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In mathematics, in the study of dynamical systems, an orbit is a collection of points related by the evolution function of the dynamical system. The orbit is a subset of the phase space and the set of all orbits is a partition of the phase space, that is different orbits do not intersect in the phase space. Understanding the properties of orbits by using topological method is one of the objectives of the modern theory of dynamical systems.
Given a dynamical system (T, M, Φ) with T a group, M a set and Φ the evolution function
then the set
is called orbit through x. An orbit which consists of a single point is called constant orbit. A non-constant orbit is called closed or periodic if there exists a t in T so that
for every point x on the orbit.
Real dynamical system 
Given a real dynamical system (R, M, Φ), I(x) is an open interval in the real numbers, that is . For any x in M
is called positive semi-orbit through x and
is called negative semi-orbit through x.
Discrete time dynamical system 
For discrete time dynamical system :
forward orbit of x is a set :
backward orbit of x is a set :
and orbit of x is a set :
- is an evolution function which is here an iterated function,
- set is dynamical space,
- is number of iteration, which is natural number and
- is initial state of system and
Usually different notation is used :
- is noted as
- with is a from above notation.
It is often the case that the evolution function can be understood to compose the elements of a group, in which case the group-theoretic orbits of the group action are the same thing as the dynamical orbits.
- The orbit of an equilibrium point is a constant orbit
Stability of orbits 
A basic classification of orbits is
- constant orbits or fixed points
- periodic orbits
- non-constant and non-periodic orbits
An orbit can fail to be closed in two ways. It could be an asymptotically periodic orbit if it converges to a periodic orbit. Such orbits are not closed because they never truly repeat, but they become arbitrarily close to a repeating orbit. An orbit can also be chaotic. These orbits come arbitrarily close to the initial point, but fail to ever converge to a periodic orbit. They exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, meaning that small differences in the initial value will cause large differences in future points of the orbit.
There are other properties of orbits that allow for different classifications. An orbit can be hyperbolic if nearby points approach or diverge from the orbit exponentially fast.
See also 
- Wandering set
- Phase space method
- Cobweb plot or Verhulst diagram
- Periodic points of complex quadratic mappings and multiplier of orbit