Operation Reinhard

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Operation Reinhard
Treblinka Concentration Camp sign by David Shankbone.jpg
Sign from Treblinka railway station on display at Yad Vashem
Also known as German: Aktion Reinhardt
or Einsatz Reinhard
Location Occupied Poland
Date October 1941 - November 1943
Incident type Mass deportations to extermination camps
Perpetrators Odilo Globocnik, Hermann Höfle, Richard Thomalla, Erwin Lambert, Christian Wirth, Heinrich Himmler, Franz Stangl and others.
Participants  Nazi Germany
Organizations Schutzstaffel, Orpo Battalions, Sicherheitsdienst, Trawnikis
Camp

Bełżec
Sobibór
Treblinka
Additional:

Chełmno
Majdanek
Ghetto European, and Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland including Białystok, Częstochowa, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Warsaw and others
Victims Approximately 2 million
Memorials On camp sites and deportation points
Notes This was the most lethal phase of the Holocaust.

Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (German: Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename given to the Nazi plan to murder European as well as most Polish Jews in the General Government. The operation marked the deadliest phase of the Holocaust with the introduction of extermination camps. As many as two million people, almost all of whom were Jews, were sent to Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka set up specifically for Operation Reinhard, to be put to death in gas chambers built for that purpose.[1] In addition, mass killing facilities were developed at the Majdanek concentration camp,[1] and at Auschwitz II-Birkenau near the existing Auschwitz I camp, at about the same time.[2]

Background[edit]

The first concentration camps in Nazi Germany were established in 1933 as soon as the National Socialist regime developed. They were used for coercion, forced labour and imprisonment, not for mass murder. The camp system expanded dramatically with the onset of World War II. The foreign prisoners sent to these brand new camps built in Germany, Austria and elswhere in Europe, were dying by summary executions, from starvation, and untreated disease, by the tens of thousands already since the beginning of war, as in Soldau concentration camp,[3] and at Stutthof (with 40 sub-camps set up contingently).[4] Some of the most notorious slave labour camps included Mauthausen-Gusen I, Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, Gross-Rosen (with 100 subcamps),[5] and Auschwitz (with 44 subcamps eventually),[6] among other locations.[7][6]

The Nazis had decided to undertake the European-wide Final Solution to the Jewish Question during the Wannsee Conference, which was called by Gruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich in January 1942. Operation Reinhard would be a major step in the systematic liquidation of the Jews in occupied Europe; beginning with those within the General Government. Camps at Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka were created solely to efficiently kill thousands of people each day. These camps differed from the likes of Auschwitz-Birkenau or Majdanek because the latter also operated as forced-labour camps initially before they became death camps fitted with crematoria.[8]

The organizational apparatus behind the extermination program was developed during Aktion T4 in which more than 70,000 German handicapped men, women and children were murdered between 1939 and 1941. The SS officers responsible for the Aktion T4, such as Christian Wirth, Franz Stangl, and Irmfried Eberl, were all given key roles in the implementation of the "Final Solution."[9]

Operational name[edit]

Reinhard Heydrich shown as the SS-Gruppenführer and General of the Police

The origin of the name of the operation is debated by Holocaust researchers. It is hypothesized that Aktion Reinhardt was named after Reinhard Heydrich, the coordinator of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (the Final Solution) which meant the extermination of the Jews living in the European countries occupied by the Third Reich during World War II. After the plans were outlined at the Wannsee conference of 20 January 1942, Heydrich was attacked by British-trained Czechoslovak agents on 27 May 1942 and died of his injuries eight days later.[10]

Some argue that, since the more prevalent Nazi designation was "Aktion Reinhardt" (with "t" after "d"), it could not have been named after Reinhard Heydrich but rather, after the German State Secretary of Finance Fritz Reinhardt. Likewise, in November 1946 Rudolf Höss, the former commandant of Auschwitz, asserted in a report while in the Polish custody in Kraków, that Operation Reinhardt was actually the code name for the collection, sorting and utilization of all articles acquired from the transports of Jews sent to extermination camps.[11]

Death factories[edit]

SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik in charge of Operation Reinhard

On 13 October 1941, SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik headquartered in Lublin received an oral order from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler to start immediate construction work on the first Aktion Reinhard camp at Bełżec in the General Government territory of occupied Poland. The killing centre was operational by March 1942. Globocnik was given complete control over the entire programme. All highly secretive orders he received came directly from Himmler and not from SS-Gruppenführer Richard Glücks, head of the greater Nazi concentration camp system engaged in slave labour for the war effort and managed by the SS-Totenkopfverbände.[12] Each death camp was run by between 20 and 35 SS men from Sicherheitsdienst (branch of the SS) augmented by the Aktion T4 personnel selected by Globocnik. The extermination mechanism was designed by them based on prior experience from the forced euthanasia centres. The bulk of the actual labour at each "final solution" camp was performed by up to a hundred Trawniki guards recruited from among the Soviet prisoners of war,[13] and up to a thousand Sonderkommando prisoners whom they used to terrorise.[14][15] The SS called these volunteer guards Hiwis, an abbreviation of Hilfswillige (lit. "willing to help"). According to the testimony of SS-Oberführer Arpad Wigand during his 1981 war crimes trial in Hamburg, only 25 percent of recruited collaborators could speak German.[13]

The 1944 aerial photo of Treblinka II. The new farmhouse for a guard and a livestock building are visible to the lower left.[16] The photograph is overlaid with already-dismantled structures (marked in red/orange). On the left-hand side are the SS and the Trawnikis living quarters (1) with barracks defined by the surrounding walkways. At the bottom (2) are the railway ramp and unloading platform (centre), marked with the red arrow. The "road to heaven"[17] is marked with a dashed line. The undressing barracks for men and women, surrounded by a solid fence with no view of the outside, are marked with two rectangles. The location of the new, big gas chambers (3) is marked with a cross. The burial pits, dug with a crawler excavator, are in light yellow.

By mid-1942, two more death camps had been established: Sobibór (operational by May 1942), and Treblinka (operational by July 1942). The killing mechanism consisted of a large internal-combustion engine delivering exhaust fumes to gas chambers through pipes, while the bodies were burned in pits starting in February–March 1943. Treblinka, the last camp to become operational, utilised the knowledge the Nazis had acquired from the other camps. With two powerful V-8 gasoline engines run by SS-Scharführer Erich Fuchs,[18] and gas chabers built of bricks and mortar, this death factory had killed between 800,000 and 1,200,000 people within 15 months, disposed of their bodies, and sorted their belongings for shipment to Germany.[19][20]

The camps were based on a pilot project of mobile killing conducted at the Chełmno extermination camp (Kulmhof) that began operating in late 1941 and used gas vans. Chełmno was not a part of Reinhard,[21] which was marked by the construction of stationary facilities for mass murder; rather, it was a testing ground for the establishment of faster methods of killing and incinerating people.[22] It is important to note that these death factories developed progressively as each site was built. Chełmno, which was under the control of SS-Standartenführer Ernst Damzog, commander of the SD in occupied Posen, was built around a manor house in the Reichsgau Wartheland. It did not have crematoria to start with, only mass graves in the woods. The three gas vans used to exterminate Jews from the Łódź Ghetto, had been previously utilized by Einsatzgruppen on the Russian Front. The Jews from General Government (160,000 via the city of Łódź)[23] were sent to Chełmno between early December 1941 and mid-April 1943.[24]

Overall, Globocnik's camps at Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka had almost identical design and transferable SS staff. All of them were situated within wooded areas well away from population centres. Secondly, they were constructed near branch lines that linked to the Polish rail system.[25] Each camp had an unloading ramp at a fake train station, as well as the reception area that contained undressing barracks, barber shops, and money depositories. Beyond these buildings was a narrow, camouflaged path (the so-called Himmelfahrtsstraße or the Road to Heaven)[26] that led to the extermination zone consisting of gas chambers, burial pits up to 10 metres (33 ft) deep, and later, cremation pyres with rails laid across the pits on concrete blocks, refuelled continuously by the Totenjuden. The SS guards and Ukrainian Trawnikis lived in a separate area of the camp. Wooden watchtowers and barbed-wire fences, partially camouflaged with pine branches, surrounded each of these camps.[27]

Unlike the large camps such as Dachau or Auschwitz, the killing centers had no electric fences, as the size of prisoner Sonderkommandos remained relatively easy to control. Only specialised squads were kept alive to assist with the arriving transports, removing and disposing of bodies, and with sorting of property and valuables from the dead victims. The Totenjuden who were forced to work inside the death zones were kept in isolation from those who worked outside in the reception and sorting areas. Periodically these groups would be killed and replaced with new arrivals to remove any potential witnesses to the scale of the mass murder.[28]

During Operation Reinhard, Globocnik oversaw the systematic killing of more than 2,000,000 Jews from Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, the Reich (Germany and Austria), the Netherlands and Soviet Union. An undetermined number of Roma were also killed in these death camps, a large number of whom were children.[29]

Extermination process[edit]

The railway schedule (or Fahrplananordnung) outlining all transports being sent to Treblinka on 25 August 1942

In order to achieve their purposes, all death camps used subterfuge and misdirection to conceal the truth and trick their victims into cooperating. This element had been developed in Aktion T4 when disabled and handicapped people were taken away by the SS from "Gekrat" wearing white lab coats, thus giving the process an air of medical authenticity. After supposedly being assessed, the unsuspecting patients were transported by them to killing centers for "special treatment". The same euphemism "special treatment" (Sonderbehandlung) was re-used in the Holocaust.[30]

In a similar fashion, the SS used a variety of ruses to move thousands of new arrivals travelling in Holocaust trains to the disguised killing sites without unleashing unimaginable panic. Even though, death on the trains from suffocation and thirst was rampant, most victims were willing to believe that the German intentions were different. Common tricks included the presence of a railway station with awaiting "medical personnel" and signs directing people to disinfection facilities. Treblinka had a booking office with signs stating there were connections for other camps further East.[31]

Once alighted, the prisoners were ordered to leave their luggage behind and march directly to the "cleaning area" where they were asked to hand over their valuables for "safekeeping". Sometimes the new arrivals with suitable skills were selected to join the Sonderkommando. Once in the changing area, the men and boys were separated from the women and children, and everyone was ordered to disrobe for a communal bath: "quickly – they were told – or the water will get cold." In order to speed up the process, the old and sick or slow prisoners were taken to a fake infirmary named the Lazarett with a large mass grave behind it. They were killed by a bullet in the neck, while the rest were being forced into the gas chambers.[32][33][34]

To drive the naked people into the execution barracks housing the gas chambers, the guards used whips, clubs and rifle butts. Panic was instrumental in filling the gas chambers because the need to evade blows on their naked bodies forced the victims rapidly forward. Once packed tightly inside (to minimize available air), the steel air-tight doors were closed. Although other methods of extermination, such as the cyanic poison Zyklon B, were already being used at other Nazi killing centers such as Auschwitz, the Aktion Reinhard camps used lethal exhaust gases from captured Soviet tank engines.[35] Fumes would be discharged directly into the gas chambers for a given period then the engines would be switched off. SS guards would determine when to reopen the gas doors based on how long it took for the screaming to stop from within (usually 25 to 30 minutes). Special teams of camp inmates (Sonderkommando) would then remove the corpses on flat bed carts. Before the corpses were thrown into grave pits, gold teeth were removed from mouths and orifices would be searched for jewellery, currency and other valuables. All aquired goods were managed by the Main SS Economic and Administrative Department.

The Höfle Telegram, which was an intercepted SS Enigma message, records the total number of people sent to KL Lublin, Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka as 1,274,166 in 1942.

During the early phases of Operation Reinhard, victims were simply thrown into mass graves and covered with lime. However from 1943 onwards to hide the evidence of this war crime, all bodies were burned in open air pits. Special Leichenkommando (corpse units) had to exhume bodies from the mass graves around these death camps for incineration. Nevertheless Reinhard still left a paper trail. In January 1943, Bletchley Park intercepted a SS telegram by Sturmbannführer Hermann Höfle, Globocnik's deputy in Lublin, to Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann in Berlin. The decoded Enigma message contained statistics showing a total of 1,274,166 arrivals at the four Aktion Reinhard camps up until the end of 1942.[36] In retrospect, the message shows how many people were murdered but the British codebreakers did not understand the meaning of the message at the time.[37]

Temporary substitution policy[edit]

In the winter of 1941, before "Wannsee" but after "Barbarossa" the Nazi demands for forced labor greatly intensified, therefore Himmler and Heydrich approved the Jewish substitution policy in Upper Silesia and in Galicia under the "destruction through labor" doctrine.[38] The masses of ethnic Poles were already sent to the Reich creating a labour shortage in the General Government.[39] Around March 1942, while the first extermination camp only began gassing, the deportation trains arriving in the Lublin reservation from the Third Reich and Slovakia were searched for the Jewish skilled workers. After selection, they were delivered to Majdan Tatarski instead of for "special treatment" at Bełżec. For a short time these Jewish laborers were temporarily spared death while their families and all others perished.[39] Some were relegated to work at a nearby airplane factory or as forced labor in the SS-controlled Strafkompanies and other work camps. Hermann Höfle was one of the chief supporters and implementers of this policy.[12] However, the problem was the food they required and the ensuing logistical challenges. Globocnik and Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger complained, and the mass transfer had stopped even before the three extermination camps were working at full throttle.[39]

Disposition of the property of the victims[edit]

Approximately 178 million German Reichsmark worth of Jewish property (current approximate value: around 700 million USD or 550 million Euro) was taken. But this wealth did not only go to the German authorities because corruption was rife within the death camps. Many of the individual SS and police men involved in the killings took cash, property and valuables for themselves. SS-Sturmbannführer Georg Konrad Morgen, an SS judge from the SS Courts Office, prosecuted so many Nazi officers for individual violations that by April 1944, Himmler personally ordered him to restrain his cases.[40][41]

Aktion Reinhard camp commanders[edit]

Extermination camp Commandant Period Estimated deaths
Bełżec SS-Sturmbannführer Christian Wirth December 1941 - July 31, 1942 600,000 [42]
SS-Hauptsturmführer Gottlieb Hering 1 August 1942 - December 1942
Sobibór SS-Hauptsturmführer Richard Thomalla March 1942 - April 1942 250,000 [43]
SS-Hauptsturmführer Franz Stangl May 1942 - September 1942
SS-Hauptsturmführer Franz Reichleitner September 1942 - October 1943

Treblinka
SS-Hauptsturmführer Richard Thomalla May 1942 - June 1942 800,000-1,400,000 [44]
SS-Obersturmführer Irmfried Eberl July 1942 - September 1942
SS-Hauptsturmführer Franz Stangl September 1942 - August 1943
SS-Untersturmführer Kurt Franz August 1943 - November 1943

Aftermath and cover up[edit]

Operation Reinhard ended in November 1943. Most of the staff and guards were then sent to northern Italy for further Aktion against Jews and local partisans. Globocnik went to the San Sabba concentration camp, where he supervised the detention, torture and killing of political prisoners.

At the same time, to cover up the mass murder of more than two million people in Poland during Operation Reinhard, the Nazis implemented the secret Sonderaktion 1005, also called Aktion 1005 or Enterdungsaktion ("exhumation action"). The operation, which began in 1942 and continued until the end of 1943, was designed to remove all traces that mass murder had been carried out. Leichenkommando ("corpse units") were created from camp prisoners to exhume mass graves and cremate the buried bodies, using giant grills made from wood and railway tracks. Afterwards, bone fragments were ground up in special milling machines and all remains were then re-buried in freshly dug pits. The Aktion was overseen by squads from the SD and Orpo.

After the war, some guards were tried and sentenced at the Nuremberg Trials for their role in Operation Reinhard and Sonderaktion 1005; however, many others escaped conviction such as Ernst Lerch, Globocnik's Chief of Staff.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Yad Vashem (2013). "Aktion Reinhard" (PDF file, direct download 33.1 KB). Shoah Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust Studies. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Grossman, Vasily (1946), The Treblinka Hell [Треблинский ад] (PDF file, direct download 2.14 MB), Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House (online version), retrieved 5 October 2014, "original in Russian: Гроссман В.С., Повести, рассказы, очерки [Stories, Journalism, and Essays], Воениздат 1958." 
  3. ^ Marek Przybyszewski, IBH Opracowania - Działdowo jako centrum administracyjne ziemi sasińskiej (Działdowo as centre of local administration). Internet Archive, 22 October 2010.
  4. ^ "Stutthof (Sztutowo): Full Listing of Camps, Poland" (Introduction). Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2014-10-07. "Source: "Atlas of the Holocaust" by Martin Gilbert (1982)." 
  5. ^ "Historia KL Gross-Rosen". Gross-Rosen Museum. 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum (2014), Podobozy KL Auschwitz (Subcamps of KL Auschwitz). Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  7. ^ "Stutthof, the first Nazi concentration camp outside Germany". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2013-01-21. 
  8. ^ Sereny, Gitta (2001). The Healing Wound: Experiences and Reflections on Germany 1938-1941. Norton. pp. 135–46. ISBN 978-0-3930-4428-7. 
  9. ^ Sereny, Gitta (1974, 1995, 2013). Into That Darkness: From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder (Google Books preview). Random House. pp. 54–. ISBN 144644967X. Retrieved 5 October 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ Burian, Michal; Aleš (2002). "Assassination — Operation Arthropoid, 1941–1942" (PDF file, direct download 7.89 MB). Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  11. ^ Höss, Rudolf (2000). Commandant of Auschwitz. Phoenix Press. p. 194. 
  12. ^ a b Friedländer, Saul (2007). The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945. HarperCollins. pp. 346–347. ISBN 0-06-019043-4. 
  13. ^ a b Browning, Christopher R. (1992; 1998). "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 52, 77, 79, 80. Retrieved October 5, 2014. "Also: PDF cache archived by WebCite."  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  14. ^ David Bankir, ed (2006). "Police Auxiliaries for Operation Reinhard by Peter R. Black" (Google Books). Secret Intelligence and the Holocaust. Enigma Books. pp. 331–348. ISBN 192963160X. 
  15. ^ Kudryashov, Sergei (2004). "Ordinary Collaborators: The Case of the Travniki Guards". Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy Essays in Honour of John Erickson (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson): 226–239. 
  16. ^ National Archives (2014), Aerial Photos, Washington, D.C., "Made available at the Mapping Treblinka webpage by ARC." 
  17. ^ Smith 2010: excerpt.
  18. ^ McVay, Kenneth (1984). "The Construction of the Treblinka Extermination Camp". Yad Vashem Studies, XVI. Jewish Virtual Library.org. Retrieved 3 November 2013. 
  19. ^ Ruckerl, Adalbert (1972). NS-Prozesse. C. F. Muller. pp. 35–42. 
  20. ^ Piotr Ząbecki, son of the station master Franciszek Ząbecki, witness for the prosecution at Düsseldorf (12 December 2013). "Był skromnym człowiekiem" [He was a humble man]. Życie Siedleckie. p. 21. 
  21. ^ Yad Vashem (2013). "Chelmno" (PDF file, direct download 23.9 KB). Holocaust. Shoah Resource Center. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  22. ^ Golden, Juliet (January–February 2003). "Remembering Chelmno". Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 56 (1): 50. 
  23. ^ Ghettos, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  24. ^ The German Kulmhof Death Camp in Chełmno on the Ner (1941-1945), Chełmno Muzeum of Martyrdom 
  25. ^ Arad 1999, p.37.
  26. ^ Radlmaier, Steffen (2001). Der Nürnberger Lernprozess: von Kriegsverbrechern und Starreportern. Eichborn. p. 278. ISBN 978-3-8218-4725-2. 
  27. ^ Kopówka, Edward; Rytel-Andrianik, Paweł (2011), Treblinka II – Obóz zagłady [Monograph, chapt. 3: Treblinka II Death Camp] (PDF file, direct download 20.2 MB), Dam im imię na wieki [I will give them an everlasting name. Isaiah 56:5] (in Polish) (Drohiczyńskie Towarzystwo Naukowe [The Drohiczyn Scientific Society]), ISBN 978-83-7257-496-1, retrieved 9 September 2013, "with selected testimonies, bibliography, alphabetical indexes, photographs, English language summaries, and forewords by Holocaust scholars." 
  28. ^ United States Department of Justice (1994), From the Record of Interrogation of the Defendant Pavel Vladimirovich Leleko, Original: the Fourth Department of the SMERSH Directorate of Counterintelligence of the 2nd Belorussian Front, USSR (1978). Acquired by OSI in 1994: Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, p. Appendix 3: 144/179, archived from the original on 16 May 2010, retrieved 3 November 2013 
  29. ^ Arad, Yitzhak (1999). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Indiana University Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0-2532-1305-1. 
  30. ^ Christopher R. Browning, Jürgen Matthäus (2007), The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 - March 1942. University of Nebraska Press, pp. 191-192. ISBN 9-780-8032-5979-9. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  31. ^ Arad 1999, p.76.
  32. ^ Webb, Chris; C.L. (2007). "Belzec, Sobibor & Treblinka Death Camps. The Perpetrators Speak" (Internet Archive). HEART. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  33. ^ Webb, Chris; Carmelo Lisciotto (2009). "The Gas Chambers at Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka. Descriptions and Eyewitness Testimony" (Internet Archive). H.E.A.R.T. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  34. ^ Adams, David (2012). "Hershl Sperling. Personal Testimony" (Internet Archive). H.E.A.R.T. "The Lazarett was surrounded by a tall barbed-wire fence, camouflaged with brushwood to screen it from view. Behind the fence was a big ditch which served as a mass grave, with a constantly burning fire." 
  35. ^ Carol Rittner, Roth, K. (2004). Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8264-7566-4. 
  36. ^ Public Record Office, Kew, England, HW 16/23, decode GPDD 355a distributed on January 15, 1943, radio telegrams nos 12 and 13/15, transmitted on January 11, 1943.
  37. ^ Hanyok, Robert J. (2004), Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939–1945, Center for Cryptographic History, National Security Agency, p. 124 
  38. ^ Saul Friedländer (February 2009). Nazi Germany And The Jews, 1933–1945 (PDF file, direct download). HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 293–294 / 507. ISBN 9780061777301. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  39. ^ a b c Browning, Christopher (2000). Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers. Cambridge University Press. p. 71. ISBN 052177490X. 
  40. ^ "SS-Hauptscharfuehrer Konrad Morgen - the Bloodhound Judge". Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  41. ^ Snyder, Louis Leo (1998). Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 978-1-8532-6684-3. 
  42. ^ Between March and December 1942, the Germans deported some 434,500 Jews, and an indeterminate number of Poles and Roma (Gypsies)to Belzec, to be killed. Bełżec extermination camp
  43. ^ In all, the Germans and their auxiliaries killed at least 167,000 people at Sobibór. Sobibor extermination camp
  44. ^ The Höfle Telegram indicates some 700,000 killed by 31 December 1942, yet the camp functioned until 1943, hence the true deaths total likely is greater.Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations

References[edit]