Orange skunk clownfish
|Orange skunk clownfish|
The orange skunk clownfish is a small sized fish which grows up to 11 cm as a female and 3 to 6.5 cm as a male. Its body has a stock appearance, oval shape, compressed laterally and with a round profile. Its coloration is very bright orange, with a white stripe on the dorsal ridge from the superior lip, passing between the eyes and ending at the caudal fin base. All the fins have the same coloration as the body except the dorsal fin which is partially white. Its iris is bright yellow.
The orange skunk clownfish is found in the center of the Indo-Pacific area, especially by the Philippines and Christmas Island. Other known locations include Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Melanesia, and north to southern Japan.
Amphiprion sandaracinos typically lives in small groups on outer reef slopes or in lagoons at a maximal depth of 20 metres (66 ft). It inhabits in association with two different species of sea anemones. It's often observed in Stichodactyla mertensii and rarely in Heteractis crispa.
Amphiprion sandaracinos has a diurnal activity. It is protrandous hermaphrodite, which means the male can turn into a female during his life, and lives in harem in which an established dominance hierarchy manages the group and keeps individuals at a specific social rank. It has also an aggressive territorial behaviour and it is completely dependant from its sea anemone which represents its "life insurance" as a safe shelter for the group and for the nest.
The associative relationship that binds the clownfish and the sea anemone is called mutualism. In one hand, the fish lives within the sea anemone's tentacles and uses it as a shelter because it has developed a fin layer of mucus which covers its body as a protection against the stinging anemone's tentacles. On the other hand, the presence of the clownfish can be interpreted as a lure to attract potential anemone's preys close to the tentacles. And the clownfish can also defend the anemone against some reef fishes which could eat the tentacles.
Orange skunk clownfish are kept by many people for the aquarium hobby.
- Curtis-Quick (2010). "Amphiprion sandaracinos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- Tristan Lougher (2006). What Fish?: A Buyer's Guide to Marine Fish. Interpet Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-84286-118-9.
An attractive fish species, identifiable by the single broad stripe running along its back from the upper jaw to the base of the tail.
- Lieske & Myers,Coral reef fishes,Princeton University Press, 2009, ISBN 9780691089959
- Dianne J. Bray, 2011, Orange Anemonefish, Amphiprion sandaracinos, in Fishes of Australia, accessed 25 Aug 2014, http://www.fishesofaustralia.net.au/Home/species/1278
- Fautin & Dr Allen ’’Field guide to anemonefishes and their host sea anemones’’, Western Australian Museum,1992, ISBN 9781564651181
- "Amphiprion sandaracinos". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 6 June 2006.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2005). "Amphiprion sandaracinos" in FishBase. November 2005 version.