It is performed by a pediatric urologist or surgeon on boys with cryptorchidism, typically before they reach the age of two. Some patients remain undiagnosed until their teenage years and undergo the surgery at that time.
The undescended testicle may be located within the normal line of descent (for example, in the inguinal canal) or high in the scrotum or ectopically (i.e. the abdomen). The surgeon may use an endoscope through the umbilicus to locate the testicle, and through other small opening(s) performs the procedure. The higher the testicle, the less successful the procedure. However, the procedure has a high success rate overall.
Orchiopexy can also be performed to resolve a testicular torsion. If caught early enough and the blood supply can be restored to the testicle, this operation can be performed to prevent further occurrence of torsion. If the blood supply has been interrupted for too long, then an orchiectomy must be performed.
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