List of opponents of same-sex marriage in the United States

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Opponents of same-sex marriage in the United States include organizations and individuals who seek to prevent or reverse the legal recognition of same-sex marriage. Opponents of same-sex marriage laws have introduced federal[1] and state legislation seeking to define marriage as the union of one man and one woman.[2][3]

Political parties[edit]

National[edit]

Major
  1. Republican Party[4]
Minor
  1. America First Party[5]
  2. America's Party[6]
  3. Christian Liberty Party[7]
  4. Constitution Party[8]
  5. Independent American Party[9]
  6. Prohibition Party[10]

State Republican chapters[edit]

Elected officials[edit]

Presidents[edit]

  1. George W. Bush 1 (R-Texas)[40]

Note:

  • 1 During his presidency, George W. Bush, opposed same-sex marriage. On February 24, 2004, Bush announced his support for an amendment to the US Constitution banning same-sex marriage.[41] On October 24, 2004, Bush announced his support for civil unions.[42] However, in his post presidency interviews, he refused to take a position on the issue of same-sex marriage.[43][44]

U.S. Senators[edit]

U.S. Senators who publicly oppose same-sex marriage (SSM)
  Both Republican U.S. Senators oppose SSM
  One Republican U.S. Senator opposes SSM
  One Democratic and one Republican U.S. Senator opposes SSM
  One Democratic U.S. Senator opposes SSM
  1. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell[45] (R-Kentucky)
  2. Senate Minority Whip John Cornyn[45][46][47] (R-Texas)
  3. Lamar Alexander[45] (R-Tennessee)
  4. Kelly Ayotte[48] (R-New Hampshire)
  5. John Barrasso[49] (R-Wyoming)
  6. Roy Blunt[50] (R-Missouri)
  7. John Boozman[51] (R-Arkansas)
  8. Richard Burr[45][52] (R-North Carolina)
  9. Saxby Chambliss[45][53] (R-Georgia)
  10. Dan Coats[54] (R-Indiana)
  11. Tom Coburn[45][55][56] (R-Oklahoma)
  12. Thad Cochran[45] (R-Mississippi)
  13. Bob Corker[57] (R-Tennessee)
  14. Mike Crapo[45][53] (R-Idaho)
  15. Ted Cruz[58] (R-Texas)
  16. Mike Enzi[45][53] (R-Wyoming)
  17. Deb Fischer[59] (R-Nebraska)
  18. Jeff Flake[60][61] (R-Arizona)
  19. Lindsey Graham[45][53] (R-South Carolina)
  20. Chuck Grassley[45] (R-Iowa)
  21. Orrin Hatch[45] (R-Utah)
  22. Dean Heller (R-Nevada)
  23. John Hoeven[62] (R-North Dakota)
  24. Jim Inhofe[45][53] (R-Oklahoma)
  25. Johnny Isakson[45][53] (R-Georgia)
  26. Mike Johanns (R-Nebraska)
  27. Ron Johnson[63] (R-Wisconsin)
  28. Mike Lee[64] (R-Utah)
  29. Joe Manchin[65] (D-West Virginia)
  30. John McCain[66] (R-Arizona)
  31. Jerry Moran[67] (R-Kansas)
  32. Rand Paul[68] (R-Kentucky)
  33. Mark Pryor[69] (D-Arkansas)
  34. Jim Risch[70] (R-Idaho)
  35. Pat Roberts[45][53] (R-Kansas)
  36. Marco Rubio[71] (R-Florida)
  37. Tim Scott[72] (R-South Carolina)
  38. Jeff Sessions[45][73] (R-Alabama)
  39. Richard Shelby[45][53] (R-Alabama)
  40. John Thune[45][74] (R-South Dakota)
  41. Pat Toomey[75] (R-Pennsylvania)
  42. David Vitter[45][53] (R-Louisiana)
  43. Roger Wicker[76] (R-Mississippi)

S. 2024, a proposed federal law that amends chapter 1 of title 1, United States Code, with regard to the definition of “marriage” and “spouse” for federal purposes and to uphold state regulation of marriage, has 10 Senate cosponsor in the 113th United States Congress.[77]

Former U.S. Senators[edit]

  1. Spencer Abraham[78] (R-Michigan)
  2. Wayne Allard[45] (R-Colorado)
  3. George Allen[45] (R-Virginia)
  4. John Ashcroft[78] (R-Missouri)
  5. Evan Bayh[79] (D-Indiana)
  6. Bob Bennett[45] (R-Utah)
  7. Kit Bond[45] (R-Missouri)
  8. David L. Boren[80] (D-Oklahoma)
  9. Hank Brown[78] (R-Colorado)
  10. Scott Brown[81] (R-Massachusetts)
  11. Sam Brownback[82] (R-Kansas)
  12. Dale Bumpers[78] (D-Arkansas)
  13. Jim Bunning[45] (R-Kentucky)
  14. Conrad Burns[45] (R-Montana)
  15. Roland Burris[83] (D-Illinois)
  16. Richard Bryan[78] (D-Nevada)
  17. Robert Byrd[84] (D-West Virginia)
  18. John Chafee[78] (R-Rhode Island)
  19. Lawton Chiles[85] (D-Florida)
  20. Norm Coleman[45] (R-Minnesota)
  21. Kent Conrad[86] (D-North Dakota)
  22. Paul Coverdell[78] (R-Georgia)
  23. Larry Craig[45] (R-Idaho)
  24. Tom Daschle (D-South Dakota)
  25. Al D'Amato[78] (R-New York)
  26. Jim DeMint[45][87] (R-South Carolina)
  27. Mike DeWine[45] (R-Ohio)
  28. Bob Dole[88] (R-Kansas)
  29. Elizabeth Dole[45] (R-North Carolina)
  30. Pete Domenici[45][89] (R-New Mexico)
  31. John Edwards[90] (D-North Carolina)
  32. John Ensign[45] (R-Nevada)
  33. J. James Exon[78] (D-Nebraska)
  34. Duncan Faircloth[78] (R-North Carolina)
  35. Sheila Frahm[78] (R-Kansas)
  36. Bill Frist[45] (R-Tennessee)
  37. Peter Fitzgerald[91] (R-Illinois)
  38. Wendell Ford[78] (D-Kentucky)
  39. John Glenn[78] (D-Ohio)
  40. Slade Gorton[78] (R-Washington)
  41. Bob Graham[78] (D-Florida)
  42. Phil Gramm[78] (R-Texas)
  43. Rod Grams[78] (R-Minnesota)
  44. Mark Hatfield[78] (R-Oregon)
  45. Howell Heflin[78] (D-Alabama)
  46. Jesse Helms[78] (R-North Carolina)
  47. Kay Bailey Hutchison[45][92] (R-Texas)
  48. Dirk Kempthorne[78] (R-Idaho)
  49. Jon Kyl[93] (R-Arizona)
  50. George LeMieux[94] (R-Florida)
  51. Blanche Lincoln[95] (D-Arkansas)
  52. Joe Lieberman[96] (D/ID-Connecticut)
  53. Trent Lott[45] (R-Mississippi)
  54. Richard Lugar[45] (R-Indiana)
  55. Connie Mack III[78] (R-Florida)
  56. Mel Martinez[45] (R-Florida)
  57. Zell Miller[91] (D-Georgia)
  58. Frank Murkowski[78] (R-Alaska)
  59. Ben Nelson[45][97] (D-Nebraska)
  60. Don Nickles[91] (R-Oklahoma)
  61. Samuel Nunn[78] (D-Georgia)
  62. William V. Roth, Jr.[78] (R-Delaware)
  63. Rick Santorum[45][98] (R-Pennsylvania)
  64. Bob Smith[78] (R-New Hampshire)
  65. Gordon H. Smith[45] (R-Oregon)
  66. Ted Stevens[45] (R-Alaska)
  67. John E. Sununu[99] (R-New Hampshire)
  68. Jim Talent[45] (R-Missouri)
  69. Craig Thomas[45] (R-Wyoming)
  70. Strom Thurmond[78] (R-South Carolina)
  71. John Warner[45] (R-Virginia)
  72. Pete Wilson[100] (R-California)

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives[edit]

Map of congressional districts with representatives who publicly oppose same-sex marriage
  District's Republican representative opposes same-sex marriage
  District's Democratic representative opposes same-sex marriage
  District's representative has not declared opposition for same-sex marriage
  1. Speaker John Boehner (R-Ohio)[101]
  2. Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R-California)[60][61]
  3. Majority Whip Steve Scalise (R-Louisiana)[60][61]
  4. Robert Aderholt (R-Alabama)[60][61]
  5. Mark Amodei (R-Nevada)[60][61]
  6. Michele Bachmann (R-Minnesota)[60][61]
  7. Spencer Bachus (R-Alabama)[60][61]
  8. Lou Barletta (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  9. John Barrow (D-Georgia)[60][61]
  10. Andy Barr (R-Kentucky)
  11. Joe Barton (R-Texas)[60][61]
  12. Dan Benishek (R-Michigan)[60][61]
  13. Kerry Bentivolio (R-Michigan)[102]
  14. Gus Bilirakis (R-Florida)[60][61]
  15. Rob Bishop (R-Utah)[60][61]
  16. Sanford Bishop Jr. (D-Georgia)[60][61]
  17. Diane Black (R-Tennessee)[60][61]
  18. Marsha Blackburn (R-Tennessee)[60][61]
  19. Charles Boustany (R-Louisiana)[60][61]
  20. Kevin Brady (R-Texas)[60][61]
  21. Jim Bridenstine (R-Oklahoma)[103]
  22. Mo Brooks (R-Alabama)[60][61]
  23. Paul Broun (R-Georgia)[60][61]
  24. Vern Buchanan (R-Florida)[60][61]
  25. Larry Bucshon (R-Indiana)[60][61]
  26. Michael Burgess (R-Texas)[60][61]
  27. Bradley Byrne (R-Alabama)[104]
  28. Ken Calvert (R-California)[60][61]
  29. Dave Camp (R-Michigan)[60][61]
  30. John B. T. Campbell III (R-California)[60][61]
  31. Shelley Moore Capito (R-West Virginia)[60][61]
  32. John Carter (R-Texas)[60][61]
  33. Bill Cassidy (R-Louisiana)[60][61]
  34. Steven Chabot (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  35. Jason Chaffetz (R-Utah)[60][61]
  36. Howard Coble (R-North Carolina)[60][61]
  37. Mike Coffman (R-Colorado)[60][61]
  38. Tom Cole (R-Oklahoma)[60][61]
  39. Chris Collins (R-New York)[105]
  40. Doug Collins (R-Georgia)[106]
  41. Michael Conaway (R-Texas)[60][61]
  42. Paul Cook (R-California)[107]
  43. Tom Cotton (R-Arkansas)[108]
  44. Kevin Cramer (R-North Dakota)[109]
  45. Rick Crawford (R-Arkansas)[60][61]
  46. Ander Crenshaw (R-Florida)[60][61]
  47. Henry Cuellar (D-Texas)[60][61]
  48. John Culberson (R-Texas)[60][61]
  49. Steve Daines (R-Montana)[110]
  50. Rodney L. Davis (R-Illinois)[111]
  51. Jeff Denham (R-California)[60][61]
  52. Ron DeSantis (R-Florida)[112]
  53. Scott DesJarlais (R-Tennessee)[60][61]
  54. Sean Duffy (R-Wisconsin)[60][61]
  55. Jeff Duncan (R-South Carolina)[60][61]
  56. Renee Ellmers (R-North Carolina)[60][61]
  57. William Enyart (D-Illinois)[113]
  58. Blake Farenthold (R-Texas)[60][61]
  59. Stephen Fincher (R-Tennessee)[60][61]
  60. Michael Fitzpatrick (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  61. Chuck Fleischmann (R-Tennessee)[60][61]
  62. John Fleming (R-Louisiana)[60][61]
  63. Bill Flores (R-Texas)[60][61]
  64. Randy Forbes (R-Virginia)[60][61]
  65. Jeff Fortenberry (R-Nebraska)[60][61]
  66. Virginia Foxx (R-North Carolina)[60][61]
  67. Trent Franks (R-Arizona)[60][61]
  68. Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-New Jersey)[60][61]
  69. Pete Gallego (D-Texas)[113]
  70. Cory Gardner (R-Colorado)[60][61]
  71. Scott Garrett (R-New Jersey)[60][61]
  72. Jim Gerlach (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  73. Bob Gibbs (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  74. Chris Gibson (R-New York)[60][61]
  75. John Gingrey (R-Georgia)[60][61]
  76. Bob Goodlatte (R-Virginia)[60][61]
  77. Paul Gosar (R-Arizona)[60][61]
  78. Kay Granger (R-Texas)[60][61]
  79. Tom Graves (R-Georgia)[60][61]
  80. Samuel Graves (R-Missouri)[60][61]
  81. Tim Griffin (R-Arkansas)[60][61]
  82. Morgan Griffith (R-Virginia)[60][61]
  83. Michael Grimm (R-New York)[60][61]
  84. Brett Guthrie (R-Kentucky)[60][61]
  85. Ralph Hall (R-Texas)[60][61]
  86. Gregg Harper (R-Mississippi)[60][61]
  87. Andy Harris (R-Maryland)[60][61]
  88. Vicky Hartzler (R-Missouri)[60][61]
  89. Doc Hastings (R-Washington)[60][61]
  90. Nan Hayworth (R-New York)[60][61]
  91. Joe Heck (R-Nevada)[60][61]
  92. Jeb Hensarling (R-Texas)[60][61]
  93. Jaime Herrera (R-Washington)[60][61]
  94. George Holding (R-North Carolina)[114]
  95. Richard Hudson (R-North Carolina)[115]
  96. Tim Huelskamp (R-Kansas)[60][61]
  97. Bill Huizenga (R-Michigan)[60][61]
  98. Randy Hultgren (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  99. Duncan Hunter (R-California)[60][61]
  100. Robert Hurt (R-Virginia)[60][61]
  101. Darrell Issa (R-California)[60][61]
  102. Lynn Jenkins (R-Kansas)[60][61]
  103. Samuel Johnson (R-Texas)[60][61]
  104. Bill Johnson (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  105. Walter Jones (R-North Carolina)[60][61]
  106. Jim Jordan (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  107. David Joyce (R-Ohio)[116]
  108. Mike Kelly (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  109. Steve King (R-Iowa)[60][61]
  110. Peter King (R-New York)[60][61]
  111. Jack Kingston (R-Georgia)[60][61]
  112. Adam Kinzinger (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  113. John Kline (R-Minnesota)[60][61]
  114. Raúl Labrador (R-Idaho)[60][61]
  115. Doug Lamborn (R-Colorado)[60][61]
  116. Doug LaMalfa (R-California)[117]
  117. Leonard Lance (R-New Jersey)[60][61]
  118. James Lankford (R-Oklahoma)[60][61]
  119. Tom Latham (R-Iowa)[60][61]
  120. Robert Latta (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  121. Dan Lipinski (D-Illinois)[60][61]
  122. Frank LoBiondo (R-New Jersey)[60][61]
  123. Billy Long (R-Missouri)[60][61]
  124. Frank Lucas (R-Oklahoma)[60][61]
  125. Blaine Luetkemeyer (R-Missouri)[60][61]
  126. Cynthia Lummis (R-Wyoming)[61]
  127. Jim Matheson (D-Utah)[60][61]
  128. Kenny Marchant (R-Texas)[60][61]
  129. Thomas Marino (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  130. Thomas Massie (R-Kentucky)[118]
  131. Mark Meadows (R-North Carolina)[119]
  132. Vance McAllister (R-Louisiana)[120]
  133. Michael McCaul (R-Texas)[61]
  134. Tom McClintock (R-California)[60][61]
  135. Patrick McHenry (R-North Carolina)[60][61]
  136. Mike McIntyre (D-North Carolina)[60][61]
  137. Howard McKeon (R-California)[60][61]
  138. David McKinley (R-West Virginia)[60][61]
  139. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-Washington)[60][61]
  140. Patrick Meehan (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  141. Luke Messer (R-Indiana)[121]
  142. John Mica (R-Florida)[60][61]
  143. Jeff Miller (R-Florida)[60][61]
  144. Gary Miller (R-California)[60][61]
  145. Candice Miller (R-Michigan)[60][61]
  146. Markwayne Mullin (R-Oklahoma)[122]
  147. Mick Mulvaney (R-South Carolina)[60][61]
  148. Tim Murphy (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  149. Randy Neugebauer (R-Texas)[60][61]
  150. Kristi Noem (R-South Dakota)[60][61]
  151. Richard Nugent (R-Florida)[60][61]
  152. Devin Nunes (R-California)[60][61]
  153. Alan Nunnelee (R-Mississippi)[60][61]
  154. Pete Olson (R-Texas)[60][61]
  155. Steven Palazzo (R-Mississippi)[60][61]
  156. Erik Paulsen (R-Minnesota)[60][61]
  157. Stevan Pearce (R-New Mexico)[60][61]
  158. Scott Perry (R-Pennsylvania)[123]
  159. Tom Petri (R-Wisconsin)[60][61]
  160. Robert Pittenger (R-North Carolina)[124]
  161. Joseph Pitts (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  162. Ted Poe (R-Texas)[60][61]
  163. Mike Pompeo (R-Kansas)[60][61]
  164. Bill Posey (R-Florida)[60][61]
  165. Tom Price (R-Georgia)[60][61]
  166. Nick Rahall (D-West Virginia)[60][61]
  167. Tom Reed (R-New York)[60][61]
  168. David Reichert (R-Washington)[61]
  169. Jim Renacci (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  170. Reid Ribble (R-Wisconsin)[60][61]
  171. Tom Rice (R-South Carolina)[125]
  172. Scott Rigell (R-Virginia)[60][61]
  173. Martha Roby (R-Alabama)[60][61]
  174. Phil Roe (R-Tennessee)[60][61]
  175. Michael Rogers (R-Alabama)[60][61]
  176. Michael Rogers (R-Michigan)[60][61]
  177. Harold Rogers (R-Kentucky)[60][61]
  178. Dana Rohrabacher (R-California)[60][61]
  179. Todd Rokita (R-Indiana)[60][61]
  180. Thomas Rooney (R-Florida)[60][61]
  181. Peter Roskam (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  182. Dennis Ross (R-Florida)[60][61]
  183. Keith Rothfus (R-Pennsylvania)[126]
  184. Edward Royce (R-California)[60][61]
  185. Jon Runyan (R-New Jersey)[60][61]
  186. Paul Ryan (R-Wisconsin)[60][61]
  187. Matt Salmon (R-Arizona)[127]
  188. Mark Sanford (R-South Carolina)[128]
  189. Aaron Schock (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  190. David Schweikert (R-Arizona)[60][61]
  191. Austin Scott (R-Georgia)[60][61]
  192. James Sensenbrenner (R-Wisconsin)[60][61]
  193. Pete Sessions (R-Texas)[60][61]
  194. John Shimkus (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  195. Bill Shuster (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  196. Michael Simpson (R-Idaho)[60][61]
  197. Jason Smith (R-Missouri)[129]
  198. Lamar Smith (R-Texas)[60][61]
  199. Christopher Smith (R-New Jersey)[60][61]
  200. Steve Southerland (R-Florida)[60][61]
  201. Steve Stivers (R-Ohio)[60]
  202. Chris Stewart (R-Utah)[102]
  203. Marlin Stutzman (R-Indiana)[60][61]
  204. Lee Terry (R-Nebraska)[61]
  205. Glenn Thompson (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  206. Mac Thornberry (R-Texas)[60][61]
  207. Patrick Tiberi (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  208. Scott Tipton (R-Colorado)[60][61]
  209. Michael Turner (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  210. Frederick Upton (R-Michigan)[60][61]
  211. Filemon Vela, Jr. (D-Texas)[130]
  212. Ann Wagner (R-Missouri)[131]
  213. Timothy Walberg (R-Michigan)[60][61]
  214. Greg Walden (R-Oregon)[60][61]
  215. Jackie Walorski (R-Indiana)[132]
  216. Randy Weber (R-Texas)[133]
  217. Daniel Webster (R-Florida)[60][61]
  218. Lynn Westmoreland (R-Georgia)[60][61]
  219. Brad Wenstrup (R-Ohio)[134]
  220. Edward Whitfield (R-Kentucky)[60][61]
  221. Roger Williams (R-Texas)[135]
  222. Joe Wilson (R-South Carolina)[60][61]
  223. Rob Wittman (R-Virginia)[60][61]
  224. Frank Wolf (R-Virginia)[60][61]
  225. Steve Womack (R-Arkansas)[60][61]
  226. Rob Woodall (R-Georgia)[60][61]
  227. Kevin Yoder (R-Kansas)[60][61]
  228. Ted Yoho (R-Florida)[136]
  229. Don Young (R-Alaska)[60][61]

The Federal Marriage Amendment, a proposed constitutional amendment that would ban same-sex marriage in the US Constitution, has 58 House cosponsors in the 113th United States Congress.[137]

Non-voting delegates Pedro Pierluisi (D/NP–Puerto Rico)[138] opposes same-sex marriage.

Former U.S. Representatives[edit]

  1. Sandy Adams (R-Florida)[60][61]
  2. Todd Akin (R-Missouri)[60]
  3. Wayne Allard (R-Colorado)
  4. George Allen[45] (R-Virginia)
  5. Rodney Alexander (R-Louisiana)[60][61]
  6. Steve Austria (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  7. J. Gresham Barrett (R-South Carolina)
  8. Roscoe Bartlett (R-Maryland)[60][61]
  9. Rick Berg (R-North Dakota)[60][61]
  10. Robert Marion Berry[139] (D-Arkansas)
  11. Roy Blunt (R-Missouri)
  12. Brian Bilbray (R-California)[60][61]
  13. Jo Bonner (R-Alabama)[60][61]
  14. John Boozman (R-Arkansas)
  15. Dan Boren (D-Oklahoma)[60][61]
  16. Rick Boucher[139] (D-Virginia)
  17. Allen Boyd[139] (D-Florida)
  18. Nancy Boyda (D-Kansas)[140]
  19. Hank Brown[78] (R-Colorado)
  20. Henry E. Brown, Jr. (R-South Carolina)
  21. Ginny Brown-Waite (R-Florida)
  22. Ann Marie Buerkle (R-New York)[60]
  23. Jim Bunning (R-Kentucky)
  24. Richard Burr (R-North Carolina)
  25. Dan Burton (R-Indiana)[60][61]
  26. Robert Byrd[84] (D-West Virginia)
  27. Francisco Canseco (R-Texas)[60][61]
  28. Former Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R-Virginia)[141]
  29. Brad Carson[139] (D-OK 2)
  30. Saxby Chambliss (R-Georgia)
  31. Ben Chandler (D-Kentucky)[60][61]
  32. Dan Coats (R-Indiana)
  33. Tom Coburn (R-Oklahoma)
  34. Thad Cochran (R-Mississippi)
  35. Jerry Costello (D-Illinois)[60][61]
  36. Larry Craig (R-Idaho)
  37. Robert E. Cramer[139] (D-Alabama)
  38. Mike Crapo (R-Idaho)
  39. Chip Cravaack (R-Minnesota)[60][61]
  40. Philip M. Crane (R-Illinois)
  41. Mark Critz (D-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  42. Geoff Davis (R-Kentucky)[60][61]
  43. Lincoln Davis[139] (D-Tennessee)
  44. Nathan Deal (D/R-Georgia)
  45. Jim DeMint (R-South Carolina)
  46. Mike DeWine (R-Ohio)
  47. Bob Dold (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  48. Bob Dole[88] (R-Kansas)
  49. David Dreier (R-California)[60][61]
  50. Chet Edwards[139] (D-Texas)
  51. Edwin Edwards[80] (D-Louisiana)
  52. Bob Ehrlich[142] (R-MD 2)
  53. Jo Ann Emerson (R-Missouri)[60][61]
  54. John Ensign (R-Nevada)
  55. Mary Fallin (R-Oklahoma)
  56. Jeff Flake (R-Arizona)[60][61]
  57. Elton Gallegly (R-California)[60][61]
  58. Jim Gibbons[143] (R-NV 2)
  59. Lindsey Graham (R-South Carolina)
  60. Phil Gramm[78] (R-Texas)
  61. Rod Grams[78] (R-Minnesota)
  62. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa)
  63. Frank Guinta (R-New Hampshire)[60][61]
  64. Katherine Harris (R-Florida)[144]
  65. Dean Heller[145] (R-Nevada)
  66. Walter Herger (R-California)[60][61]
  67. Peter Hoekstra (R-Michigan)
  68. Tim Holden (D-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  69. Duncan Hunter (R-California)
  70. Jim Inhofe (R-Oklahoma)
  71. Johnny Isakson (R-Georgia)
  72. Bill Janklow[146] (R-South Dakota)
  73. Bobby Jindal (R-Louisiana)
  74. Chris John[139] (D-Louisiana)
  75. Timothy Johnson (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  76. John Kasich (R-Ohio)
  77. Larry Kissell (D-North Carolina)[60][61]
  78. Jon Kyl (R-Arizona)
  79. Jeff Landry (R-Louisiana)[60][61]
  80. Steven LaTourette (R-Ohio)[61]
  81. Jerry Lewis (R-California)[61]
  82. Blanche Lincoln[95] (D-Arkansas)
  83. Trent Lott (R-Mississippi)
  84. Ken Lucas[139] (D-Kentucky)
  85. Daniel Lungren (R-California)[60][61]
  86. Connie Mack III[78] (R-Florida)
  87. Connie Mack IV (R-Florida)[60][61]
  88. Donald Manzullo (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  89. Jim Marshall[139] (D-Georgia)
  90. John McCain (R-Arizona)
  91. Thaddeus McCotter (R-Michigan)[60][61]
  92. Jerry Moran (R-Kansas)
  93. Marilyn Musgrave[147] (R-Colorado)
  94. Sue Myrick (R-North Carolina)[60][61]
  95. Doug Ose (R-California)[148]
  96. Butch Otter[149] (R-Idaho)
  97. Adam H. Putnam (R-Florida)
  98. George Radanovich (R-California)
  99. Bob Riley (R-Alabama)[150]
  100. Pat Roberts (R-Kansas)
  101. Todd Platts (R-Pennsylvania)[60][61]
  102. Mike Pence (R-Indiana)[60][61]
  103. Ben Quayle (R-Arizona)[61]
  104. Denny Rehberg (R-Montana)[60][61]
  105. David Rivera (R-Florida)[60][61]
  106. Buddy Roemer (D-Louisiana)[151]
  107. Mike Ross (D-Arkansas)[60][61]
  108. William V. Roth, Jr.[78] (R-Delaware)
  109. Max Sandlin[139] (D-Texas)
  110. Stephanie Herseth Sandlin[139] (D-South Dakota)
  111. Rick Santorum (R-Pennsylvania)
  112. Bobby Schilling (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  113. Jean Schmidt (R-Ohio)[60][61]
  114. Tim Scott (R-South Carolina)[60][61]
  115. John B. Shadegg (R-Arizona)
  116. Richard Shelby (R-Alabama)
  117. Heath Shuler (D-North Carolina)[60][61]
  118. Ike Skelton[139] (D-Missouri)
  119. Robert C. Smith[78] (R-New Hampshire)
  120. Clifford Stearns (R-Florida)[60][61]
  121. Charles Stenholm[139] (D-Texas)
  122. John Sullivan (R-Oklahoma)[60][61]
  123. Don Sundquist[152] (R-Tennessee)
  124. John E. Sununu[99] (R-New Hampshire)
  125. Jim Talent (R-Missouri)
  126. John Tanner[139] (D-Tennessee)
  127. Gene Taylor[139] (D-Mississippi)
  128. Craig Thomas (R-Wyoming)
  129. John Thune (R-South Dakota)
  130. Todd Tiahrt (R-Kansas)
  131. Pat Toomey (R-Pennsylvania)
  132. Bob Turner (R-New York)[60][61]
  133. Jim Turner[139] (D-Texas)
  134. David Vitter (R-Louisiana)
  135. Joe Walsh (R-Illinois)[60][61]
  136. Zach Wamp (R-Tennessee)
  137. J. C. Watts[153] (R-Oklahoma)
  138. Allen West (R-Florida)[60][61]
  139. Roger Wicker (R-Mississippi)
  140. Bob Wise (D-West Virginia)[154]
  141. Bill Young (R-Florida)[60][61]

Former non-voting delegate Luis Fortuño (NPP/R–Puerto Rico)[155] also opposes same-sex marriage.

Governors[edit]

U.S. Governors who publicly oppose same-sex marriage by party affiliation.
  State or territory's Republican Governor opposes SSM
  State or territory's Democratic Governor opposes SSM
  State or territory's Popular Democratic/Democratic Governor opposes SSM
  State or territory's Governor has not declared opposition for SSM
  1. Mike Beebe[156] (D-Arkansas)
  2. Robert Bentley[157] (R-Alabama)
  3. Terry Branstad1[158][159] (R-Iowa)
  4. Phil Bryant[160] (R-Mississippi)
  5. Jan Brewer[161] (R-Arizona)
  6. Sam Brownback[82] (R-Kansas)
  7. Eddie Calvo[162] (R-Guam)
  8. Chris Christie1[163][164] (R-New Jersey)
  9. Tom Corbett1[165] (R-Pennsylvania)
  10. Dennis Daugaard[166] (R-South Dakota)
  11. Nathan Deal[167] (R-Georgia)
  12. Mary Fallin1[168] (R-Oklahoma)
  13. Alejandro García Padilla[169] (PD/D-Puerto Rico)
  14. Nikki Haley[170] (R-South Carolina)
  15. Bill Haslam[171] (R-Tennessee)
  16. Dave Heineman[172] (R-Nebraska)
  17. Gary Herbert1[173] (R-Utah)
  18. Bobby Jindal[174] (R-Louisiana)
  19. John Kasich[175] (R-Ohio)
  20. Paul LePage[176] (R-Maine)
  21. Susana Martínez1[177] (R-New Mexico)
  22. Pat McCrory1[178] (R-North Carolina)
  23. Matt Mead[179] (R-Wyoming)
  24. Butch Otter1[149] (R-Idaho)
  25. Sean Parnell[180] (R-Alaska)
  26. Mike Pence1[181] (R-Indiana)
  27. Rick Perry[182] (R-Texas)
  28. Brian Sandoval1[183] (R-Nevada)
  29. Rick Scott[184] (R-Florida)
  30. Rick Snyder[185] (R-Michigan)

Note:

  • 1The following governors are no longer actively opposing same-sex marriage in their states: Terry Branstad, Chris Christie, Tom Corbett, Mary Fallin, Gary Herbert, Susana Martínez, Pat McCrory, Butch Otter, Mike Pence, and Brian Sandoval

Former Governors[edit]

  1. Lamar Alexander[45] (R-Tennessee)
  2. George Allen[45] (R-Virginia)
  3. John Ashcroft[78] (R-Missouri)
  4. Reubin Askew[186] (D-Florida)
  5. Haley Barbour[187] (R-Mississippi)
  6. Roy Barnes[188] (D-Georgia)
  7. Evan Bayh[79] (D-Indiana)
  8. David Beasley[189] (R-South Carolina)
  9. Craig Benson[190] (R-New Hampshire)
  10. Kathleen Blanco[191] (D-Louisiana)
  11. Matt Blunt[192] (R-Missouri)
  12. Kit Bond[45] (R-Missouri)
  13. David L. Boren[80] (D-Oklahoma)
  14. Phil Bredesen[193] (D-Tennessee)
  15. Dale Bumpers[78] (D-Arkansas)
  16. George W. Bush (R-Texas)
  17. Jeb Bush[194] (R-Florida)
  18. Richard Bryan[78] (D-Nevada)
  19. Donald Carcieri[195] (R-Rhode Island)
  20. John W. Carlin[80] (D-Kansas)
  21. Raúl Héctor Castro[196] (D-Arizona)
  22. John Chafee[78] (R-Rhode Island)
  23. Lawton Chiles[85] (D-Florida)
  24. Mitch Daniels[197] (R-Indiana)
  25. Jim Douglas[198] (R-Vermont)
  26. Mike Easley[199] (D-North Carolina)
  27. Jim Edgar[200] (R-Illinois)
  28. Edwin Edwards[80] (D-Louisiana)
  29. Bob Ehrlich[142] (R-Maryland)
  30. John Engler[201] (R-Michigan)
  31. J. James Exon[78] (D-Nebraska)
  32. Kirk Fordice[202] (R-Mississippi)
  33. Luis Fortuño[155] (NPP/R-Puerto Rico)
  34. Murphy J. Foster, Jr.[203] (R-Louisiana)
  35. Dave Freudenthal (D-Wyoming)
  36. Jim Gibbons[143] (R-Nevada)
  37. Jim Gilmore[204] (R-Virginia)
  38. Mills E. Godwin, Jr.[205] (D/R-Virginia)
  39. Bob Graham[78] (D-Florida)
  40. Bill Graves[206] (R-Kansas)
  41. Kenny Guinn[207] (R-Nevada)
  42. Mark Hatfield[78] (R-Oregon)
  43. Brad Henry[208] (D-Oklahoma)
  44. Edgar Herschler[209] (D-Wyoming)
  45. Jim Hodges[210] (D-South Carolina)
  46. John Hoeven[62] (R-North Dakota)
  47. Bob Holden[211] (D-Missouri)
  48. Mike Huckabee[212] (R-Arkansas)
  49. Jim Hunt[213] (D-North Carolina)
  50. Fob James[214] (D/R-Alabama)
  51. Bill Janklow[146] (R-South Dakota)
  52. Mike Johanns[215] (R-Nebraska)
  53. Frank Keating[216] (R-Oklahoma)
  54. Dirk Kempthorne[78] (R-Idaho)
  55. Joe E. Kernan[217] (D-Indiana)
  56. Tony Knowles[218] (D-Alaska)
  57. Mike Leavitt[219] (R-Utah)
  58. Linda Lingle[220] (R-Hawaii)
  59. Joe Manchin[65] (D-West Virginia)
  60. Marvin Mandel[221] (D-Maryland)
  61. Scott M. Matheson (D-Utah)
  62. Bob McDonnell[222] (R-Virginia)
  63. Zell Miller[91] (D-Georgia)
  64. Frank Murkowski[78] (R-Alaska)
  65. Ben Nelson[45][97] (D-Nebraska)
  66. Frank O'Bannon[223] (D-Indiana)
  67. Bill Owens[224] (R-Colorado)
  68. Sarah Palin[225] (R-Alaska)
  69. George Pataki[226] (R-New York)
  70. Tim Pawlenty[227] (R-Minnesota)
  71. Beverly Perdue[228] (D-North Carolina)
  72. Marc Racicot[229] (R-Montana)
  73. Bob Riley[150] (R-Alabama)
  74. Bill Ritter[230] (D-Colorado)
  75. Buddy Roemer[151] (D/Louisiana)
  76. Roy Romer[231] (D-Colorado)
  77. Mitt Romney[232][233] (R-Massachusetts)
  78. Mike Rounds[234] (R-South Dakota)
  79. Mark Sanford[128] (R-South Carolina)
  80. Ed Schafer[235] (R-North Dakota)
  81. Don Sundquist[152] (R-Tennessee)
  82. John H. Sununu[236] (R-New Hampshire)
  83. Fife Symington[237] (R-Arizona)
  84. Bob Taft[238] (R-Ohio)
  85. Tommy Thompson (R-Wisconsin)
  86. Strom Thurmond[78] (R-South Carolina)
  87. Cecil H. Underwood[239] (R-West Virginia)
  88. George Voinovich[45][240] (R-Ohio)
  89. Olene S. Walker[241] (R-Utah)
  90. Pete Wilson[100] (R-California)
  91. Bob Wise[154] (D-West Virginia)

Lieutenant Governors[edit]

U.S. Lieutenant Governors who publicly oppose same-sex marriage by party affiliation.
  State or territory's Republican Lieutenant Governor opposes SSM
  State or territory's Lieutenant Governor has not declared opposition for SSM
  1. Casey Cagle[242] (R-Georgia)
  2. Jay Dardenne[243] (R-Louisiana)
  3. David Dewhurst[244] (R-Texas)
  4. Sue Ellspermann[245] (R-Indiana)
  5. Kim Guadagno[246] (R-New Jersey)
  6. Peter Kinder[247] (R-Missouri)
  7. Rebecca Kleefisch[248] (R-Wisconsin)
  8. Brad Little[249] (R-Idaho)
  9. Matt Michels[250] (R-South Dakota)
  10. Ron Ramsey[251] (R-Tennessee)
  11. Tate Reeves[252] (R-Mississippi)
  12. Kim Reynolds[253] (R-Iowa)
  13. Mary Taylor[254] (R-Ohio)
  14. Mead Treadwell[255] (R-Alaska)

Former Lieutenant Governors[edit]

  1. Duke Aiona[256] (R-Hawaii)
  2. Kathleen Blanco[191] (D-Louisiana)
  3. Bill Bolling[257] (R-Virginia)
  4. Terry Branstad[158] (R-Iowa)
  5. Phil Bryant[160] (R-Mississippi)
  6. Dennis Daugaard[166] (R-South Dakota)
  7. Wendell Ford[78] (D-Kentucky)
  8. Mills E. Godwin, Jr.[205] (D-Virginia)
  9. Dave Heineman[172] (R-Nebraska)
  10. Gary Herbert[173] (R-Utah)
  11. Robert Jubelirer[258] (R-Pennsylvania)
  12. Joe E. Kernan[217] (D-Indiana)
  13. Zell Miller[91] (D-Georgia)
  14. Frank O'Bannon[223] (D-Indiana)
  15. Butch Otter[149] (R-Idaho)
  16. Sean Parnell[180] (R-Alaska)
  17. Rick Perry[182] (R-Texas)
  18. Marc Racicot[229] (R-Montana)
  19. Jim Risch[70] (R-Idaho)
  20. Brian Sandoval[183] (R-Nevada)
  21. Joseph B. Scarnati[259] (R-Pennsylvania)
  22. Olene S. Walker[241] (R-Utah)

Attorneys General[edit]

U.S. Attorneys General who publicly oppose same-sex marriage by party affiliation.
  State or territory's Republican Attorney General opposes SSM
  State or territory's Attorney General has not declared opposition for SSM
  1. Greg Abbott[260] (R–Texas)
  2. Jon Bruning[260] (R–Nebraska)
  3. Buddy Caldwell[261] (R–Louisiana)
  4. Mike DeWine[262] (R–Ohio)
  5. Timothy C. Fox[260] (R–Montana)
  6. Michael Geraghty[260] (R–Alaska)
  7. John Jay Hoffman[263] (R–New Jersey)
  8. J. B. Van Hollen[260] (R–Wisconsin)
  9. Tom Horne[260] (R–Arizona)
  10. Marty Jackley[260] (R–South Dakota)
  11. Patrick Morrisey[260] (R–West Virginia)
  12. Sam Olens[260] (R–Georgia)
  13. Scott Pruitt[260] (R–Oklahoma)
  14. Sean Reyes[264] (R–Utah)
  15. Derek Schmidt[260] (R–Kansas)
  16. Bill Schuette[265] (R–Michigan)
  17. Wayne Stenehjem[260] (R–North Dakota)
  18. John Suthers[260] (R–Colorado)
  19. Luther Strange[260] (R–Alabama)
  20. Lawrence Wasden[260] (R–Idaho)
  21. Alan Wilson[260] (R–South Carolina)
  22. Greg Zoeller[260] (R–Indiana)

Former Attorneys General[edit]

  1. John Ashcroft[78] (R-Missouri)
  2. Kelly Ayotte[48] (R-New Hampshire)
  3. Mike Beebe[156] (D-Arkansas)
  4. Richard Bryan[78] (D-Nevada)
  5. Roland Burris[83] (D-Illinois)
  6. Tom Corbett[165] (R-Pennsylvania)
  7. John Cornyn[45][47] (R-Texas)
  8. Ken Cuccinelli[260] (R–Virginia)
  9. Wendell Ford[78] (D-Kentucky)
  10. Jim Gilmore[204] (R-Virginia)
  11. Slade Gorton[78] (R-Washington)
  12. Joe Lieberman[96] (D-Connecticut)
  13. Daniel Lungren[60][61] (R-California)
  14. Bob McDonnell[222] (R-Virginia)
  15. Mark Pryor[69] (D-Arkansas)
  16. Jeff Sessions[45][73] (R-Alabama)
  17. John Swallow[260] (R–Utah)

Organizations[edit]

  1. African Methodist Episcopal Church[266]
  2. Agudath Israel of America[267]
  3. Alliance Defense Fund[268]
  4. Alliance for Marriage[269]
  5. Alianza Islámica[citation needed]
  6. American College of Pediatricians[citation needed]
  7. American Family Association[270]
  8. Anglican Church in North America[271]
  9. Arlington Group[272]
  10. Assemblies of God[273]
  11. Brethren in Christ[274]
  12. Black Hebrew Israelites
  13. Catholic Answers
  14. Chabad-Lubavitch[citation needed]
  15. Christian Coalition of America[275]
  16. Christian and Missionary Alliance[274]
  17. Church of God in Christ[276]
  18. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[274][277]
  19. Coloradans For Marriage[278]
  20. Concerned Women for America[279]
  21. Conservative Congregational Christian Conference[274]
  22. Conservative Mennonite Conference[280]
  23. Convocation of Anglicans in North America[citation needed]
  24. Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago[281]
  25. Eagle Forum[282]
  26. Evangelical Free Church of America[274]
  27. Evangelical Methodist Church[283]
  28. Evangelical Presbyterian Church[274]
  29. Family Institute of Connecticut
  30. Family Research Council[284]
  31. Focus on the Family[285]
  32. Hindu nationalism[citation needed]
  33. International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[274]
  34. International Pentecostal Holiness Church[274]
  35. Jehovah's Witnesses[286]
  36. JONAH[citation needed]
  37. Karaite Judaism[citation needed]
  38. Knights of Columbus[287][288][289]
  39. Latino American Dawah Organization[citation needed]
  40. Liberty Counsel[290]
  41. Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod[291]
  42. MassResistance[292]
  43. Missionary Church[274]
  44. National Association of Evangelicals[274][293]
  45. National Organization for Marriage[294]
  46. Nation of Islam[295]
  47. Open Bible Churches[274]
  48. Oregon Defense of Marriage Coalition
  49. Protect Marriage Arizona[278][296]
  50. ProtectMarriage.com
  51. Rabbinical Council of America[267]
  52. Rastafari movement[citation needed]
  53. Seventh-day Adventist Church[297]
  54. Southern Baptist Convention[298]
  55. Stand For Marriage Maine[299]
  56. Texans For Marriage[300]
  57. Thomas More Law Center[301]
  58. Traditional Values Coalition[302]
  59. Union for Traditional Judaism[citation needed]
  60. Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America[267][274]
  61. United Brethren in Christ Church[274]
  62. United Methodist Church[303]
  63. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops[274]
  64. Vision America[304]
  65. VoteOnMarriage.org
  66. Westboro Baptist Church[305]
  67. Wesleyan Church[274]
  68. Witherspoon Institute[306]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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