|Test site||Nevada Test Site|
|Period||January - February 1951|
|Number of tests||5|
|Test type||Atmospheric tests|
|Max. yield||22 kilotons of TNT (92 TJ)|
|Previous test||Operation Sandstone|
|Next test||Operation Greenhouse|
Operation Ranger was the fourth American nuclear test series. It was conducted in 1951 and was the first series to be carried out at the Nevada Test Site. All the bombs were dropped by B-50D bombers and exploded in the open air over Frenchman Flat (Area 5).
These tests centered on the practicality of developing a second generation of nuclear weapons using smaller amounts of valuable nuclear materials. They were planned under the name Operation Faust.
The exact locations of the tests are a bit fuzzy, as they were all air drops. However, the planned ground zero was set at for all except the Foxshot, which was "500 feet west and 300 feet south" in order to minimize damage to the control point.Preceded by Sandstone, followed by Greenhouse.
|Name||Date Time (UT)||Location||Elevation + Height||Delivery||Purpose||Device||Yield||Notes|
|Able||27 January 1951 13:44:51||NTS Area 5, drop target||1352 !1,010 metres (3,310 ft) + 342 metres (1,122 ft)||air drop||weapon development||Mark 4||010 !1 kilotons||First test over continental United States since Trinity. Testing compression against critical mass as inspired by the Demon core. This configuration often later used for a calibrated 1.0 kt explosion.|
|Baker||28 January 1951 13:52:04.5||NTS Area 5, drop target||1340 !1,010 metres (3,310 ft) + 330 metres (1,080 ft)||air drop||weapon development||Mark 4||080 !8 kilotons||Fractional critical core, first use of the TOM initiator.|
|Easy||1 February 1951 13:46:39.5||NTS Area 5, drop target||1340 !1,010 metres (3,310 ft) + 330 metres (1,080 ft)||air drop||weapon development||Mark 4||010 !1 kiloton|
|Baker 2||2 February 1951 13:48:48||NTS Area 5, drop target||1350 !1,010 metres (3,310 ft) + 340 metres (1,120 ft)||air drop||weapon development||Mark 4||080 !8 kilotons|
|Fox||6 February 1951 13:46:55||NTS Area 5, drop target||1473 !1,010 metres (3,310 ft) + 463 metres (1,519 ft)||air drop||weapon development||Mark 4||220 !22 kilotons||Proof Test of Mark 6 core. Dropped 500 ft west and 300 ft south of target
for other Ranger events, to avoid damage to the control point.
- Griggs, D. T., and Frank Press (1961). ""Probing the earth with nuclear explosions"". Journal of Geophysical Research. 66(1): 237–258.
- United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (Revision 15). Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. December 2000. Retrieved 10/26/2013.
- Yang, Xiaoping, Robert North, and Carl Romney (August 2000). CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3). SMDC Monitoring Research. Retrieved 10/26/2013.
- Hansen, Chuck (1995). The Swords of Armageddon, Vol. 8. Chukelea Publications (Sunnyvale, CA).
- Hacker, Barton C (1994). Elements of Controversy: The Atomic Energy Commission and Radiation Safety in Nuclear Weapons Testing 1947-1974. University of California Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-520-08323-7. Retrieved 2012-01-03.
- Maag, Carl, Rohrer, Stephen, Shepanek, Robert (1982-02-26). Operation Ranger: Shots Able, Baker, Easy, Baker-2, Fox. Defense Nuclear Agency. DNA-6022F. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- Fehner, Terrence R., Gosling, F. G. (2000). Origins of the Nevada Test Site (Report). Department of Energy. DOE.MA-0158. http://www.dd.anl.gov/ddtraining/50yrsNTSHistory.pdf. Retrieved 2013-3-5.
- Local time (PST) is 8 hours less than UT (7 for PDT); local date is the day before UT if UT time is before 08:00 (07:00 PDT).
- The short film Nuclear Test Film - Operation Ranger, Operation Buster/Jangle (1951) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Operation Ranger.|