Operation Storax

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Operation Storax
Storax Sedan nuke.jpg
Storax Sedan
Information
Country United States
Test site NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period 1962-1963
Number of tests 47
Test type cratering, underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 115 kilotonnes of TNT (480 TJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Fishbowl
Next test series Operation Roller Coaster

Operation Storax[1] was a series of 47 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1962-1963 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Fishbowl series and preceded the Operation Roller Coaster series.

United States' Storax series tests and detonations
Name [note 1] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 2][2] Location [note 3] Elevation + height [note 4] Delivery [note 5]
Purpose [note 6]
Device [note 7] Yield [note 8] Fallout [note 9] References Notes
Sedan 6 July 1962 17:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10h 37°10′37″N 116°02′47″W / 37.17695°N 116.04626°W / 37.17695; -116.04626 (Sedan) 1,325 m (4,347 ft) - 190 m (620 ft) cratering,
peaceful research
W56 104 kt Venting detected off site, 15 MCi (560 PBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7][8] 2nd Plowshare test, cratering experiment, TN device similar to Dominic Bluestone and Swanee, 12 million tons of soil displaced, crater was 1,280 ft × 320 ft (390 m × 98 m).
Merrimac 13 July 1962 16:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bd 37°03′18″N 116°02′03″W / 37.05507°N 116.03411°W / 37.05507; -116.03411 (Merrimac) 1,205 m (3,953 ft) - 413.31 m (1,356.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt Venting detected on site, 22 kCi (810 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Wichita 27 July 1962 21:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9y 37°07′47″N 116°03′26″W / 37.12967°N 116.05734°W / 37.12967; -116.05734 (Wichita) 1,265 m (4,150 ft) - 150.27 m (493.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3.5 kt Venting detected on site, 760 Ci (28,000 GBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
York 24 August 1962 15:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9z 37°07′07″N 116°02′25″W / 37.11866°N 116.04022°W / 37.11866; -116.04022 (York) 1,256 m (4,121 ft) - 226.47 m (743.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt Venting detected, 120 kCi (4,400 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Bobac 24 August 1962 17:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bl 37°02′46″N 116°01′28″W / 37.04613°N 116.02453°W / 37.04613; -116.02453 (Bobac) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 206.03 m (676.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2.5 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Raritan 6 September 1962 17:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9u 37°07′49″N 116°02′44″W / 37.13026°N 116.04561°W / 37.13026; -116.04561 (Raritan) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 157.28 m (516.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected, 1.2 kCi (44 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9][10]
Hyrax 14 September 1962 17:10:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bh 37°02′38″N 116°01′19″W / 37.04389°N 116.02186°W / 37.04389; -116.02186 (Hyrax) 1,197 m (3,927 ft) - 216.69 m (710.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Peba 20 September 1962 17:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bb 37°03′18″N 116°01′48″W / 37.05496°N 116.03°W / 37.05496; -116.03 (Peba) 1,205 m (3,953 ft) - 241.38 m (791.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
11 kt [1][6][8][9]
Allegheny 29 September 1962 17:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9x 37°07′00″N 116°02′01″W / 37.11663°N 116.03366°W / 37.11663; -116.03366 (Allegheny) 1,271 m (4,170 ft) - 210.92 m (692.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected on site, 1.5 kCi (56 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Mississippi 5 October 1962 17:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ad 37°08′22″N 116°03′04″W / 37.13937°N 116.0512°W / 37.13937; -116.0512 (Mississippi) 1,264 m (4,147 ft) - 493.78 m (1,620.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
115 kt Venting detected, 4.9 kCi (180 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Roanoke 12 October 1962 15:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9q 37°07′22″N 116°03′06″W / 37.1227°N 116.05168°W / 37.1227; -116.05168 (Roanoke) 1,252 m (4,108 ft) - 154.53 m (507.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt Venting detected on site, 1.2 kCi (44 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Wolverine 12 October 1962 17:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3av 37°02′56″N 116°02′00″W / 37.04876°N 116.0333°W / 37.04876; -116.0333 (Wolverine) 1,200 m (3,900 ft) - 73.43 m (240.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, less than 100 Ci (3,700 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Tioga 18 October 1962 15:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9f 37°07′43″N 116°02′28″W / 37.1285°N 116.04111°W / 37.1285; -116.04111 (Tioga) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 59.44 m (195.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Bandicoot 19 October 1962 18:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bj 37°02′22″N 116°01′19″W / 37.03951°N 116.02185°W / 37.03951; -116.02185 (Bandicoot) 1,195 m (3,921 ft) - 241.3 m (792 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
12.5 kt Venting detected off site, 3 MCi (110 PBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Santee 27 October 1962 15:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10f 37°08′57″N 116°03′16″W / 37.14926°N 116.05437°W / 37.14926; -116.05437 (Santee) 1,270 m (4,170 ft) - 319.43 m (1,048.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt Venting detected, 4 kCi (150 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
St. Lawrence 9 November 1962 18:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2b 37°09′50″N 116°04′27″W / 37.16379°N 116.07419°W / 37.16379; -116.07419 (St. Lawrence) 1,309 m (4,295 ft) - 166.42 m (546.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 6 kCi (220 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Gundi 15 November 1962 16:30:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bm 37°02′30″N 116°01′29″W / 37.04172°N 116.02461°W / 37.04172; -116.02461 (Gundi) 1,195 m (3,921 ft) - 241.44 m (792.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Anacostia 27 November 1962 18:00:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9i 37°07′22″N 116°01′48″W / 37.12275°N 116.02993°W / 37.12275; -116.02993 (Anacostia) 1,274 m (4,180 ft) - 227.69 m (747.0 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
5.2 kt Venting detected on site, 6.8 kCi (250 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9] 3rd Plowshare test, device development, accidental release of radioactivity detected on site only. Designed to produce heavy isotopes and provide radioachemical analysis data for Coach.
Taunton 4 December 1962 16:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9aa 37°07′41″N 116°03′03″W / 37.12804°N 116.05088°W / 37.12804; -116.05088 (Taunton) 1,256 m (4,121 ft) - 227.84 m (747.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 4 kCi (150 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Madison 12 December 1962 17:25:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12g.01 37°10′20″N 116°12′10″W / 37.17214°N 116.20282°W / 37.17214; -116.20282 (Madison) 2,252 m (7,388 ft) - 245.36 m (805.0 ft) underground tunnel,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 20 kCi (740 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Numbat 12 December 1962 18:45:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bu 37°02′46″N 116°00′59″W / 37.04609°N 116.01637°W / 37.04609; -116.01637 (Numbat) 1,201 m (3,940 ft) - 231.95 m (761.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
11 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Manatee 14 December 1962 18:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9af 37°07′27″N 116°02′27″W / 37.12419°N 116.04083°W / 37.12419; -116.04083 (Manatee) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 58.52 m (192.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 1.8 kCi (67 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Casselman 8 February 1963 16:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10g 37°08′56″N 116°03′10″W / 37.14891°N 116.05265°W / 37.14891; -116.05265 (Casselman) 1,268 m (4,160 ft) - 302.97 m (994.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
6 kt Venting detected, 6.3 kCi (230 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Hatchie 8 February 1963 16:00:01.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9e 37°07′33″N 116°02′23″W / 37.1259°N 116.03962°W / 37.1259; -116.03962 (Hatchie) 1,256 m (4,121 ft) - 60.96 m (200.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Acushi 8 February 1963 18:30:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bg 37°02′46″N 116°01′18″W / 37.04608°N 116.0218°W / 37.04608; -116.0218 (Acushi) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 260.87 m (855.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
9 kt [1][6][8][9]
Ferret 8 February 1963 18:30:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bf 37°03′30″N 116°01′48″W / 37.05832°N 116.03°W / 37.05832; -116.03 (Ferret) 1,208 m (3,963 ft) - 325.69 m (1,068.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Chipmunk 15 February 1963 17:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ay 37°02′56″N 116°01′57″W / 37.049°N 116.03249°W / 37.049; -116.03249 (Chipmunk) 1,201 m (3,940 ft) - 59.38 m (194.8 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Kaweah 21 February 1963 19:47:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ab 37°07′13″N 116°02′48″W / 37.12026°N 116.04659°W / 37.12026; -116.04659 (Kaweah) 1,249 m (4,098 ft) - 227.08 m (745.0 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
3 kt Venting detected, 40 kCi (1,500 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9] 4th Plowshare test, device development. Designed to produce heavy isotopes and provide radioachemical analysis data for Coach.
Carmel 21 February 1963 19:47:08.63 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2h 37°09′17″N 116°04′51″W / 37.15477°N 116.08078°W / 37.15477; -116.08078 (Carmel) 1,311 m (4,301 ft) - 163.37 m (536.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 7.2 kCi (270 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Jerboa 1 March 1963 19:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3at 37°02′40″N 116°01′38″W / 37.04447°N 116.02736°W / 37.04447; -116.02736 (Jerboa) 1,197 m (3,927 ft) - 301.16 m (988.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Toyah 15 March 1963 16:22:53.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ac 37°07′33″N 116°02′44″W / 37.12583°N 116.04568°W / 37.12583; -116.04568 (Toyah) 1,252 m (4,108 ft) - 130.76 m (429.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 1.2 kCi (44 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Gerbil 29 March 1963 15:49:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bp 37°02′30″N 116°01′09″W / 37.0417°N 116.01913°W / 37.0417; -116.01913 (Gerbil) 1,196 m (3,924 ft) - 279.5 m (917 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
11 kt [1][6][8][9]
Ferret Prime 5 April 1963 17:52:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3by 37°02′14″N 116°01′29″W / 37.0373°N 116.02468°W / 37.0373; -116.02468 (Ferret Prime) 1,193 m (3,914 ft) - 241.55 m (792.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt [1][6][8][9]
Coypu 10 April 1963 16:01:30.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3af 37°02′56″N 116°01′52″W / 37.04879°N 116.03106°W / 37.04879; -116.03106 (Coypu) 1,201 m (3,940 ft) - 74.6 m (245 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Cumberland 11 April 1963 16:03:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2e 37°09′24″N 116°04′19″W / 37.15663°N 116.07183°W / 37.15663; -116.07183 (Cumberland) 1,299 m (4,262 ft) - 227.08 m (745.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
6 kt Venting detected, 8.5 kCi (310 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9][10]
Kootanai 24 April 1963 16:09:30.141 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9w 37°07′14″N 116°02′14″W / 37.12055°N 116.03715°W / 37.12055; -116.03715 (Kootanai) 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 181.97 m (597.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 410 Ci (15,000 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Paisano 24 April 1963 16:09:30.142 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9w1(wi?) 37°07′14″N 116°02′13″W / 37.12048°N 116.03704°W / 37.12048; -116.03704 (Paisano) 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 56.69 m (186.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][8][9]
Gundi Prime 9 May 1963 18:19:00 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3db 37°02′58″N 116°00′59″W / 37.04933°N 116.01631°W / 37.04933; -116.01631 (Gundi Prime) 1,205 m (3,953 ft) - 271.73 m (891.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
8 kt [1][8][9]
Harkee 17 May 1963 14:55:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bv 37°02′38″N 116°00′59″W / 37.04388°N 116.01637°W / 37.04388; -116.01637 (Harkee) 1,200 m (3,900 ft) - 241.42 m (792.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Tejon 17 May 1963 14:55:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cg 37°02′54″N 116°01′59″W / 37.04831°N 116.0331°W / 37.04831; -116.0331 (Tejon) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 74.6 m (245 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Stones 22 May 1963 15:40:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ae 37°06′40″N 116°02′24″W / 37.11101°N 116.03993°W / 37.11101; -116.03993 (Stones) 1,257 m (4,124 ft) - 394.72 m (1,295.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt Venting detected, 5.8 kCi (210 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Pleasant 29 May 1963 15:03:30.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ah 37°07′41″N 116°02′39″W / 37.12805°N 116.04429°W / 37.12805; -116.04429 (Pleasant) 1,253 m (4,111 ft) - 210.31 m (690.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected on site, 760 Ci (28,000 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9][10]
Yuba 5 June 1963 17:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12b.10 37°11′48″N 116°12′36″W / 37.19653°N 116.21004°W / 37.19653; -116.21004 (Yuba) 2,240 m (7,350 ft) - 242.41 m (795.3 ft) underground tunnel,
weapons development
3.1 kt Venting detected off site, 110 Ci (4,100 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Hutia 6 June 1963 14:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bc 37°02′42″N 116°02′14″W / 37.04498°N 116.03723°W / 37.04498; -116.03723 (Hutia) 1,198 m (3,930 ft) - 134.57 m (441.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3 kt [1][6][8][9]
Apshapa 6 June 1963 16:58:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ai 37°07′29″N 116°02′27″W / 37.12459°N 116.04092°W / 37.12459; -116.04092 (Apshapa) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 89.92 m (295.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 4 Ci (150 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Mataco 14 June 1963 14:10:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bk 37°02′46″N 116°01′09″W / 37.0461°N 116.01909°W / 37.0461; -116.01909 (Mataco) 1,200 m (3,900 ft) - 195.56 m (641.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3 kt [1][6][8][9]
Kennebec 25 June 1963 23:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2af 37°07′53″N 116°04′08″W / 37.13135°N 116.06893°W / 37.13135; -116.06893 (Kennebec) 1,276 m (4,186 ft) - 226.16 m (742.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
4 kt Venting detected on site, 30 Ci (1,100 GBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
  1. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  2. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight savings time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  3. ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  4. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  5. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  6. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  7. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  8. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  9. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radiation released.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  2. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2, National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05 
  4. ^ Sublette, Carey, Nuclear Weapons Archive, retrieved 2014-01-06 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1), DOE Nevada Operations Office, August 1996, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Bolt, Bruce A. (1976), Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil, San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co. 
  7. ^ Hansen, Chuck (1995), The Swords of Armageddon, Vol. 8, Sunnyvale, CA: Chukelea Publications, ISBN 978-0-9791915-1-0 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  10. ^ a b c Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved 26 November 2013