List of opponents of same-sex marriage in the United States

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Opponents of same-sex marriage in the United States include organizations and individuals who seek to prevent or reverse the legalization of same-sex marriage. Opponents of same-sex marriage have introduced federal[1] and state legislation seeking to define marriage as the union of one man and one woman.[2][3]

Political parties[edit]

National[edit]

Major
  1. Republican Party[4]
Minor
  1. America First Party[5]
  2. America's Party[6]
  3. Christian Liberty Party[7]
  4. Constitution Party[8]
  5. Independent American Party[9]
  6. Prohibition Party[10]

State Republican chapters[edit]

Elected officials[edit]

Presidents[edit]

  1. George W. Bush 1 (R-Texas)[37]

Note:

  • 1 During his presidency, George W. Bush, opposed same-sex marriage. On February 24, 2004, Bush announced his support for an amendment to the US Constitution banning same-sex marriage.[38] On October 24, 2004, Bush announced his support for civil unions.[39] However, in his post presidency interviews, he refused to take a position on the issue of same-sex marriage.[40][41]

U.S. Senators[edit]

U.S. Senators who publicly oppose same-sex marriage (SSM)
  Both Republican U.S. Senators oppose SSM
  One Republican U.S. Senator opposes SSM
  One Democratic and one Republican U.S. Senator opposes SSM
  One Democratic U.S. Senator opposes SSM
  1. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell[42] (R-Kentucky)
  2. Senate Minority Whip John Cornyn[42][43][44] (R-Texas)
  3. Lamar Alexander[42] (R-Tennessee)
  4. Kelly Ayotte[45] (R-New Hampshire)
  5. John Barrasso[46] (R-Wyoming)
  6. Roy Blunt[47] (R-Missouri)
  7. John Boozman[48] (R-Arkansas)
  8. Richard Burr[42][49] (R-North Carolina)
  9. Saxby Chambliss[42][50] (R-Georgia)
  10. Dan Coats[51] (R-Indiana)
  11. Tom Coburn[42][52][53] (R-Oklahoma)
  12. Thad Cochran[42] (R-Mississippi)
  13. Bob Corker[54] (R-Tennessee)
  14. Mike Crapo[42][50] (R-Idaho)
  15. Ted Cruz[55] (R-Texas)
  16. Mike Enzi[42][50] (R-Wyoming)
  17. Deb Fischer[56] (R-Nebraska)
  18. Jeff Flake[57][58] (R-Arizona)
  19. Lindsey Graham[42][50] (R-South Carolina)
  20. Chuck Grassley[42] (R-Iowa)
  21. Orrin Hatch[42] (R-Utah)
  22. Dean Heller (R-Nevada)
  23. John Hoeven[59] (R-North Dakota)
  24. Jim Inhofe[42][50] (R-Oklahoma)
  25. Johnny Isakson[42][50] (R-Georgia)
  26. Mike Johanns (R-Nebraska)
  27. Ron Johnson[60] (R-Wisconsin)
  28. Mike Lee[61] (R-Utah)
  29. Joe Manchin[62] (D-West Virginia)
  30. John McCain[63] (R-Arizona)
  31. Jerry Moran[64] (R-Kansas)
  32. Rand Paul[65] (R-Kentucky)
  33. Mark Pryor[66] (D-Arkansas)
  34. Jim Risch[67] (R-Idaho)
  35. Pat Roberts[42][50] (R-Kansas)
  36. Marco Rubio[68] (R-Florida)
  37. Tim Scott[69] (R-South Carolina)
  38. Jeff Sessions[42][70] (D/R-Alabama)
  39. Richard Shelby[42][50] (R-Alabama)
  40. John Thune[42][71] (R-South Dakota)
  41. Pat Toomey[72] (R-Pennsylvania)
  42. David Vitter[42][50] (R-Louisiana)
  43. Roger Wicker[73] (R-Mississippi)

S. 2024, a proposed federal law that amends chapter 1 of title 1, United States Code, with regard to the definition of “marriage” and “spouse” for federal purposes and to uphold state regulation of marriage, has 9 Senate cosponsor in the 113th United States Congress.[74]

Former U.S. Senators[edit]

  1. Spencer Abraham[75] (R-Michigan)
  2. Wayne Allard[42] (R-Colorado)
  3. George Allen[42] (R-Virginia)
  4. John Ashcroft[75] (R-Missouri)
  5. Evan Bayh[76] (D-Indiana)
  6. Bob Bennett[42] (R-Utah)
  7. Kit Bond[42] (R-Missouri)
  8. David L. Boren[77] (D-Oklahoma)
  9. Hank Brown[75] (R-Colorado)
  10. Scott Brown[78] (R-Massachusetts)
  11. Dale Bumpers[75] (D-Arkansas)
  12. Jim Bunning[42] (R-Kentucky)
  13. Conrad Burns[42] (R-Montana)
  14. Roland Burris[79] (D-Illinois)
  15. Richard Bryan[75] (D-Nevada)
  16. Robert Byrd[80] (D-West Virginia)
  17. John Chafee[75] (R-Rhode Island)
  18. Lawton Chiles[81] (D-Florida)
  19. Norm Coleman[42] (R-Minnesota)
  20. Kent Conrad[82] (D-North Dakota)
  21. Paul Coverdell[75] (R-Georgia)
  22. Larry Craig[42] (R-Idaho)
  23. Alfonse D'Amato[75] (R-New York)
  24. Jim DeMint[42][83] (R-South Carolina)
  25. Mike DeWine[42] (R-Ohio)
  26. Bob Dole[84] (R-Kansas)
  27. Elizabeth Dole[42] (R-North Carolina)
  28. Pete Domenici[42][85] (R-New Mexico)
  29. John Edwards[86] (D-North Carolina)
  30. John Ensign[42] (R-Nevada)
  31. J. James Exon[75] (D-Nebraska)
  32. Duncan Faircloth[75] (R-North Carolina)
  33. Sheila Frahm[75] (R-Kansas)
  34. Bill Frist[42] (R-Tennessee)
  35. Peter Fitzgerald[87] (R-Illinois)
  36. Wendell Ford[75] (D-Kentucky)
  37. John Glenn[75] (D-Ohio)
  38. Slade Gorton[75] (R-Washington)
  39. Bob Graham[75] (D-Florida)
  40. Phil Gramm[75] (R-Texas)
  41. Rod Grams[75] (R-Minnesota)
  42. Mark Hatfield[75] (R-Oregon)
  43. Howell Heflin[75] (D-Alabama)
  44. Jesse Helms[75] (R-North Carolina)
  45. Kay Bailey Hutchison[42][88] (R-Texas)
  46. Dirk Kempthorne[75] (R-Idaho)
  47. Jon Kyl[89] (R-Arizona)
  48. George LeMieux[90] (R-Florida)
  49. Blanche Lincoln[91] (D-Arkansas)
  50. Joe Lieberman[92] (D/ID-Connecticut)
  51. Trent Lott[42] (R-Mississippi)
  52. Richard Lugar[42] (R-Indiana)
  53. Connie Mack III[75] (R-Florida)
  54. Mel Martinez[42] (R-Florida)
  55. Zell Miller[87] (D-Georgia)
  56. Frank Murkowski[75] (R-Alaska)
  57. Ben Nelson[42][93] (D-Nebraska)
  58. Don Nickles[87] (R-Oklahoma)
  59. Samuel Nunn[75] (D-Georgia)
  60. William V. Roth, Jr.[75] (R-Delaware)
  61. Rick Santorum[42][94] (R-Pennsylvania)
  62. Robert C. Smith[75] (R-New Hampshire)
  63. Gordon H. Smith[42] (R-Oregon)
  64. Ted Stevens[42] (R-Alaska)
  65. John E. Sununu[95] (R-New Hampshire)
  66. Jim Talent[42] (R-Missouri)
  67. Craig Thomas[42] (R-Wyoming)
  68. Strom Thurmond[75] (R-South Carolina)
  69. John Warner[42] (R-Virginia)
  70. Pete Wilson[96] (R-California)

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives[edit]

Map of congressional districts with representatives who publicly oppose same-sex marriage
  District's Republican representative opposes same-sex marriage
  District's Democratic representative opposes same-sex marriage
  District's representative has not declared opposition for same-sex marriage
  1. Speaker of the House John Boehner (R-OH 8)[97]
  2. House Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R-VA 7)[98]
  3. House Majority Whip Kevin McCarthy (R-CA 22)[57][58]
  4. Robert Aderholt (R-AL 4)[57][58]
  5. Mark Amodei (R-NV 2)[57][58]
  6. Michele Bachmann (R-MN 6)[57][58]
  7. Spencer Bachus (R-AL 6)[57][58]
  8. Lou Barletta (R-PA 11)[57][58]
  9. John Barrow (D-GA 12)[57][58]
  10. Andy Barr (R-KY 6)
  11. Joe Barton (R-TX 6)[57][58]
  12. Dan Benishek (R-MI 1)[57][58]
  13. Kerry Bentivolio (R-MI 11)[99]
  14. Gus Bilirakis (R-FL 9)[57][58]
  15. Rob Bishop (R-UT 1)[57][58]
  16. Sanford Bishop Jr. (D-GA 2)[57][58]
  17. Diane Black (R-TN 6)[57][58]
  18. Marsha Blackburn (R-TN 7)[57][58]
  19. Charles Boustany (R-LA 3)[57][58]
  20. Kevin Brady (R-TX 8)[57][58]
  21. Jim Bridenstine (R-OK 1)[100]
  22. Mo Brooks (R-AL 5)[57][58]
  23. Paul Broun (R-GA 10)[57][58]
  24. Vern Buchanan (R-FL 13)[57][58]
  25. Larry Bucshon (R-IN 8)[57][58]
  26. Ann Marie Buerkle (R-NY 25)[57]
  27. Michael Burgess (R-TX 26)[57][58]
  28. Bradley Byrne (R-AL 1)[101]
  29. Ken Calvert (R-CA 44)[57][58]
  30. David Camp (R-MI 4)[57][58]
  31. John B. T. Campbell III (R-CA 45)[57][58]
  32. Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV 2)[57][58]
  33. John Carter (R-TX 31)[57][58]
  34. Bill Cassidy (R-LA 6)[57][58]
  35. Steven Chabot (R-OH 1)[57][58]
  36. Jason Chaffetz (R-UT 3)[57][58]
  37. Howard Coble (R-NC 6)[57][58]
  38. Mike Coffman (R-CO 6)[57][58]
  39. Tom Cole (R-OK 4)[57][58]
  40. Chris Collins (R-NY 27)[102]
  41. Doug Collins (R-GA 9)[103]
  42. Michael Conaway (R-TX 11)[57][58]
  43. Paul Cook (R-CA 8)[104]
  44. Tom Cotton (R-AK 4)[105]
  45. Kevin Cramer (R-ND statewide)[106]
  46. Rick Crawford (R-AR 1)[57][58]
  47. Ander Crenshaw (R-FL 4)[57][58]
  48. Henry Cuellar (D-TX 28)[57][58]
  49. John Culberson (R-TX 7)[57][58]
  50. Steve Daines (R-MT statewide)[107]
  51. Rodney L. Davis (R-IL 13)[108]
  52. Jeff Denham (R-CA 19)[57][58]
  53. Ron DeSantis (R-FL 6)[109]
  54. Scott DesJarlais (R-TN 4)[57][58]
  55. Sean Duffy (R-WI 7)[57][58]
  56. Jeff Duncan (R-SC 3)[57][58]
  57. Bob Dole[84] (R-KS 1)
  58. Renee Ellmers (R-NC 2)[57][58]
  59. William Enyart (D-IL 12)[110]
  60. Blake Farenthold (R-TX 27)[57][58]
  61. Stephen Fincher (R-TN 8)[57][58]
  62. Michael Fitzpatrick (R-PA 8)[57][58]
  63. Chuck Fleischmann (R-TN 3)[57][58]
  64. John Fleming (R-LA 4)[57][58]
  65. Bill Flores (R-TX 17)[57][58]
  66. Randy Forbes (R-VA 4)[57][58]
  67. Jeff Fortenberry (R-NE 1)[57][58]
  68. Virginia Foxx (R-NC 5)[57][58]
  69. Trent Franks (R-AZ 2)[57][58]
  70. Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-NJ 11)[57][58]
  71. Elton Gallegly (R-CA 24)[57][58]
  72. Pete Gallego (D-TX 23)[110]
  73. Cory Gardner (R-CO 4)[57][58]
  74. Scott Garrett (R-NJ 5)[57][58]
  75. Jim Gerlach (R-PA 6)[57][58]
  76. Bob Gibbs (R-OH 18)[57][58]
  77. Chris Gibson (R-NY 20)[57][58]
  78. John Gingrey (R-GA 11)[57][58]
  79. Bob Goodlatte (R-VA 6)[57][58]
  80. Paul Gosar (R-AZ 1)[57][58]
  81. Kay Granger (R-TX 12)[57][58]
  82. Tom Graves (R-GA 9)[57][58]
  83. Samuel Graves (R-MO 6)[57][58]
  84. Tim Griffin (R-AR 29)[57][58]
  85. Morgan Griffith (R-VA 9)[57][58]
  86. Michael Grimm (R-NY 13)[57][58]
  87. Brett Guthrie (R-KY 2)[57][58]
  88. Ralph Hall (R-TX 4)[57][58]
  89. Gregg Harper (R-MS 3)[57][58]
  90. Andy Harris (R-MD 1)[57][58]
  91. Vicky Hartzler (R-MO 4)[57][58]
  92. Doc Hastings (R-WA 4)[57][58]
  93. Nan Hayworth (R-NY 19)[57][58]
  94. Joe Heck (R-NV 3)[57][58]
  95. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX 5)[57][58]
  96. Jaime Herrera (R-WA 3)[57][58]
  97. George Holding (R-NC 13)[111]
  98. Richard Hudson (R-NC 8)[112]
  99. Tim Huelskamp (R-KS 1)[57][58]
  100. Bill Huizenga (R-MI 2)[57][58]
  101. Randy Hultgren (R-IL 14)[57][58]
  102. Duncan Hunter (R-CA 52)[57][58]
  103. Robert Hurt (R-VA 5)[57][58]
  104. Darrell Issa (R-CA 49)[57][58]
  105. Lynn Jenkins (R-KS 2)[57][58]
  106. Samuel Johnson (R-TX 3)[57][58]
  107. Bill Johnson (R-OH 6)[57][58]
  108. Walter Jones (R-NC 3)[57][58]
  109. Jim Jordan (R-OH 4)[57][58]
  110. David Joyce (R-OH 14)[113]
  111. Mike Kelly (R-PA 3)[57][58]
  112. Steve King (R-IA 4)[57][58]
  113. Peter King (R-NY 2)[57][58]
  114. Jack Kingston (R-GA 1)[57][58]
  115. Adam Kinzinger (R-IL 11)[57][58]
  116. John Kline (R-MN 2)[57][58]
  117. Raúl Labrador (R-ID 1)[57][58]
  118. Doug Lamborn (R-CO 5)[57][58]
  119. Doug LaMalfa (R-CA 1)[114]
  120. Leonard Lance (R-NJ 7)[57][58]
  121. James Lankford (R-OK 5)[57][58]
  122. Tom Latham (R-IA 3)[57][58]
  123. Robert Latta (R-OH 5)[57][58]
  124. Dan Lipinski (D-IL 3)[57][58]
  125. Frank LoBiondo (R-NJ 2)[57][58]
  126. Billy Long (R-MO 7)[57][58]
  127. Frank Lucas (R-OK 3)[57][58]
  128. Blaine Luetkemeyer (R-MO 9)[57][58]
  129. Cynthia Lummis (R-WY statewide)[58]
  130. Jim Matheson (D-UT 4)[57][58]
  131. Kenny Marchant (R-TX 24)[57][58]
  132. Thomas Marino (R-PA 10)[57][58]
  133. Thomas Massie (R-KY 4)[115]
  134. Mark Meadows (R-NC 11)[116]
  135. Vance McAllister (R-LA 5)[117]
  136. Michael McCaul (R-TX 10)[58]
  137. Tom McClintock (R-CA 4)[57][58]
  138. Patrick McHenry (R-NC 10)[57][58]
  139. Mike McIntyre (D-NC 7)[57][58]
  140. Howard McKeon (R-CA 25)[57][58]
  141. David McKinley (R-WV 1)[57][58]
  142. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA 5)[57][58]
  143. Patrick Meehan (R-PA 7)[57][58]
  144. Luke Messer (R-ID 7)[118]
  145. John Mica (R-FL 7)[57][58]
  146. Jeff Miller (R-FL 1)[57][58]
  147. Gary Miller (R-CA 42)[57][58]
  148. Candice Miller (R-MI 10)[57][58]
  149. Markwayne Mullin (R-OK 2)[119]
  150. Mick Mulvaney (R-SC 5)[57][58]
  151. Tim Murphy (R-PA 18)[57][58]
  152. Randy Neugebauer (R-TX 19)[57][58]
  153. Kristi Noem (R-SD statewide)[57][58]
  154. Richard Nugent (R-FL 11)[57][58]
  155. Devin Nunes (R-CA 21)[57][58]
  156. Alan Nunnelee (R-MS 1)[57][58]
  157. Pete Olson (R-TX 22)[57][58]
  158. Steven Palazzo (R-MS 4)[57][58]
  159. Erik Paulsen (R-MN 3)[57][58]
  160. Stevan Pearce (R-NM 2)[57][58]
  161. Scott Perry (R-PA 4)[120]
  162. Thomas Petri (R-WI 6)[57][58]
  163. Robert Pittenger (R-NC 9)[121]
  164. Joseph Pitts (R-PA 16)[57][58]
  165. Ted Poe (R-TX 2)[57][58]
  166. Mike Pompeo (R-KS 4)[57][58]
  167. Bill Posey (R-FL 15)[57][58]
  168. Tom Price (R-GA 6)[57][58]
  169. Nick Rahall (D-WV 3)[57][58]
  170. Tom Reed (R-NY 29)[57][58]
  171. David Reichert (R-WA 8)[58]
  172. Jim Renacci (R-OH 16)[57][58]
  173. Reid Ribble (R-WI 8)[57][58]
  174. Tom Rice (R-SC 7)[122]
  175. Scott Rigell (R-VA 2)[57][58]
  176. Martha Roby (R-AL 2)[57][58]
  177. Phil Roe (R-TN 1)[57][58]
  178. Michael Rogers (R-AL 3)[57][58]
  179. Michael Rogers (R-MI 8)[57][58]
  180. Harold Rogers (R-KY 5)[57][58]
  181. Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA 46)[57][58]
  182. Todd Rokita (R-IN 4)[57][58]
  183. Thomas Rooney (R-FL 16)[57][58]
  184. Peter Roskam (R-IL 6)[57][58]
  185. Dennis Ross (R-FL 12)[57][58]
  186. Keith Rothfus (R-PA 12)[123]
  187. Edward Royce (R-CA 40)[57][58]
  188. Jon Runyan (R-NJ 3)[57][58]
  189. Paul Ryan (R-WI 1)[57][58]
  190. Matt Salmon (R-AZ 5)[124]
  191. Mark Sanford (R-SC 1)[125]
  192. Steve Scalise (R-LA 1)[57][58]
  193. Bobby Schilling (R-IL 17)[57][58]
  194. Aaron Schock (R-IL 18)[57][58]
  195. David Schweikert (R-AZ 5)[57][58]
  196. Austin Scott (R-GA 8)[57][58]
  197. James Sensenbrenner (R-WI 5)[57][58]
  198. Pete Sessions (R-TX 32)[57][58]
  199. John Shimkus (R-IL 19)[57][58]
  200. Bill Shuster (R-PA 9)[57][58]
  201. Michael Simpson (R-ID 2)[57][58]
  202. Jason Smith (R-MO 8)[126]
  203. Lamar Smith (R-TX 21)[57][58]
  204. Christopher Smith (R-NJ 4)[57][58]
  205. Steve Southerland (R-FL 2)[57][58]
  206. Steve Stivers (R-OH 15)[57]
  207. Chris Stewart (R-UT 2)[99]
  208. Marlin Stutzman (R-IN 3)[57][58]
  209. Lee Terry (R-NE 2)[58]
  210. Glenn Thompson (R-PA 5)[57][58]
  211. Mac Thornberry (R-TX 13)[57][58]
  212. Patrick Tiberi (R-OH 12)[57][58]
  213. Scott Tipton (R-CO 3)[57][58]
  214. Michael Turner (R-OH 10)[57][58]
  215. Frederick Upton (R-MI 6)[57][58]
  216. Filemon Vela, Jr. (D-TX 34)[127]
  217. Ann Wagner (R-MO 2)[128]
  218. Timothy Walberg (R-MI 7)[57][58]
  219. Greg Walden (R-OR 2)[57][58]
  220. Jackie Walorski[129]
  221. Randy Weber (R-TX 14)[130]
  222. Daniel Webster (R-FL 8)[57][58]
  223. Lynn Westmoreland (R-GA 3)[57][58]
  224. Brad Wenstrup (R-OH 2)[131]
  225. Edward Whitfield (R-KY 1)[57][58]
  226. Roger Williams (R-TX 26)[132]
  227. Joe Wilson (R-SC 2)[57][58]
  228. Rob Wittman (R-VA 1)[57][58]
  229. Frank Wolf (R-VA 10)[57][58]
  230. Steve Womack (R-AR 3)[57][58]
  231. Rob Woodall (R-GA 7)[57][58]
  232. Kevin Yoder (R-KS 3)[57][58]
  233. Ted Yoho (R-FL 3)[133]
  234. Don Young (R-AK statewide)[57][58]

The Federal Marriage Amendment, a proposed constitutional amendment that would ban same-sex marriage in the US Constitution, has 58 House cosponsors in the 113th United States Congress.[134]

Non-voting delegates Pedro Pierluisi (D/NP–Puerto Rico)[135] opposes same-sex marriage.

Former U.S. Representatives[edit]

  1. Sandy Adams (R-FL 24)[57][58]
  2. Todd Akin (R-MO 2)[57]
  3. Wayne Allard (R-CO 4)
  4. George Allen[42] (R-VA 7)
  5. Rodney Alexander (R-LA 5)[57][58]
  6. Steve Austria (R-OH 7)[57][58]
  7. J. Gresham Barrett (R-SC 3)
  8. Roscoe Bartlett (R-MD 6)[57][58]
  9. Rick Berg (R-ND statewide)[57][58]
  10. Robert Marion Berry[136] (D-AR 1)
  11. Roy Blunt (R-MO 7)
  12. Brian Bilbray (R-CA 50)[57][58]
  13. Jo Bonner (R-AL 1)[57][58]
  14. John Boozman (R-AR 3)
  15. Dan Boren (D-OK 2)[57][58]
  16. Rick Boucher[136] (D-VA 9)
  17. Allen Boyd[136] (D-FL 2)
  18. Nancy Boyda (D-KS 2)[137]
  19. Hank Brown[75] (R-CO 4)
  20. Henry E. Brown, Jr. (R-SC 1)
  21. Ginny Brown-Waite (R-FL 5)
  22. Jim Bunning (R-KY 4)
  23. Richard Burr (R-NC 5)
  24. Dan Burton (R-IN 5)[57][58]
  25. Robert Byrd[80] (D-WV 6)
  26. Francisco Canseco (R-TX 23)[57][58]
  27. Brad Carson[136] (D-OK 2)
  28. Saxby Chambliss (R-GA 8)
  29. Ben Chandler (D-KY 6)[57][58]
  30. Dan Coats (R-IN 4)
  31. Tom Coburn (R-OK 2)
  32. Thad Cochran (R-MS 4)
  33. Jerry Costello (D-IL 12)[57][58]
  34. Larry Craig (R-ID 1)
  35. Robert E. Cramer[136] (D-AL 5)
  36. Mike Crapo (R-ID 2)
  37. Chip Cravaack (R-MN 8)[57][58]
  38. Philip M. Crane (R-IL 8)
  39. Mark Critz (D-PA 12)[57][58]
  40. Geoff Davis (R-KY 4)[57][58]
  41. Lincoln Davis[136] (D-TN 4)
  42. Nathan Deal (D/R-GA 9)
  43. Jim DeMint (R-SC 4)
  44. Mike DeWine (R-OH 7)
  45. Bob Dold (R-IL 10)[57][58]
  46. David Dreier (R-CA 26)[57][58]
  47. Chet Edwards[136] (D-TX 17)
  48. Edwin Edwards[77] (D-LA 7)
  49. Jo Ann Emerson (R-MO 8)[57][58]
  50. John Ensign (R-NV 1)
  51. Mary Fallin (R-OK 5)
  52. Jeff Flake (R-AZ 6)[57][58]
  53. Jim Gibbons[138] (R-NV 2)
  54. Lindsey Graham (R-SC 3)
  55. Phil Gramm[75] (R-TX 6)
  56. Rod Grams[75] (R-MN 6)
  57. Chuck Grassley (R-IO 3)
  58. Frank Guinta (R-NH 1)[57][58]
  59. Dean Heller[139] (R-NV 2)
  60. Walter Herger (R-CA 2)[57][58]
  61. Peter Hoekstra (R-MI 2)
  62. Tim Holden (D-PA 17)[57][58]
  63. Duncan Hunter (R-CA 52)
  64. Jim Inhofe (R-OK 1)
  65. Johnny Isakson (R-GA 6)
  66. Bill Janklow[140] (R-SD statewide)
  67. Bobby Jindal (R-LA 1)
  68. Chris John[136] (D-LA 7)
  69. Timothy Johnson (R-IL 15)[57][58]
  70. John Kasich (R-OH 12)
  71. Larry Kissell (D-NC 8)[57][58]
  72. Jon Kyl (R-AZ 4)
  73. Jeff Landry (R-LA 3)[57][58]
  74. Steven LaTourette (R-OH 14)[58]
  75. Jerry Lewis (R-CA 41)[58]
  76. Blanche Lincoln[91] (D-AR 1)
  77. Trent Lott (R-MS 5)
  78. Ken Lucas[136] (D-KY 4)
  79. Daniel Lungren (R-CA 3)[57][58]
  80. Connie Mack III[75] (R-FL 13)
  81. Connie Mack IV (R-FL 14)[57][58]
  82. Donald Manzullo (R-IL 16)[57][58]
  83. Jim Marshall[136] (D-GA 3)
  84. John McCain (R-AZ 1)
  85. Thaddeus McCotter (R-MI 11)[57][58]
  86. Jerry Moran (R-KS 1)
  87. Marilyn Musgrave[141] (R-CO 4)
  88. Sue Myrick (R-NC 9)[57][58]
  89. Doug Ose (R-CA 3)[142]
  90. Butch Otter[143] (R-ID 1)
  91. Adam H. Putnam (R-FL 12)
  92. George Radanovich (R-CA 19)
  93. Bob Riley (R-AL 3)[144]
  94. Pat Roberts (R-KS 1)
  95. Ron Paul1 (R-TX 14)[57][58]
  96. Todd Platts (R-PA 19)[57][58]
  97. Mike Pence (R-IN 6)[57][58]
  98. Ben Quayle (R-AZ 3)[58]
  99. Dennis Rehberg (R-MT statewide)[57][58]
  100. David Rivera (R-FL 25)[57][58]
  101. Buddy Roemer (D-LA 4)[145]
  102. Mike Ross (D-AR 4)[57][58]
  103. William V. Roth, Jr.[75] (R-DE statewide)
  104. Max Sandlin[136] (D-TX 1)
  105. Stephanie Herseth Sandlin[136] (D-SD statewide)
  106. Rick Santorum (R-PA 18)
  107. Jean Schmidt (R-OH 2)[57][58]
  108. Tim Scott (R-SC 1)[57][58]
  109. John B. Shadegg (R-AZ 3)
  110. Richard Shelby (R-AL 7)
  111. Heath Shuler (D-NC 11)[57][58]
  112. Ike Skelton[136] (D-MO 4)
  113. Robert C. Smith[75] (R-NH 1)
  114. Clifford Stearns (R-FL 6)[57][58]
  115. Charles Stenholm[136] (D-TX 17)
  116. John Sullivan (R-OK 1)[57][58]
  117. Don Sundquist[146] (R-TN 7)
  118. John E. Sununu[95] (R-NH 1)
  119. Jim Talent (R-MO 2)
  120. John Tanner[136] (D-TN 8)
  121. Gene Taylor[136] (D-MS 4)
  122. Craig Thomas (R-WY)
  123. John Thune (R-SD)
  124. Todd Tiahrt (R-KS 4)
  125. Pat Toomey (R-PA 15)
  126. Bob Turner (R-NY 9)[57][58]
  127. Jim Turner[136] (D-TX 2)
  128. David Vitter (R-LA1)
  129. Joe Walsh (R-IL 8)[57][58]
  130. Zach Wamp (R-TN3)
  131. J. C. Watts[147] (R-OK4)
  132. Allen West (R-FL 22)[57][58]
  133. Roger Wicker (R-MS1)
  134. Bob Wise (D-WV2)[148]
  135. Bill Young (R-FL 13)[57][58]

Note:

Former non-voting delegates Luis Fortuño (NPP/R–Puerto Rico)[149] also opposes same-sex marriage.

Governors[edit]

U.S. Governors who publicly oppose same-sex marriage by party affiliation.
  State or territory's Republican Governor opposes SSM
  State or territory's Democratic Governor opposes SSM
  State or territory's Popular Democratic/Democratic Governor opposes SSM
  State or territory's Governor has not declared opposition for SSM
  1. Mike Beebe[150] (D-Arkansas)
  2. Robert Bentley[151] (R-Alabama)
  3. Steve Bullock[152] (D-Montana)
  4. Terry Branstad[153][154] (R-Iowa)
  5. Phil Bryant[155] (R-Mississippi)
  6. Jan Brewer[156] (R-Arizona)
  7. Sam Brownback[157] (R-Kansas)
  8. Eddie Calvo[158] (R-Guam)
  9. Chris Christie1[159][160] (R-New Jersey)
  10. Tom Corbett[161] (R-Pennsylvania)
  11. Dennis Daugaard[162] (R-South Dakota)
  12. Nathan Deal[163] (R-Georgia)
  13. Mary Fallin[164] (R-Oklahoma)
  14. Alejandro García Padilla[165] (PD/D-Puerto Rico)
  15. Nikki Haley[166] (R-South Carolina)
  16. Bill Haslam[167] (R-Tennessee)
  17. Dave Heineman[168] (R-Nebraska)
  18. Gary Herbert[169] (R-Utah)
  19. Bobby Jindal[170] (R-Louisiana)
  20. John Kasich[171] (R-Ohio)
  21. Paul LePage[172] (R-Maine)
  22. Susana Martinez[173] (R-New Mexico)
  23. Pat McCrory[174] (R-North Carolina)
  24. Matt Mead[175] (R-Wyoming)
  25. Butch Otter[143] (R-Idaho)
  26. Sean Parnell[176] (R-Alaska)
  27. Mike Pence[177] (R-Indiana)
  28. Rick Perry[178] (R-Texas)
  29. Brian Sandoval2[179] (R-Nevada)
  30. Rick Scott[180] (R-Florida)
  31. Rick Snyder[181] (R-Michigan)
  32. Earl Ray Tomblin[182] (D-West Virginia)
  33. Scott Walker[183] (R-Wisconsin)

Note:

  • 1On October 21, 2013, Governor Chris Christie dropped his appeal in the Garden State Equality v. Dow case. This action removed the last potential impediment to same-sex marriages in the state.[184]
  • 2On February 10, 2014, Governor Brian Sandoval stopped defending the state's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage in federal court.[184]

Former Governors[edit]

  1. Lamar Alexander[42] (R-Tennessee)
  2. George Allen[42] (R-Virginia)
  3. John Ashcroft[75] (R-Missouri)
  4. Reubin Askew[185] (D-Florida)
  5. Haley Barbour[186] (R-Mississippi)
  6. Roy Barnes[187] (D-Georgia)
  7. Evan Bayh[76] (D-Indiana)
  8. David Beasley[188] (R-South Carolina)
  9. Craig Benson[189] (R-New Hampshire)
  10. Kathleen Blanco[190] (D-Louisiana)
  11. Matt Blunt[191] (R-Missouri)
  12. Kit Bond[42] (R-Missouri)
  13. David L. Boren[77] (D-Oklahoma)
  14. Phil Bredesen[192] (D-Tennessee)
  15. Dale Bumpers[75] (D-Arkansas)
  16. George W. Bush (R-Texas)
  17. Jeb Bush[193] (R-Florida)
  18. Richard Bryan[75] (D-Nevada)
  19. Donald Carcieri[194] (R-Rhode Island)
  20. John W. Carlin[77] (D-Kansas)
  21. Mel Carnahan[195] (D-Missouri)
  22. Raúl Héctor Castro[196] (D-Arizona)
  23. John Chafee[75] (R-Rhode Island)
  24. Lawton Chiles[81] (D-Florida)
  25. Mitch Daniels[197] (R-Indiana)
  26. Jim Douglas[198] (R-Vermont)
  27. Mike Easley[199] (D-North Carolina)
  28. Jim Edgar[200] (R-Illinois)
  29. Edwin Edwards[77] (D-Louisiana)
  30. John Engler[201] (R-Michigan)
  31. J. James Exon[75] (D-Nebraska)
  32. Kirk Fordice[202] (R-Mississippi)
  33. Luis Fortuño[149] (NPP/R-Puerto Rico)
  34. Murphy J. Foster, Jr.[203] (R-Louisiana)
  35. Jim Gibbons[138] (R-Nevada)
  36. Jim Gilmore[204] (R-Virginia)
  37. Mills E. Godwin, Jr.[205] (D/R-Virginia)
  38. Bob Graham[75] (D-Florida)
  39. Bill Graves[206] (R-Kansas)
  40. Kenny Guinn[207] (R-Nevada)
  41. Mark Hatfield[75] (R-Oregon)
  42. Brad Henry[208] (D-Oklahoma)
  43. Edgar Herschler[209] (D-Wyoming)
  44. Jim Hodges[210] (D-South Carolina)
  45. John Hoeven[59] (R-North Dakota)
  46. Bob Holden[211] (D-Missouri)
  47. Mike Huckabee[212] (R-Arkansas)
  48. Jim Hunt[213] (D-North Carolina)
  49. Fob James[214] (D/R-Alabama)
  50. Bill Janklow[140] (R-South Dakota)
  51. Mike Johanns[215] (R-Nebraska)
  52. Frank Keating[216] (R-Oklahoma)
  53. Dirk Kempthorne[75] (R-Idaho)
  54. Joe E. Kernan[217] (D-Indiana)
  55. Tony Knowles[218] (D-Alaska)
  56. Mike Leavitt[219] (R-Utah)
  57. Linda Lingle[220] (R-Hawaii)
  58. Joe Manchin[62] (D-West Virginia)
  59. Marvin Mandel[221] (D-Maryland)
  60. Scott M. Matheson (D-Utah)
  61. Bob McDonnell[222] (R-Virginia)
  62. Zell Miller[87] (D-Georgia)
  63. Frank Murkowski[75] (R-Alaska)
  64. Ben Nelson[42][93] (D-Nebraska)
  65. Frank O'Bannon[223] (D-Indiana)
  66. Bill Owens[224] (R-Colorado)
  67. Sarah Palin[225] (R-Alaska)
  68. George Pataki[226] (R-New York)
  69. Tim Pawlenty[227] (R-Minnesota)
  70. Beverly Perdue[228] (D-North Carolina)
  71. Marc Racicot[229] (R-Montana)
  72. Bob Riley[144] (R-Alabama)
  73. Bill Ritter[230] (D-Colorado)
  74. Buddy Roemer[145] (D/Louisiana)
  75. Roy Romer[231] (D-Colorado)
  76. Mitt Romney[232][233] (R-Massachusetts)
  77. Mike Rounds[234] (R-South Dakota)
  78. Mark Sanford[125] (R-South Carolina)
  79. Ed Schafer[235] (R-North Dakota)
  80. Don Sundquist[146] (R-Tennessee)
  81. John H. Sununu[236] (R-New Hampshire)
  82. Fife Symington[237] (R-Arizona)
  83. Bob Taft[238] (R-Ohio)
  84. Tommy Thompson (R-Wisconsin)
  85. Strom Thurmond[75] (R-South Carolina)
  86. Cecil H. Underwood[239] (R-West Virginia)
  87. George Voinovich[42][240] (R-Ohio)
  88. Olene S. Walker[241] (R-Utah)
  89. Pete Wilson[96] (R-California)
  90. Bob Wise[148] (D-West Virginia)

Lieutenant Governors[edit]

U.S. Lieutenant Governors who publicly oppose same-sex marriage by party affiliation.
  State or territory's Republican Lieutenant Governor opposes SSM
  State or territory's Lieutenant Governor has not declared opposition for SSM
  1. Jay Dardenne[242] (R-Louisiana)
  2. David Dewhurst[243] (R-Texas)
  3. Kim Guadagno[244] (R-New Jersey)
  4. Peter Kinder[245] (R-Missouri)
  5. Rebecca Kleefisch[246] (R-Wisconsin)
  6. Brad Little[247] (R-Idaho)
  7. Ron Ramsey[248] (R-Tennessee)
  8. Kim Reynolds[249] (R-Iowa)
  9. Mead Treadwell[250] (R-Alaska)

Former Lieutenant Governors[edit]

  1. James Aiona[251] (R-Hawaii)
  2. Kathleen Blanco[190] (D-Louisiana)
  3. Bill Bolling[252] (R-Virginia)
  4. Terry Branstad[153] (R-Iowa)
  5. Phil Bryant[155] (R-Mississippi)
  6. Dennis Daugaard[162] (R-South Dakota)
  7. Wendell Ford[75] (D-Kentucky)
  8. Mills E. Godwin, Jr.[205] (D-Virginia)
  9. Dave Heineman[168] (R-Nebraska)
  10. Gary Herbert[169] (R-Utah)
  11. Robert Jubelirer[253] (R-Pennsylvania)
  12. Joe E. Kernan[217] (D-Indiana)
  13. Zell Miller[87] (D-Georgia)
  14. Frank O'Bannon[223] (D-Indiana)
  15. Butch Otter[143] (R-Idaho)
  16. Sean Parnell[176] (R-Alaska)
  17. Rick Perry[178] (R-Texas)
  18. Marc Racicot[229] (R-Montana)
  19. Jim Risch[67] (R-Idaho)
  20. Brian Sandoval[179] (R-Nevada)
  21. Joseph B. Scarnati[254] (R-Pennsylvania)
  22. Olene S. Walker[241] (R-Utah)

Attorneys General[edit]

U.S. Attorneys General who publicly oppose same-sex marriage by party affiliation.
  State or territory's Republican Attorney General opposes SSM
  State or territory's Attorney General has not declared opposition for SSM
  1. Greg Abbott[255] (R–Texas)
  2. Pam Bondi[256] (R–Florida)
  3. Jon Bruning[255] (R–Nebraska)
  4. Buddy Caldwell[257] (R–Louisiana)
  5. Mike DeWine[258] (R–Ohio)
  6. Timothy C. Fox[255] (R–Montana)
  7. Michael Geraghty[255] (R–Alaska)
  8. J. B. Van Hollen[255] (R–Wisconsin)
  9. Tom Horne[255] (R–Arizona)
  10. Marty Jackley[255] (R–South Dakota)
  11. Patrick Morrisey[255] (R–West Virginia)
  12. Sam Olens[255] (R–Georgia)
  13. Scott Pruitt[255] (R–Oklahoma)
  14. Sean Reyes[259] (R–Utah)
  15. Derek Schmidt[255] (R–Kansas)
  16. Bill Schuette[260] (R–Michigan)
  17. Wayne Stenehjem[255] (R–North Dakota)
  18. John Suthers[255] (R–Colorado)
  19. Luther Strange[255] (R–Alabama)
  20. Lawrence Wasden[255] (R–Idaho)
  21. Alan Wilson[255] (R–South Carolina)
  22. Greg Zoeller[255] (R–Indiana)

Former Attorneys General[edit]

  1. John Ashcroft[75] (R-Missouri)
  2. Kelly Ayotte[45] (R-New Hampshire)
  3. Mike Beebe[150] (D-Arkansas)
  4. Richard Bryan[75] (D-Nevada)
  5. Steve Bullock[152] (D-Montana)
  6. Roland Burris[79] (D-Illinois)
  7. John Cornyn[42][44] (R-Texas)
  8. Ken Cuccinelli[255] (R–Virginia)
  9. Wendell Ford[75] (D-Kentucky)
  10. Jim Gilmore[204] (R-Virginia)
  11. Slade Gorton[75] (R-Washington)
  12. Joe Lieberman[92] (D-Connecticut)
  13. Daniel Lungren[57][58] (R-California)
  14. Bob McDonnell[222] (R-Virginia)
  15. Mark Pryor[66] (D-Arkansas)
  16. Jeff Sessions[42][70] (R-Alabama)
  17. John Swallow[255] (R–Utah)

Organizations[edit]

  1. African Methodist Episcopal Church[261]
  2. Agudath Israel of America[262]
  3. Alliance Defense Fund[263]
  4. Alliance for Marriage[264]
  5. Alianza Islámica[citation needed]
  6. American College of Pediatricians[citation needed]
  7. American Family Association[265]
  8. Anglican Church in North America[266]
  9. Arlington Group[267]
  10. Assemblies of God[268]
  11. Brethren in Christ[269]
  12. Black Hebrew Israelites
  13. Catholic Answers
  14. Chabad-Lubavitch[citation needed]
  15. Christian Coalition of America[270]
  16. Christian and Missionary Alliance[269]
  17. Church of God in Christ[271]
  18. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[269][272]
  19. Coloradans For Marriage[273]
  20. Concerned Women for America[274]
  21. Conservative Congregational Christian Conference[269]
  22. Conservative Mennonite Conference[275]
  23. Convocation of Anglicans in North America[citation needed]
  24. Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago[276]
  25. Eagle Forum[277]
  26. Evangelical Free Church of America[269]
  27. Evangelical Methodist Church[278]
  28. Evangelical Presbyterian Church[269]
  29. Family Institute of Connecticut
  30. Family Research Council[279]
  31. Focus on the Family[280]
  32. Hindu nationalism[citation needed]
  33. International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[269]
  34. International Pentecostal Holiness Church [269]
  35. Jehovah's Witnesses[281]
  36. JONAH[citation needed]
  37. Karaite Judaism[citation needed]
  38. Knights of Columbus[282][283][284]
  39. Latino American Dawah Organization[citation needed]
  40. Liberty Counsel[285]
  41. Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod[286]
  42. MassResistance[287]
  43. Missionary Church[269]
  44. National Association of Evangelicals[269][288]
  45. National Organization for Marriage[289]
  46. Nation of Islam[290]
  47. Open Bible Churches[269]
  48. Oregon Defense of Marriage Coalition
  49. Protect Marriage Arizona[273][291]
  50. ProtectMarriage.com
  51. Rabbinical Council of America[262]
  52. Rastafari movement[citation needed]
  53. Seventh-day Adventist Church[292]
  54. Southern Baptist Convention[293]
  55. Stand For Marriage Maine[294]
  56. Texans For Marriage[295]
  57. Thomas More Law Center[296]
  58. Traditional Values Coalition[297]
  59. Union for Traditional Judaism[citation needed]
  60. Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America[262][269]
  61. United Brethren in Christ Church[269]
  62. United Methodist Church[298]
  63. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops[269]
  64. Vision America[299]
  65. VoteOnMarriage.org
  66. Westboro Baptist Church[300]
  67. Wesleyan Church[269]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Interactive: Gay marriage chronology". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  3. ^ McKinley, Jesse; Goodstein, Laurie (November 6, 2008). "Bans in 3 States on Gay Marriage". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
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  113. ^ Congressman David Joyce Visits Mayfield High
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  145. ^ a b Buddy Roemer Clarifies Position On Gay Marriage, Reaffirms Support For DOMA
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  152. ^ a b Johnson, Charles (May 1, 2012). "Most governor candidates favor death penalty, oppose abortion and gay marriage". Billings Gazette. Retrieved August 5, 2013. ""I do not favor changing the constitution but would support legislative measures giving committed same-sex couples the opportunity to be together, free from discrimination." 
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  165. ^ "Puerto Rico Gubernatorial Candidate Opposes Same-Sex Marriage". Latin American Herald Tribute. June 26, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013. "“I believe that marriage is between a man and a woman. Having said that, it can’t be used as an excuse to discriminate against people who think differently," 
  166. ^ "Nikki Haley". 10wistv. Jul 15, 2009. Retrieved August 5, 2013. "No. Marriage is between one man and one woman." 
  167. ^ Woods, Jeff (July 10, 2011). "Bill Haslam: 'Gay rights is a broad topic'". The City Papers. Retrieved August 5, 2013. "I’m not in favor of gay marriage." 
  168. ^ a b "Issues". Governor Dave Heineman. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
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  170. ^ "GOP hopefuls on immigration, gay marriage". Yahoo News. July 2, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013. "In Louisiana, we will opt for traditional marriage." 
  171. ^ Robillard, Kevin (March 22, 2013). "In Ohio, John Kasich backs civil unions, briefly". Politico. Retrieved August 5, 2013. "“If people want to have civil unions and have some way to transfer their resources, I’m for that. I don’t support gay marriage.”" 
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  174. ^ Reilly, Mollie (2012-04-16). "Pat McCrory, Likely GOP Nominee For North Carolina Governor, Quietly Favors Gay Marriage Ban". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
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  176. ^ a b "Alaska governor candidates spar at student forum". Necn.com. October 18, 2010. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
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  180. ^ Bousquet, Steve (June 26, 2013). "Scott says he'll uphold state law that bans same-sex marriage". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 5, 2013. "In 2008, Florida voters amended our constitution and said that we are a traditional marriage state, that marriage is between a man and a woman. As the governor of this state, I'll uphold the law of the land, and that's the law of our state." 
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  185. ^ Askew signs bill to ban gay marriage
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  187. ^ Georgia’s top Dems make soft pitch for gay votes
  188. ^ Beasley hits stump, rejects gay marriage
  189. ^ Experts: Gay Marriage Won't Hurt Kids
  190. ^ a b Louisiana and New Hampshire Approve Bill Banning Gay Marriage
  191. ^ Matt Blunt on Civil Rights
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  200. ^ Ill. GOP chair may be removed for gay marriage support
  201. ^ Congratulations, Rick Snyder! Same Sex Marriage Is Legal In Michgan
  202. ^ Mississippi Governor Bans Same-Sex Marriage
  203. ^ HB1450
  204. ^ a b Issues
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  206. ^ Lawmakers say no to same-sex marriages
  207. ^ Opposes recognizing same-sex marriages
  208. ^ Republicans seek to ban gay marriage
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  216. ^ Arizona Bill Allowing Refusal of Service to Gays Stirred Alarm in the G.O.P.
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  218. ^ Lindauer Hits Knowles, Then Hedges on Same-Sex Issue
  219. ^ Former Utah Gov. Michael Leavitt tells UVU conference now is the time for discussion on religious liberty
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  223. ^ a b Equality Under the Law or Annihilation of Marriage and Morals? The Same-Sex Marriage Debate
  224. ^ Governor signs gay-marriage ban among flock of other bills
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  229. ^ a b Montana Newcomers Create Culture Clash
  230. ^ Bill Ritter, Jr.'s Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)
  231. ^ Colorado Governor Roy Romer's "Veto Statement"
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  234. ^ Mike Rounds on same-sex marriage
  235. ^ Gov. Ed Schafer signed legislation that prohibits same-sex marriage in North Dakota in 1997.|Legislation prohibits same-sex marriage.
  236. ^ New Hampshire
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  238. ^ Taft signs gay marriage ban
  239. ^ West Virginia Legislature passes same-sex marriage ban
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  242. ^ Candidate Profile: Jay Dardenne
  243. ^ Cruz and Dewhurst mum on help from gay men
  244. ^ Chris Christie introduces Monmouth Sheriff Kim Guadagno as GOP lieutenant gov. candidate
  245. ^ Highlighted Issues From Peter Kinder's Legis
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  247. ^ The Spokesman-Review
  248. ^ Gov. Bill Haslam, state Senate Speaker Ron Ramsey oppose Obama stance on same-sex marriage
  249. ^ Lt. governor candidate Kim Reynolds endorses gay marriage ban in Waterloo speech
  250. ^ Sparks fly early in Alaska Senate race
  251. ^ Hawaii Gov. Candidate James Aiona Backs Amendment Banning Gay Marriage
  252. ^ Statement of Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling on the Marriage Protection Amendment
  253. ^ Gay wedlock ban would permit civil unions
  254. ^ HB 2381 - Marriage Definition Constitutional Amendment - Voting Record
  255. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s BRIEF ADDRESSING THE MERITS OF THE STATES OF INDIANA, VIRGINIA, ALABAMA, ALASKA, ARIZONA, COLORADO, GEORGIA, IDAHO, KANSAS, MONTANA, NEBRASKA, NORTH DAKOTA, OKLAHOMA, SOUTH CAROLINA, SOUTH DAKOTA, TEXAS, UTAH, WEST VIRGINIA AND WISCONSIN AS AMICI CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF THE PETITIONERS
  256. ^ The two faces of Pam Bondi
  257. ^ “Gay in Louisiana”
  258. ^ BREAKING: DeWine Continues Fighting History on Same Sex Marriage
  259. ^ Attorney General Sean Reyes takes oath, poised to appeal gay marriage ruling
  260. ^ UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN SOUTHERN DIVISION
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