Operation Papillon

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Operation Papillon
Part of the First Indochina War
French indochina napalm 1953-12 1.png
A Bearcat of the Aéronavale drops napalm on Viet Minh positions
Date April 1947
Location Hòa Bình Province, French Indochina
Belligerents
France French Union
North Vietnam Viet Minh

Operation Papillon (French: butterfly) was a large scale air and ground assault on the Viet Minh at Hòa Bình by the French Army and Air Force in April 1947, during the early stages of the First Indochina War.[1][2]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Boyne, Walter J. (2002-06-30). Air Warfare: an International Encyclopedia: A-L. ABC-CLIO. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-57607-345-2. 
  2. ^ Armitage, M. J.; Mason, R. A. (1983). Air power in the nuclear age. University of Illinois Press. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0-252-01030-9. 

References[edit]

Printed

  • Hammer, Ellen Joy (1954). The struggle for Indochina. Stanford University Press. 
  • Buttinger, Joseph (1972). A dragon defiant: a short history of Vietnam. Praeger. 
  • Fall, Bernard B. (1967). Hell in a very small place: the siege of Dien Bien Phu. Lippincott. 
  • Kedward, Rod (2006). La vie en bleu: France and the French since 1900. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-013095-9. 
  • Roy, Jules (1963). The battle of Dienbienphu. Pyramid Books. 
  • Windrow, Martin (2005-12-26). The Last Valley: Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat in Vietnam. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81443-3. 
  • Fall, Bernard B. (1994). Street without joy. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-1700-7. 
  • Devillers, Philippe; Lacouture, Jean (1969). End of a war; Indochina, 1954. Praeger. 
  • Fall, Bernard B. (1963). The two Viet-Nams: a political and military analysis. Praeger.