Orange, New Jersey
|Orange, New Jersey|
|— Township —|
|City of Orange Township|
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||November 27, 1806 (as township)|
|Reincorporated||April 3, 1872 (as city)|
|• Type||Faulkner Act Mayor-Council|
|• Mayor||Dwayne D. Warren (term ends June 30, 2016)|
|• Clerk||Dwight Mitchell|
|• Total||2.201 sq mi (5.700 km2)|
|• Land||2.199 sq mi (5.694 km2)|
|• Water||0.002 sq mi (0.005 km2) 0.09%|
|Area rank||393rd of 566 in state
19th of 22 in county
|Elevation||197 ft (60 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Rank||75th of 566 in state
8th of 22 in county
|• Density||13,705.7/sq mi (5,291.8/km2)|
|• Density rank||17th of 566 in state
3rd of 22 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1729742|
The City of Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 30,134, reflecting a decline of 2,734 (-8.3%) from the 32,868 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,943 (+9.8%) from the 29,925 counted in the 1990 Census.
Orange was originally incorporated as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 27, 1806, from portions of Newark Township. Portions of the township were taken on April 14, 1834, to form the now-defunct Clinton Township. On January 31, 1860, Orange was reincorporated as a town. Portions of the town were taken to form South Orange Township (April 1, 1861, now known as Maplewood), Fairmount (March 11, 1862, now part of West Orange), East Orange Township (March 4, 1863) and West Orange Township (April 10, 1863). On April 3, 1872, Orange was reincorporated as a city. In 1982, the name was changed to the "City of Orange Township" to take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies. Orange is often joined with neighboring East Orange, South Orange and West Orange and referred to as part of "the Oranges".
City of Orange township is located at United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 2.201 square miles (5.700 km2), of which, 2.199 square miles (5.694 km2) of it is land and 0.002 square miles (0.005 km2) of it (0.09%) is water.(40.76804,-74.235692). According to the
1900-1990 2000 2010
2010 Census 
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 30,134 people, 11,202 households, and 6,878 families residing in the township. The population density was 13,705.7 inhabitants per square mile (5,291.8 /km2). There were 12,222 housing units at an average density of 5,558.9 per square mile (2,146.3 /km2). The racial makeup of the township was 12.80% (3,857) White, 71.83% (21,645) Black or African American, 0.57% (173) Native American, 1.51% (455) Asian, 0.02% (6) Pacific Islander, 9.95% (2,999) from other races, and 3.32% (999) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.67% (6,531) of the population.
There were 11,202 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.6% were married couples living together, 24.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.6% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.38.
In the township the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.4 years. For every 100 females there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $40,818 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,616) and the median family income was $44,645 (+/- $4,033). Males had a median income of $34,986 (+/- $3,168) versus $36,210 (+/- $2,706) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $19,816 (+/- $1,027). About 16.2% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 20.6% of those age 65 or over.
2000 Census 
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 32,868 people, 11,885 households, and 7,642 families residing in the township. The population density was 14,903.7 people per square mile (5,742.3/km2). There were 12,665 housing units at an average density of 5,742.8 per square mile (2,212.7/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 13.20% White, 75.10% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 1.26% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 5.21% from other races, and 4.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.47% of the population.
There were 11,885 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.7% were married couples living together, 26.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.7% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.38.
In the township the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 86.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.1 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $35,759, and the median income for a family was $40,852. Males had a median income of $33,442 versus $29,520 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $16,861. About 15.4% of families and 18.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.
As part of the 2000 Census, 75.10% of Orange's residents identified themselves as being African American, one of the highest percentages of African American people in the United States, and the fourth-highest in New Jersey (behind Lawnside at 93.6%, East Orange at 89.46%, and Irvington at 81.66%) of all places with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry.
Orange has a large Haitian American population, with 11.4% of residents identifying themselves as being of Haitian ancestry, the highest of any municipality in New Jersey and the eighth-highest in the United States.
Although still a small percentage of total residents, Orange and East Orange have the largest concentrations of Guyanese Americans in the country. In the 2000 Census, 2.9% of Orange residents identified as being of Guyanese ancestry. While Queens and Brooklyn had larger populations in terms of raw numbers, Orange and East Orange (with 2.5%) had the highest percentages of people of Guyanese ancestry as a portion of the total population of all places in the United States.
Local government 
Orange is governed under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) form of municipal government, with a directly elected mayor and a City Council consisting of four ward representatives and three at-large representatives. Councilmembers serve four-year terms of office on a staggered basis with the four ward seats and the three at-large seatscoming up for election on an alternating cycle, and are elected on a non-partisan basis every two years.
As of 2012[update], the Mayor of Orange is Dwayne D. Warren  Members of the City Council are Council President Tency A. Eason (North Ward, 2014), Council Vice President Donna K. Williams (At-Large, 2016), Elroy A. Corbitt (At-Large, 2016), Hassan Abdul Rasheed (West Ward, 2014), Linda Jones-Bell (East Ward, 2014), April Gaunt-Butler (At-Large, 2016) and Edward B. Marable, Jr. (South Ward, 2014).
Federal, state and county representation 
City of Orange Township is located in the 10th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 34th state legislative district. Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Orange had been in the 27th state legislative district.
New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne, Jr. (D, Newark). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Frank Lautenberg (D, Cliffside Park) and Bob Menendez (D, Hoboken).
The 34th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Nia Gill (D, Montclair) and in the General Assembly by Thomas P. Giblin (D, Montclair) and Sheila Y. Oliver (D, East Orange). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of 2013[update], the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr. The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end in 2014. Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large; Newark), Freeholder Vice President Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston), Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark), Gerald M. Owens (At large; South Orange, filling the vacant seat after the resignation of Donald Payne, Jr.) Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 - Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark), D. Bilal Beasley (District 2 - Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Irvington), Carol Y. Clark (District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange) and Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 - Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell), and Brendan W. Gill (District 5 - Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Montclair). Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2015), Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (2015) and Surrogate Thomas N. Stephen, II (2016).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 14,943 registered voters in Orange, of which 8,490 (56.8%) were registered as Democrats, 302 (2.0%) were registered as Republicans and 6,147 (41.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were no voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 95.5% of the vote here (10,001 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 3.8% (397 votes) and other candidates with 0.3% (27 votes), among the 10,476 ballots cast by the city's 15,388 registered voters, for a turnout of 68.1%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 89.6% of the vote here (8,000 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 9.1% (811 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (67 votes), among the 8,931 ballots cast by the city's 14,409 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 62.0.
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 91.7% of the vote here (4,993 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 5.5% (302 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 1.4% (74 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (31 votes), among the 5,442 ballots cast by the city's 14,891 registered voters, yielding a 36.5% turnout.
Emergency services 
Fire Department 
The City of Orange is served by the professional firefighters of the city of Orange Fire Department (OFD). Founded in 1872, the OFD operates out of one Fire Station, located at 419 Central Avenue, and operates a fire apparatus fleet of three engines, one truck, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The current Chief of Department is Robert Manganelli.
Orange had its origins in Connecticut's New Haven Colony. In 1666, barely three decades after settling there, 30 of New Haven's families took the perilous journey by water to found "a town on the Passayak" River. They arrived on territory now encompassing Newark, the Oranges, and several other municipalities. The area was situated in the northeast portion of a land grant conveyed by King Charles II of England to his brother James, Duke of York. In 1664, James conveyed the land to two proprietors, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Since Carteret had been Royal Governor of the Isle of Jersey, the territory became known as "New Jersey."
Orange was initially a part of the city of Newark, but it was originally known as "Newark Mountains". On June 7, 1780, the townspeople of Newark Mountains officially voted to adopt the name Orange. At the time, there was a significant number of people in favor of secession from Newark. However, this would not occur until November 27, 1806, when the territory now encompassing all of the Oranges was finally detached. On April 13, 1807, the first government was elected, but not until March 13, 1860 was Orange officially incorporated as a city. Immediately, the new city began fragmenting into smaller communities, primarily because of local disputes about the costs of establishing paid police, fire, and street departments. South Orange was organized on January 26, 1861; Fairmount (later to become part of West Orange) on March 11, 1862; East Orange on March 4, 1863; and West Orange (including Fairmount) on March 14, 1863.
Orange is located on the Newark and Mount-Pleasant Turnpike, the main road from Newark to Morristown, and ultimately to Easton, Pennsylvania. The town became a busy thoroughfare for travelers, and hotels abounded. Initially, the stagecoach was the primary method of transportation. Omnibuses of the Eclipse and the Morris & Newark Lines serviced Orange. The Morris and Essex Railroad arrived in Orange in November 1836, its first cars drawn by horses. On October 2, 1837, the first steam locomotive appeared, and the horses were, with minor exception, relegated to pasture. The "M&E" later became a part of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad (DL&W), which exists today as New Jersey Transit's Morristown Line. Trolley cars appeared much later, with the Orange and Newark Horse Car Railroad Company running its first car up Main Street in May 1862. The Orange Crosstown Line, eventually extending from Morris Street, Orange, to Bloomfield, was started in June 1888. (The first electric trolley in the State of New Jersey operated over a section of this line.) Eventually, all of the trolleys, and the buses that replaced them, became part of the sprawling Public Service Coordinated Transport System.
Orange was an industrial city from the outset. Early settlers found a profuse growth of hemlock trees, an ideal supply of tannic acid for the tanning industry, and boot and shoemaking factories soon flourished.
Hatmaking was the essential industry, and can be traced to 1792. By 1892, 21 firms were engaged in that trade, employing over 3,700 people in plants that produced about 4.8 million hats, which had a combined value in excess of $1 million. By 1921, however, only five firms were left, and by 1960, all had departed for places such as Norwalk and Danbury, Connecticut.
Beer was a major revenue producer in Orange beginning in the early 1900s, when the three Winter Brothers of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, arrived in the city and built the first brewery. The Orange Brewery was constructed in 1901 at a reported cost of $350,000. The production of beer ceased with prohibition in 1920, and after the repeal of the Volstead Act in 1933, the brewery was sold to John F. Trommers of Philadelphia. Trommers brewed beer under that label until 1950, when the concern was again sold to Liebmann Breweries, Incorporated, which bottled Rheingold Beer. Eventually, after several additional owners, the plant was closed permanently in 1977.
Other notable firms located in Orange were the Monroe Calculating Company, manufacturers of the patented adding machines of the same name, and the Bates Manufacturing Company, producers of office accessories such as staplers and stampers. The United States Radium Corporation was a notorious resident of Orange. This firm refined ore and extracted the radium used to make luminous paint for dials and hands of watches and other indicators. It was only years later that the terrible carcinogenic effects of this material became known, and the polluted site of the factory became a thorn in the side of the city.
Orange has produced such notables as baseball's Monte Irvin and Heavyweight Boxer Tony Galento. Actor William Bendix lived and worked here for a short while. It was once the barmaking capital of the United States, as several brothers founded the "No-Name Hat Company," before one of them moved on to make fedoras in Philadelphia under the family name, "Stetson". Presidents, presidential candidates, and governors visited. Orange threw a grand party on its 100th anniversary, and another when it turned 150.
Once a multiethnic, economically diverse city, Orange suffered indirectly from the 1967 riots in Newark (even though Newark and Orange do not share a border) and directly from the construction of Interstate 280 through the heart of the downtown area, triggering middle-class "white flight" from aging industrial towns to the new automobile suburbs being built in western Essex County and elsewhere. By the end of the 1970s, Orange had many of the urban ills normally associated with larger cities.
In 1982, citizens voted overwhelmingly to change the designation of Orange from a city to a township, thereby making it eligible for federal Revenue Sharing funds. In 1985, the State of New Jersey named Orange as a State Urban Enterprise Zone, creating tax breaks and investment incentives.
The Orange Board of Education serves public school students in kindergarten through 12th grade. The district is one of 31 Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.
Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are eight elementary schools — Central School (243 students; grades K-2), Cleveland Street School (289; K-7), Forest Street School (386; PreK-7), Heywood Avenue School (370; PreK-7), Lincoln Avenue School (562; K-7), Oakwood Avenue School (264; PreK-7), Park Avenue School (347; K-7) and Rosa Parks School (635; 2-7, formerly Main Street School) — Orange Preparatory Academy for grades 8-9 (520, formerly Orange Middle School) and Orange High School for grades 9–12 (780).
The Orange Public Library collection contains 150,000 volumes and circulates 56,000 items annually. Built as the Stickler Memorial Library, the imposing structure designed by McKim, Mead, and White opened in 1901.
Portions of Orange are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.
The Orange and Highland Avenue stations provide New Jersey Transit train service along the Morris & Essex Lines (formerly Erie Lackawanna Railway). Service is available via the Kearny Connection to Secaucus Junction and Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan and to Hoboken Terminal. Passengers can transfer at Newark Broad Street or Summit to reach the other destination if necessary.
Notable people 
Notable current and former residents include:
- Walter G. Alexander (1880–1953), first African American member of the New Jersey Legislature.
- Jay Alford (born 1983), defensive tackle for the Oakland Raiders drafted in the 3rd Round of the 2007 NFL Draft (81st overall).
- John L. Blake (1831–1899), represented New Jersey's 6th congressional district from 1879 to 1881.
- Cory Boyd (born 1985), former starting tailback for the University of South Carolina. and drafted by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in the 7th round (238th pick overall) of the 2008 NFL Draft.
- Samuel P. Bush (1863–1948), industrialist and patriarch of the Bush political family.
- John Condit (1755–1834), United States Representative and a United States Senator from New Jersey.
- Silas Condit (1778–1861), represented New Jersey in the United States House of Representatives from 1831 to 1833.
- John Crotty (born 1969), former NBA basketball player.
- Brian E. Daley (born 1940), professor of theology who received the Ratzinger Prize in 2012.
- Constance Adams DeMille (1874-1960), actress and wife of director Cecil B. DeMille.
- Charles N. Fowler (1852–1932), represented 5th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1895 to 1911.
- Tony Galento (1910–1979), heavyweight boxer.
- Al Harrington (born 1980), professional basketball player currently playing for the NBA's Denver Nuggets.
- George Huntington Hartford (1833-1917), Mayor from 1878 to 1890 and owned the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, the country's largest food retailer at the time of his death.
- Beatrice Hicks (1919–79), founder of the Society of Women Engineers in 1950.
- Dulé Hill (born 1975), actor.
- Mark Kelly (born 1964), astronaut who first went into space as the pilot for STS-108 Endeavour (December 5–17, 2001), and returned to space with STS-121 in 2006 as the pilot; His twin brother, Scott Kelly, is also in the Astronaut Corps.
- John B. Mason (1858–1919), stage actor.
- George McClellan (1826–1885), American Civil War general and later Governor of New Jersey, died here.
- Donald W. McGowan, United States Army Major General and Chief of the National Guard Bureau.
- John Milnor (born 1931), mathematician known for his work in differential topology, K-theory and dynamical systems and recipient of the Fields Medal, Wolf Prize, and Abel Prize.
- Daniel F. Minahan (1877–1947), served as mayor of Orange from May 1914 until August 1919, and represented New Jersey's 6th congressional district from 1919 to 1921 and again from 1923 to 1925.
- Col. Henry Steel Olcott (1832–1907), founder and first president of the Theosophical Society, first well-known person of European ancestry to make a formal conversion to Buddhism, helped create a Buddhist renaissance, assisted in designing the Buddhist flag, a national hero of Sri Lanka.
- Daniel Quillen (1940–2011), mathematician known for being the "prime architect" of higher algebraic K-theory and recipient of the Fields Medal.
- Jim Ringo (1931–2007), NFL player for the Green Bay Packers and Philadelphia Eagles, member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
- Dick Savitt (born 1927), tennis player who reached a ranking of # 2 in the world.
- Roy Scheider (1932–2008), actor.
- Terrell Willis, running back who played in the NFL with the New York Jets.
Points of interest 
See also 
- Radium Girls, the name given to a group of women who were harmed, and ultimately died, from radiation exposure at a factory in Orange.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Gazetteer of New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 19, 2013.
- 2005 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, April 2005, p. 125.
- 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 13, 2013.
- Lee, Eunice. "Montclair, Orange swear in new mayors", The Star-Ledger, July 2, 2012. Accessed July 5, 2012. "Orange and Montclair swore in new mayors Sunday as both towns ushered in new leadership. In Orange, Dwayne D. Warren took office as mayor, switching roles from a different position in city hall. "
- Departments, City of Orange Township. Accessed September 18, 2012.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of City of Orange, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 8, 2013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for City of Orange township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 14, 2011.
- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 14. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for City of Orange township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed December 14, 2011.
- "2010 Census Populations: Essex County", Asbury Park Press. Accessed October 6, 2011.
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- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. pp. 130-131. Accessed July 6, 2012.
- New Jersey State Commission on County and Municipal Government, Modern Forms of Municipal Government, 1992, Chapter VI: Municipal Names and Municipal Classification
- Historical Overview, City of Orange Township. Accessed December 18, 2011.
- Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 26, 2012.
- Dugan, Daniel A. The Revised Charter, With Supplements Thereto of the City of Orange, N. J., p. 509. The Chronicle Press, 1900. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 711. Accessed December 18, 2011.
- New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 2, 2009. Accessed December 18, 2011.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for City of Orange township, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for City of Orange township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for City of Orange township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- African American Communities, EPodunk. Accessed August 25, 2007.
- Guyanese Communities, EPodunk. Accessed April 3, 2011.
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- City of Orange City Council, City of Orange Township. Accessed July 2, 2012.
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- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2012 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 62, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2011 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 62, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
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- "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
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- General Information, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013. "The Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, five of whom are elected from districts and four of whom are elected at-large. They are elected for three-year concurrent terms and may be re-elected to successive terms at the annual election in November."
- Essex County Executive, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Essex County Elected Officials, Essex County Clerk, as of February 2012. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Definition of a Freeholder, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Blonnie R. Watson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Patricia Sebold, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Rufus I. Johnson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Lee, Eunice. "Labor leader from South Orange tapped as new Essex County freeholder", The Star-Ledger, December 19, 2012. Accessed January 9, 2013. "A longtime labor union leader from South Orange was sworn in this afternoon as the newest Essex County freeholder.Gerald Owens, 74, is a general organizer for the International Longshoremen's Association.... Owens is filling the seat vacated by former at-large freeholder Donald Payne Jr., who stepped down from the post last month after securing the 10th Congressional District seat left open by his late father."
- Rolando Bobadilla, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- D. Bilal Beasley, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Carol Y. Clark, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Leonard M. Luciano, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Brendan W. Gill, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- The Board of Chosen Freeholders, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Breakdown of Freeholder Districts, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- About Christopher J. Durkin, Essex County Clerk. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Armando B. Fontoura - Essex County Sheriff, Essex County Sheriff's Office. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Office of Surrogate, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- County Directory, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Voter Registration Summary - Essex, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- 2004 Presidential Election: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- 2009 Governor: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- Fire Department, City of Orange Township. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- Pierson, David Lawrence. History of the Oranges to 1921: Reviewing the Rise, Development and Progress of an Influential Community – Volume 1. Lewis Historical Publishing Company, New York, 1922. OCLC 3884577. See Chapter XXIX – The Name Orange Adopted, Page 155. Available via Google Books
- Frame, Paul. Radioluminescent Paint, Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Accessed September 17, 2007.
- Abbott Districts, New Jersey Department of Education, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 15, 2009. Accessed August 15, 2012.
- What are SDA Districts?, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed August 15, 2012. "SDA Districts are 31 special-needs school districts throughout New Jersey. They were formerly known as Abbott Districts, based on the Abbott v. Burke case in which the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts.... The districts were renamed after the elimination of the Abbott designation through passage of the state’s new School Funding Formula in January 2008."
- SDA Districts, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed August 15, 2012.
- Data for the Orange Board of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- "Orange Public Library". librarytechnology.org. September 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- "STICKLER MEMORIAL LIBRARY.; Ground Broken for Structure to Cost $100,000 at Orange,", The New York Times, May 14, 1900, retrieved 2011-10-06
- "History of the Orange Public Library". Orange Public Library. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- Geographic & Urban Redevelopment Tax Credit Programs: Urban Enterprise Zone Employee Tax Credit, State of New Jersey, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 25, 2009. Accessed October 6, 2011.
- Essex County Bus / Rail Connections, New Jersey Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed October 6, 2011.
- Staff. "W.G. ALEXANDER, 72, A JERSEY PHYSICIAN; Ex-Head of National Medical Association, First Negro in State's Legislature, Dies", The New York Times, February 6, 1953. Accessed December 18, 2011. "ORANGE, N. J. Feb. 5 - Dr. Walter G. Alexander, former president of the National Medical Association and the first Negro elected to the New Jersey Legislature, died here today at his home, 58 Webster Place"
- Biographical information for Walter G. Alexander, The Political Graveyard.
- Giants Select Penn State DT Jay Alford in Third Round, New York Giants, April 28, 2007. Accessed May 1, 2007.
- John Lauris Blake, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 13, 2007.
- Cory Boyd profile, South Carolina Gamecocks. Accessed October 30, 2007.
- Parmet, Herbert S. George Bush: The Life of a Lone Star Yankee, p. 18. Transaction Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-7658-0730-0. Accessed December 18, 2011. "Their son, Samuel Prescott Bush, may properly be said to have been the family's modern "founding father".... Born in Orange, New Jersey, on October 4, 1863, he left his parents behind in Staten Island when, at the age of seventeen, he crossed the Kill Van Kull and went a few miles north to the Stevens Institute of Technology."
- John Condit, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 21, 2007.
- Silas Condit, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 23, 2007.
- John Crotty, Basketball-Reference.com. Accessed December 6, 2007.
- Staff. "Crotty sailing along nicely", The Deseret News, January 4, 2002. Accessed August 19, 2011. "'Guys believe in what I'm doing, so they're going to hit me for the open pass, and trust that I'm going to make the right play,' said Crotty, an Orange, NJ, native who makes his home in Miami, one of six cities in which he's played during a 10-season NBA career."
- Staff. "Envoy to All peoples", Boston Globe, August 12, 1956. Accessed December 14, 2011. "When DeMille was touring with EH Sothern as an actor, he met and married Constance Adams of Orange, N.J. In 1952 they celebrated their golden wedding anniversary with all the DeMille children and grandchildren."
- Charles Newell Fowler, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 9, 2007.
- "Beer Punch", Time (magazine), May 23, 1938. Accessed August 14, 2007. "In the Stone Age a fight was simply a fight. A throwback to Stone-Age man is potbellied Tony Galento, Orange, N. J. bartender, who shrugs his chubby shoulders at the fancy art of boxing, scoffs at the modern mode of training."
- "Al Harrington traded for Stephen Jackson", Inside Hoops, July 15, 2004. Accessed June 4, 2008. "A 6–9 forward from Orange, New Jersey, Harrington prepped at St. Patrick's High in Elizabeth, NJ and he was the first player ever drafted from the high school ranks by the Pacers."
- Levinson, Marc (2011). The Great A&P and the struggle for small business in America. Hill & Wang. ISBN 978-0-8090-9543-8.
- Beatrice Alice Hicks, 1919–1979, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Accessed December 18, 2007. "Born in Orange, New Jersey in 1919, Beatrice Hicks displayed an affinity for and aptitude in math, science, and engineering from an early age."
- "Seen on the Screen", News & Observer, August 10, 2007. Accessed January 17, 2008. "Hill, 32, was born Karim Dule Hill in Orange, N.J. and raised in nearby Sayreville."
- Astronaut Bio: Mark Kelly, NASA. Accessed February 24, 2008.
- Derby, George; and White, James Terry. "John B. Mason", The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1916, pg. 51.
- Rafuse, Ethan S. "George B. McClellan", The New York Times. Accessed December 18, 2011.
- Thomas F. Fitzgerald, Legislative Manual, 1960, page 322
- Castelvecchi, Davide; and Matson, John. "Dimension-Cruncher: Exotic Spheres Earn Mathematician John Milnor an Abel Prize: His discovery that some seven-dimensional spheres look different under the lens of calculus spurred decades of research in topology", Scientific American, March 24, 2011. Accessed April 3, 2011. "Milnor was born in 1931 in Orange, N.J., and graduated from Princeton University in 1951."
- Daniel F. Minahan, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed July 16, 2007.
- Janet Kerschner, The Olcott Family, Theosophical.org. Accessed January 11, 2009.
- Segal, Graeme. "Daniel Quillen obituary: A US mathematician, he developed a key algebraic theory", The Guardian, June 23, 2011. Accessed August 19, 2011. "Born in Orange, New Jersey, Quillen won scholarships to Newark academy, and then to Harvard, where as a graduate student he worked under Raoul Bott, before going to a post at MIT."
- Litsky, Frank. "Jim Ringo, Pro Football Hall of Fame Center, Dies at 75", The New York Times, November 21, 2007. Accessed April 3, 2011. "James Stephen Ringo was born Nov. 21, 1931, in Orange, N.J., and played high school football in Phillipsburg, N.J."
- Staff. "Savitt Rallies to Beat Flam", Los Angeles Times, July 5, 1951. Accessed April 3, 2011. "Dick Savitt of Orange, N.J., who is seeking a sweep of the world's major amateur tennis titles, rallied from what looked like certain defeat today to vanquish Herbie Flam of Beverly Hills, 1–6, 15–13, 6–3, 6–2, and storm into the finals of the All-England..."
- Kehr, Dave. "Roy Scheider, Actor in ‘Jaws,’ Dies at 75", The New York Times, February 11, 2008. Accessed February 24, 2008. "Born in 1932 in Orange, N.J., Mr. Scheider earned his distinctive broken nose in the New Jersey Diamond Gloves Competition."
- Politi, Steve. "Politi: Willis remains bitter about Rutgers", The Star-Ledger, September 6, 2007. Accessed April 3, 2011. "In another time, Terrell Willis was supposed to be that player for the Scarlet Knights. As good as Rice was as a freshman, no player in Rutgers history started his career with greater promise than Willis did when the Orange native broke onto the national scene in 1993."
- City of Orange Township website
- Orange Board of Education
- Orange Board of Education's 2010–11 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- Data for the Orange Board of Education, National Center for Education Statistics
- Citizens for Responsible Government website