition agrees to put NATO in charge of no-fly zone in Libya Washington Post
  32. ^ Garamone, Jim (24 March 2011) Coalition Continues to Defend Libyan Civilians News American Forces Press Service, U.S. Department of Defense
  33. ^ a b c "Update on CF Operations in Libya" Canadian Forces website, 22 March 2011
  34. ^ "Canadian Forces Deploy Maritime Patrol Aircraft In Response To Situation In Libya" Canadian Forces website, 25 March 2011
  35. ^ "Denmark to send squadron on Libya op" (in Danish). Politiken.dk. 14 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  36. ^ "La Russa: Presto altri aerei italiani". rainews24.it. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  37. ^ Lieven Dewitte (24 March 2011) Dutch contribute six F-16s and a KDC-10 to Odyssey Dawn F-16.net
  38. ^ Claire Taylor and Ben Smith (4 April 2011) Military Operations in Libya House of Commons Library, www.parliament.uk (UK Parliament Website)
  39. ^ "> Norske fly under amerikansk kommando". fvn.no. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  40. ^ 23 March 2011 (23 March 2011). "Fighter jets put under US command : Views and News from Norway". Newsinenglish.no. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  41. ^ "Vet ikke hvilke farer som møter dem – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  42. ^ "Faremo: – Ikke aktuelt å væpne libyske opprørere – Nyheter – Innenriks". Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  43. ^ "New coalition member flies first sortie enforcing no-fly zone over Libya". Joint Task Force Odyssey Dawn Public Affairs. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 
  44. ^ "Ministerio de Defensa – Dos cazas y el avión de reabastecimiento realizan la primera patrulla aérea en Libia". Mde.es. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  45. ^ "Las fuerzas españolas tienen luz verde para abrir fuego". larazon.es. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  46. ^ "Spanish Fighter Jets Complete First Patrol Over Libya". webcitation.org. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  47. ^ "UAE fighter jets arrive in Italy for Libya operations". Google. AFP. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  48. ^ Dagher, Sam (21 March 2011). "Allies Press Libya Attacks". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  49. ^ a b "New air missions attack Kadhafi troops: Pentagon". AFP. 29 March 2011. 
  50. ^ Media, Defense. "U.S. Naval Forces Open Odyssey Dawn, Prepare No-Fly Zone". Navy.mil. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  51. ^ "Greek Defence Ministry: No participation in operations outside the NATO". Keep Talking Greece. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  52. ^ a b "Pentagon Briefing slides" (PDF). United States Department of Defense. 
  53. ^ a b c d "Wide array of U.S. warplanes used in Libya attacks". CNN. 1 April 2011. 
  54. ^ "Roughead: Ships Were Ready for Odyssey Dawn". American Forces Press Service. 23 March 2011. 
  55. ^ "Crisis in Libya: U.S. bombs Qaddafi's airfields – World Watch". CBS News. 19 March 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  56. ^ a b c Morning Edition (21 March 2011). "B-2 Bombers From Missouri Hit Libyan Targets". NPR. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  57. ^ a b c Schmitt, Eric (28 March 2011). "U.U. Gives Its Air Power Expansive Role In Libya". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  58. ^ Owen, Glen; Carlin, Brendan; Gallagher, Ian (20 March 2011). "'Odyssey Dawn': U.S. cruise missiles herald the beginning of the end for Gaddafi as the West loses patience with Libya". Daily Mail (UK). 
  59. ^ Squires, Nick (21 March 2011). "Libya: coalition naval forces gather in Mediterranean". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  60. ^ "Qaddafi Is Attacking Civilians With Elite Units, Official Says". Business Week. 26 March 2011. 
  61. ^ http://cdn.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/libya032111/s_l18_20016576.jpg
  62. ^ "Air Strikes on Libya – Alan Taylor – In Focus". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  63. ^ "Marine jets involved in Libya airstrikes". Marine Corps Times. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  64. ^ "U.S. officials, opposition warn Libya could get bloodier". CNN. 1 April 2011. 
  65. ^ "Plymouth Herald". Thisisplymouth.co.uk. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  66. ^ "Live blog:allied airstrikes continue against Gadhafi forces (entry timed at 6:36 am Sunday ET, 12:36 pm in Libya)". CNN. 20 March 2011. 
  67. ^ Jonathan Marcus (19 March 2011). "Libya: Coalition launches attacks from air and sea". BBC. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  68. ^ US leads 'Odyssey Dawn' initial attack on Libya Christian Science Monitor. 19 March 2011
  69. ^ Libya live blog: U.S., allies launch missiles against Gadhafi forces CNN.
  70. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Bullimer, Elisabeth (20 March 2011). "Allies Target Qaddafi’s Ground Forces as Libyan Rebels Regroup". The New York Times. 
  71. ^ "U.S. Africa Command Home". Africom.mil. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  72. ^ "Crisis in Libya: U.S. bombs Qaddafi's airfields". CBS News. 19 March 2011. 
  73. ^ "Navy, Marine Corps Aircraft Strike Libya". United States Navy. 20 March 2011. 
  74. ^ "Libya live blog: Coalition confirms strike on Gadhafi compound". News.blogs.cnn.com. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  75. ^ Tom Cohen, CNN (20 March 2011). "Mullen: No-fly zone effectively in place in Libya". CNN. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  76. ^ "Listen: Secret Libya Psyops, Caught by Online Sleuths". Wired. 20 March 2011. 
  77. ^ Danske F-16 i aktion over Libyen. Forsvaret.dk. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  78. ^ (Danish) Medier: Danske F-16 fly er sendt i luften. Politiken.dk. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  79. ^ "News Transcript: DOD News Briefing by Vice Adm. Gortney on Operation Odyssey Dawn". Defense.gov. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  80. ^ "U.S. official: Gadhafi's momentum stopped". CNN. 21 March 2011. 
  81. ^ Jelinek, Pauline, and Richard Lardner, "General: Coalition strikes more Libya defenses", Military Times, 21 March 2011.
  82. ^ a b c Bumiller, Elisabeth (22 March 2011). "Marines Face Questions About Rescue of Officers in Libya". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  83. ^ a b Gabbatt, Adam; Tran, Mark; Haynes, Jonathan (22 March 2011). "Libya air strikes – Tuesday 22 March part 1". The Guardian (London). 
  84. ^ "Libya air raid 'killed civilians'". BBC News. 31 March 2011. 
  85. ^ "U.S. Africa Command Home". Africom.mil. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  86. ^ Landler, Mark; Erlanger, Steven (22 March 2011). "Obama Seeks to Unify Allies as More Airstrikes Rock Tripoli". The New York Times. 
  87. ^ Fontaine, Scott; William McMichael (22 March 2011). "F-15 crashes in Libya; crew 'safe'". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  88. ^ "U.S. rescue team shoot six Libyan civilians rushing to greet downed American fighter crew". Daily Mail (UK). 22 March 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  89. ^ "Channel Four TV". Channel4.com. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  90. ^ Gus Lubin (22 March 2011). "REPORT: U.S. Marines Shot Six Villagers While Rescuing Downed Pilot". Business Insider. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  91. ^ "U.S. bombs wreckage of F-15 fighter jet in Libya". MSNBC. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  92. ^ "DOD News Briefing with Rear Adm. Hueber via Telephone from USS Mount Whitney". U.S. Department of Defense (Public Affairs). 23 March 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  93. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth; Kirkpatrick, David D. (23 March 2011). "Allies Pressure Qaddafi Forces Around Rebel Cities". The New York Times. 
  94. ^ "Her flyr norske jagerfly mot Libya – VG Nett om Libya". Vg.no. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  95. ^ "To norske F16-fly har tatt av fra Souda Bay-basen – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  96. ^ "Norske fly i kamphandlinger i Libya – Nyheter – Innenriks". Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  97. ^ "Norske fly bombet flybase i Libya i natt – nyheter". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). 26 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  98. ^ "Rebel forces hold key city, advance west". CNN. 26 March 2011. 
  99. ^ a b "New air missions attack Kadhafi troops: Pentagon". AFP. 28 March 2011. Archived from the original on 28 March 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  100. ^ "Ellsworth Airmen join Operation Odyssey Dawn". Rapid City Journal. 29 March 2011. 
  101. ^ "DOD News Briefing with Vice Adm. Gortney from the Pentagon on Libya Operation Odyssey Dawn". U.S. Department of Defense (Public Affairs). 29 March 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  102. ^ Farley, Robert (29 March 2011). "P-3 and A-10". Information Dissemination. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  103. ^ "NATO Press Briefing". NATO. 31 March 2011. 
  104. ^ This story was written by Joint Task Force Odyssey Dawn Public Affairs. "US Navy P-3C, USAF A-10 and USS Barry Engage Libyan Vessels". Navy.mil. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  105. ^ "NATO Assumes Command of Libya Operations". Department of Defense. 31 March 2011. 
  106. ^ Mission update 1. april. Forsvaret.dk (2011-10-11). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  107. ^ "White House defends Libya response". CNN. 25 March 2011. 
  108. ^ "United States Activities in Libya," June 9, 2011. http://s3.documentcloud.org/documents/204680/united-states-activities-in-libya-6-15-11.pdf

External links[edit]