Order of Saint George (Kingdom of Hungary)

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Statutes of the Order with Order's seal with St. George slaying the dragon

The Order of St George, Hungarian: Szent György Vitézei Lovagrend, was the first secular chivalric order in the world and was established by King Charles I of Hungary in 1326.

History of the Order[edit]

The Order was founded by King Charles I of Hungary as the Fraternal Society of Knighthood of St George. The precise date of its foundation is not known, but based on the text of its Statutes, it was in existence on St George's Day, 23 April 1326. The order flourished during Charles' reign and achieved greater success under the reign of his son Louis I of Hungary. After the death of Louis, the Hungarian throne became the subject of a violent dispute between his relations, and the Hungarian kingdom dissolved into civil war, destroying the original Society.[1] All that is known about the Order in terms of its mission, composition, obligations and activities has been obtained from the only surviving artifact which describes the Society.

Based on the Statutes, although the Society of St George was a political and honorary body, Charles infused the ideals of chivalry into the Society promoting them among the lesser nobles of his kingdom and implementing the classic symbol of chivalry, the knights' tournament, in Hungarian festivals of chivalry. Unlike the ecclesiastical Orders of the period, members of the Society wore a black, knee-length, hooded mantle, bearing not an heraldic device but an inscription: "IN VERITATE IUSTUS SUM HUIC FRATERNALI SOCIETATE":[2] "In truth I am just to this fraternal society".[3]

The Statutes were written in Latin, the language of learned writing in Hungary before the 19th century, and are about 1700 words long, in the form of letters patent. Suspended from the document was the great seal of the Society with the classic iconic representation of St George mounted on a horse slaying the dragon under the horse's hooves as shown on the right. The document is currently housed in the Országos Levéltar (National Archives of Hungary), DL. 40 483. There are a number of transcriptions and translations of the Statutes, facilitating study.[4][5][6][7][8]

The Order existed only for a short period. A private association of the same name is a self-styled order, established in 2001.

References[edit]

  1. ^ D'Arcy J.D. Boulton. The Knights of the Crown - The Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Later Medieval Europe 1325-1520. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK. 1987. ISBN 0-85115-417-4.
  2. ^ Boulton. 44.
  3. ^ Ariella Elema. English Translation of the Statutes of the Fraternal Society of St. George. March 04, 2011.
  4. ^ György Fejér (1766–1851). "Codex diplomaticus Hungariae ecclesiasticus ac civilis" (Budae, 1832), VIII/3, no. L., pp. 163-170.
  5. ^ Antal Pör. in "Az Anjou Ház örösei (1301-1439)", vol III of "A magyar nemzet története" (The History of the Hungarian Nation), ed. Sandor Szilagyi (10 vols, Budapest, 1895), between pp. 138-139.
  6. ^ Veszprémy László. "Az Anjou-Kori Lovagság Kérdései. A Szent György-lovagrend alapítása". Hadtörténelmi Közlemények (Military History Journal), 107. évfolyam. 1994. 1.szám, 3-11. p.
  7. ^ Rácz György. "A Szent György Lovagrend alapszabályai 1326. április 24. - Latin átirat" Budapest, 2008. (Magyar Történelmi Archivum) Archív Kiadó.
  8. ^ Ariella Elema. English Translation of the Statutes of the Fraternal Society of St. George. March 04, 2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Fügedi, Erik: Ispánok, bárók, kiskirályok (Counts, Barons and Petty Kings); Magvető Könyvkiadó, 1986, Budapest; ISBN 963-14-0582-6.
  • Kristó, Gyula (editor): Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon - 9-14. század (Encyclopedia of Early Hungarian History - 9-14th centuries); Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, Budapest; ISBN 963-05-6722-9.