Operation Otto

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Operation Otto was the code name for the German plan to occupy Austria during the Anschluss in 1938. [1] It was named after the crown prince of Austria-Hungary at the time, Otto von Habsburg.[2]

The Germans also used Operation Otto as the code name in 1940 for their original plan to invade the Soviet Union.[3][4] Hitler, being haunted by the fate of Napoleon (who had taken Moscow but failed to destroy the Russian army), altered the plan by placing less emphasis on the capturing of Moscow. The new plan was code named Operation Barbarossa. [5]


  1. ^ John Toland Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography, Anchor Books, 1976. Sections 12.1, 15.1. ISBN 0-385-42053-6.
  2. ^ "Archduke Otto von Habsburg". The Telegraph. 4 July 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2015. 
  3. ^ "Operation Barbarossa." Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition, The Gale Group, Inc. 
  4. ^ "Battle for Russia" (Documentary), PBS, 1994.
  5. ^ "Battle for Russia" (Documentary), PBS, 1994.