|Leader of the Opposition of Malaysia
Ketua Pembangkang Malaysia
|Style||Yang Berhormat (The Honourable)
As a member of the Dewan Rakyat
|Term length||While leader of the largest coalition not in government|
|Inaugural holder||Tan Chee Khoon|
|Formation||21 March 1964|
|Salary||MYR 10,358.18 monthly (6508.59 MP's salary + 3849.59 allowance)|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Opposition in Malaysia is the group of political parties represented in the Parliament of Malaysia that are not in government either on their own or as part of a governing coalition. Note that this article uses the term government as it is used in parliamentary systems, i.e. meaning the administration, majority party or coalition in parliament or the cabinet, rather than the state.
The title Official Opposition, used in most of the other member nations of the Commonwealth of Nations to designate the political party not in government with the largest number of parliamentary seats, is rarely used in Malaysia. It is common practice to refer to such a party simply as the Opposition, or by the party name.
Theoretically, according to the system of Westminster Democracy upon which the Malaysian political system is loosely based, the Opposition is seen as the alternative government and prepared to assume office should the incumbent government be defeated at a general election. Due to the domination of the Barisan Nasional (and its predecessor, the Alliance) coalition of the parliament since independence, this perception is generally not acknowledged and recognized by Malaysians, though the recent elections in 2008 have caused Anwar Ibrahim to declare the Opposition the "government in waiting".
In the recent general election (13th Malaysian General Election), the still unregistered Pakatan Rakyat won the total number of votes but due to Malaysia's First Past The Post voting system—used in Canada, UK, and most states in the United States—lost to the Barisan Nasional, which won 133 of the 222 Parliament seats and 275 of the 505 State seats. To this day, PKR, DAP, and PAS continue to platform different ideologies within the framework of respect and consensus by their top leaders. Even though Pakatan Rakyat has yet to win the election, but most of the industrial, developing cities and ports such as Ipoh, Klang, Kuala Lumpur (capital city), Petaling Jaya, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu are under the administration of the opposition, making the coalition controls the states' economy.
Leader of the Opposition
As in nearly every parliamentary democracy around the world, the Leader of the Opposition comes from the largest minority political party or coalition of parties with seats not yet in government. The Leader of the Opposition is often seen as a Prime Minister-in-waiting.
List of Leaders of the Opposition
Following the resignation of Wan Azizah Wan Ismail of the People's Justice Party (PKR) on 31 July 2008, and Anwar Ibrahim's victory in Permatang Pauh on 26 August 2008, Anwar was declared the Leader of the Opposition. Together with Democratic Action Party (DAP), the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), they form Pakatan Rakyat.
The position of the Leader of the Opposition has generally been filled by members of PAS or the DAP, but on two occasions has included the Sarawak National Party (SNAP) in a joint leadership with the DAP and, more recently, Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR).
The list of Leaders of the Opposition include:
|Portrait||Took office||Left office||Party||Coalition||Seats||Popularity|
MP for Besut
|19 August 1959||1 March 1964||PAS||—||13/104||21.3%|
|02||1||Tan Chee Khoon
MP for Batu
|21 March 1964||20 March 1969||LPM||SF||15/159||40.8%|
|03||Vacant (20 March 1969 — 1971)|
|2||Mohamed Asri Muda
MP for Pasir Puteh
|23 February 1971||17 April 1973||PAS||—||12/144||20.9%|
|3||Lim Kit Siang
MP for Kota Melaka
|17 April 1973||31 July 1974||DAP||—||13/144||12.1%|
MP for Miri-Lubis
|24 August 1974||30 October 1974||SNAP||—||9/154||5.6%|
|5||Edmund Langgu Saga
MP for Saratok
|30 October 1974||5 November 1975||SNAP||—|
|(3)||Lim Kit Siang
Kota Melaka (1975-1978; 1982-1986)
Petaling Jaya (1978-1982)
|5 November 1975||8 July 1978||DAP||—||9/154||18.3%|
|05||12 June 1978||29 March 1982||16/154||19.1%|
|06||22 April 1982||19 July 1986||9/154||19.6%|
|07||3 August 1986||4 October 1990||24/177||21.0%|
|08||21 October 1990||6 April 1995||20/180||17.13%|
|09||25 April 1995||10 November 1999||9/192||12.0%|
MP for Pendang
|29 November 1999||23 July 2002||PAS||BA||42/192||40.23%|
|7||Abdul Hadi Awang
MP for Marang
|23 July 2002||2 March 2004||PAS||BA|
|11||(3)||Lim Kit Siang
MP for Ipoh Timur
|21 March 2004||13 February 2008||DAP||—||12/219||9.9%|
|12||8||Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
MP for Permatang Pauh
|8 March 2008||28 August 2008||PKR||PR||82/222||46.75%|
MP for Permatang Pauh
|28 August 2008||3 April 2013||PKR||PR|
|13||6 May 2013||Incumbent||89/222||50.87%|
- Parliamentary opposition
- Loyal opposition
- Barisan Alternatif and Pakatan Rakyat
- List of political parties in Malaysia
- Dewan Rakyat
- "In GE13, BN wins Malay heartland, Pakatan the cities".
- "PKR president poised to make history as first woman Opposition Leader". The Star. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2008.