The Orang Laut are a group of Malay people living in the Riau Islands of Indonesia. It also may refer to any Malay origin people living on coastal islands, including those of Andaman Sea islands in Sarawak, Borneo, Thailand and Burma, commonly known as Moken.
The Malay term orang laut literally means the sea people. The Orang laut live and travel in their boats on the sea. Another Malay term for them, Orang Selat (literally Straits People), was brought into European languages as Celates.
Broadly speaking, the term encompasses the numerous tribes and groups inhabiting the islands and estuaries in the Riau-Lingga Archipelagos, the Pulau Tujuh Islands, the Batam Archipelago, and the coasts and offshore islands of eastern Sumatra and southern Malay Peninsula.
Historically, the orang laut were principally pirates but they also played important roles in Srivijaya, the Sultanate of Malacca, and the Sultanate of Johor. They patrolled the adjacent sea areas, repelling real pirates, directing traders to their employers' ports and maintaining those ports' dominance in the area.
Eda Green wrote in 1909, "The Lanuns, supposed to have come from the Philippines, are Mohammedans and are dying out; they were one of the most aggressive tribes in their wild piracy, raiding not only the coasts, but stealing away the children of the Dusuns and Ida'an."
In the story "The Disturber of Traffic" by Rudyard Kipling, a character called Fenwick misrenders the Orang laut as "Orange-Lord" and the narrator character corrects him that they are the "Orang-Laut".
- Adriaan J. Barnouw (February 1946). "Cross Currents of Culture in Indonesia". The Far Eastern Quarterly (The Far Eastern Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 2) 5 (2): 143–151. doi:10.2307/2049739. JSTOR 2049739.
- "The Malay Peninsula and Archipelago 1511–1722" The Encyclopedia of World History 2001;
- Mary Somers Heidhues. Southeast Asia: A Concise History. London: Hudson and Thames, 2000. Page 27
- Eda Green (1909). "Borneo: The Land of River and Palm". Project Canterbury. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
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