Order of battle of the Battle of Long Island

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A wooden house, or possibly a mill, is surrounded by battle.  The smoke and haze of battle obscures much of the background, but formations of red-coated soldiers are visible through it.  Small figures, some clearly uniformed, others not obviously so, fight in the foreground.
Lord Stirling leading an attack against the British in order to enable the retreat of other troops at the Battle of Long Island, 1776. Painting by Alonzo Chappel, 1858.

The Battle of Long Island was a decisive British victory early in the American Revolutionary War over American forces under the command of Major General George Washington, and the opening battle in a successful British campaign to gain control of New York City in 1776. The Americans had lined New York's harbor with various levels of entrenchment and fortification, which were defended by an array of Continental Army forces and militia companies from New York and nearby states.[1] After the British made an unopposed landing on Long Island in mid-August, Washington reinforced forward positions in the hills of central Brooklyn.[2]

The British forces were led by Lieutenant General William Howe, and included veterans of the Siege of Boston, new regiments from Ireland, and hired German troops from Hesse-Kassel. On August 27, 1776, Howe made a successful flanking maneuver around the American left while occupying the American right with diversionary battle. As a result, a significant portion of the American army became entrapped and surrendered after its retreat to the entrenched position was cut off.[3] With a siege of the position looming, General Washington successfully withdrew his remaining army to Manhattan in the early hours of August 29.[4]

Key[edit]

  • Unit: this column identifies the unit being described or summarized. Divisions, the largest unit of aggregation (called "Lines" in the British order of battle) are identified by bold text centered in a darker background spanning the table. Brigades, the intermediate unit size, are identified only by bold text. The brigades are composed of smaller units, usually regiments or battalions, but sometimes including formations as small as companies. Unless otherwise noted, a smaller unit falls within the command hierarchy of a preceding larger unit.
  • Commander: the field commander of the unit on the day of the battle.
  • Unit size: the reported size of the unit. This number does not normally include the officers of the unit.
  • Casualties: a listing of the casualties the unit incurred, to the level documented. In the Other column, number of captured are followed by the letter C, and number of missing by the letter M.
  • Notes: other notes about the unit, possibly including further details about its place of origin and its movements in the battle theater.

British and Hessian forces[edit]

The British Army at the start of the campaign was drawn from three sources. The first was troops that had been in the Siege of Boston, which ended when the British evacuated their troops from the city to Halifax, Nova Scotia in March 1776.[5] The second was new levies raised in the British Isles, including a significant number of Irish troops. The third was troops provided by several small German principalities of the Holy Roman Empire.[6] After the war broke out in 1775, the British government realized that it would need more troops than it could raise on its own to fight the war, so it sought to hire troops from willing third parties in Europe. Only a few German rulers were willing to provide troops.[7] The single largest contingent, with more than 12,000 arriving in North America in 1776, came from the Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel.[8] All of the German troops with the British at the start of the New York campaign were from Hesse-Kassel,[9] and were under the command of Lt. Gen. Leopold Philip von Heister.[10] A regiment from Waldeck that was also destined for the New York theater did not arrive until after Manhattan was occupied.[11]

Some of the troops sent from Europe had first been directed at operations in the southern colonies, under the direction of Lt. Gen. Henry Clinton. The expedition attempted to occupy Charleston, South Carolina, but was repulsed in the June Battle of Sullivan's Island; it then sailed for New York to join the army as it gathered on Staten Island in July and August.[12] Clinton served as General Howe's second in command.[13]

It was common practice at this time for regiments of the British Army to include companies of light infantry and grenadiers, composed of troops with specialized abilities and training. When an army was assembled, these companies were often separated from their regiments and formed into separate light infantry and grenadier battalions.[14]

The Royal Navy, despite dominating the harbor, played only a limited role in the battle. HMS Roebuck penetrated as far as Red Hook on August 26, but her guns never came within range of American positions.[15] The navy did provide some logistical support for the battle. It resupplied General James Grant's troops with gunpowder and ammunition late in the battle, and also landed 2,000 Royal Marines to share in the victory.[16]

The primary source for this data is a return of troops prepared by General Howe on August 22, 1776, five days before the battle, and presented by historian David Hackett Fischer. Howe's report did not include a breakdown of individual unit sizes.[13] Although a more detailed return for August 27 appears to have once existed,[17] none of the listed sources reproduces it. According to a summary of that return, the strength of the British land forces under Howe's command was 24,464 fit for duty. This number does not include a brigade of Loyalists raised by Oliver De Lancey, Sr.,[17] or the marines, who were not under Howe's command. Howe's headcount, including officers and those unfit for duty, came to 31,625.[18] The casualty figures for British units are from a casualty-only return prepared by General Howe, reprinted by Field. It includes a detailed breakdown by unit of British casualties, and a summary of Hessian casualties.[19]

British units[edit]

Unit Commander Casualties Notes
Killed Wounded Other Total
Light Infantry Brigade Brigadier General Alexander Leslie 11 61 1M 63 This brigade led Clinton's column that flanked the American left.[20] These troops were the first to occupy the unguarded Jamaica Pass.[21]
1st Battalion Light Infantry Major Thomas Musgrave 4 24 1M 29
2nd Battalion Light Infantry Major Turner Straubenzee 4 31 0 35
3rd Battalion Light Infantry Major John Maitland 3 6 0 9
4th Battalion Light Infantry Major John Johnson 0 0 0 0
Royal Artillery Brigadier General Samuel Cleaveland 2 5 0 7 Casualty figures and command are not broken down to the unit level.
1st Brigade Artillery
2nd Brigade Artillery
3rd Brigade Artillery
Dragoons 0 0 0 0 The dragoons were at the head of Clinton's column in the attack.[20]
16th Light Dragoons (The Queen's) Lieutenant Colonel William Harcourt 0 0 0 0
17th Light Dragoons Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Birch 0 0 0 0
First Line
Commander Lieutenant General Henry Clinton 18 49 0 67
1st Brigade Major General Robert Pigot 0 2 0 2 This brigade was the first formation of regular infantry in Clinton's flanking column after Cornwallis's reserve force.[20]
4th Regiment of Foot (The King's Own) Major James Ogilvie 0 0 0 0
15th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel John Bird 0 2 0 2
27th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel John Maxwell 0 0 0 0
45th Regiment of Foot Major Saxton 0 0 0 0
2nd Brigade Brigadier General James Agnew 0 0 0 0
5th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel William Walcott 0 0 0 0
28th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Robert Prescott 0 0 0 0
35th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Robert Carr 0 0 0 0
49th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Sir Henry Calder 0 0 0 0
5th Brigade Brigadier General Francis Smith 0 0 0 0
14th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Alured Clarke 0 0 0 0 This regiment remained on Staten Island, and was not in the battle.[22]
23rd Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel J. Campbell 0 0 0 0
43rd Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel George Clerke 0 0 0 0
63rd Regiment of Foot Major Francis Sill 0 0 0 0
6th Brigade Brigadier General James Robertson 18 47 0 65 This brigade was placed on the British left, near The Narrows. Robertson's brigade served under Major General Grant in the battle.[23]
23rd Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Bernard 7 28 0 35
44th Regiment of Foot Major Henry Hope 10 19 0 29
57th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel John Campbell 1 0 0 1
64th Regiment of Foot Major Hugh McLeroch 0 0 0 0
Second Line
Commander Lieutenant General Hugh, Earl Percy 7 44 1M 52
3rd Brigade Major General Daniel Jones 1 11 1M 13
10th Regiment of Foot Major John Vatass 0 0 0 0
37th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Robert Abercromby 0 1 0 1
38th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel William Butler 0 3 0 3
52nd Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Mungo Campbell 1 7 1M 9
4th Brigade Major General James Grant 6 33 0 39 This brigade was placed on the British left, near The Narrows. In the battle, Grant commanded a division that also included Robertson's 6th Brigade.[23] They made an attack on the American right as a distraction from the British move around their left flank.[24]
17th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood 3 21 0 24
40th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel James Grant 2 5 0 7 Grant was killed in the early diversionary attack.[25]
46th Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Enoch Markham 0 4 0 4
55th Regiment of Foot Captain Luke 1 3 0 4
7th Brigade Brigadier General William Erskine 0 0 0 0 This brigade marched behind Pigot's in Clinton's column.[20] It was among those surrounding Stirling's force from behind.[26]
1st Battalion
71st Regiment of Foot
Major John Macdonnell of Lochgary 0 0 0 0
2nd Battalion
71st Regiment of Foot
Major Norman Lamont of Lamont 0 0 0 0
Reserve corps
Commander Lieutenant General Charles, Earl Cornwallis 14 69 23M 106 This brigade followed the light infantry in Clinton's column.[20] After flanking the American left, these troops drove the retreating Americans before them, toward Brooklyn Heights or the Hessian brigades arriving from the American right.[27]
1st Battalion Grenadiers Lieutenant Colonel Henry Monckton 1 4 0 5
2nd Battalion Grenadiers Lieutenant Colonel William Medows 12 38 22M 72 This unit was among those surrounding Stirling's forces from behind.[26]
3rd Battalion Grenadiers Major Thomas March 0 1 0 1
4th Battalion Grenadiers Major Charles Stuart 1 12 1M 14
33rd Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel James Webster 0 4 0 4
42nd (Royal Highland) Regiment of Foot Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Stirling 0 10 0 10
Royal Marines
Royal Marines Commander not identified in sources 1 0 12C 13 These marines, numbering 2,000, were landed beween 10:00 and 11:00 am to support General James Grant.[16] One company of marines mistook an American unit for Hessians and was captured; one of these was killed by gunfire en route to the American lines.[28]
British casualties 53 228 37 318
Unless otherwise cited, the information in this table is provided by Fischer, pp. 388–390, or Field, pp. 416–419.

Hessian units[edit]

Unit Commander Notes
Mirbach's Brigade Major General Werner von Mirbach This brigade participated in the frontal attack through the Flatbush Pass timed to coincide with the attack by the British flanking force of Clinton and Howe.[29]
Knyphausen Regiment Colonel H. C. von Borck
Rall Regiment Colonel Johann Rall
Lossberg Regiment Colonel H. A. von Heringen
Stirn's Brigade Major General J. D. von Stirn This brigade participated in the frontal attack through the Flatbush Pass timed to coincide with the attack by the British flanking force of Clinton and Howe.[29]
Donop Regiment Colonel D. E. von Gosen
Mirbach Regiment Colonel Johann von Loos
Hereditary Prince (Erbprinz) Regiment Colonel C. W. von Hachenberg
Donop's Brigade Colonel Carl von Donop This brigade participated in the frontal attack through the Flatbush Pass timed to coincide with the attack by the British flanking force of Clinton and Howe.[29] These men, including the jäger corps, were in the lead of the Hessian column.[27] Many Americans surrendered to these units, driven by the British.[30]
Bloch Grenadier Battalion Lieutenant Colonel Justus von Bloch
Minnigerode Grenadier Battalion Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich von Minnigerode
Linsing Grenadier Battalion Lieutenant Colonel Otto von Linsing
Feldjäger Corps Colonel Carl von Donop This unit was under Donop, but not organized within his brigade.
Lossberg's Brigade Colonel A. H. von Lossberg This brigade remained on Staten Island to guard the British and German camps there, and had no part in the action.[23]
Ditfurth Regiment Colonel Carl von Bose
Trumbach Regiment Colonel C. E. von Bischauen
Hessian casualties: 2 killed, 26 wounded (all participating units)
Unless otherwise cited, the information in this table is provided by Fischer, pp. 388–390, or Field, pp. 416–419.

American forces[edit]

The troops arrayed to oppose the British were primarily from regiments of the Continental Army, although there were a large number of militia units from New York, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania in the field as well.[31] A significant number of the Continentals had participated in the Siege of Boston, after which they had moved to join troops already in New York preparing its defenses.[32] Some troops had participated in the expeditions against Quebec begun in fall 1775.[33] That attempt ended in June 1776 after a disastrous retreat to Fort Ticonderoga prompted by the arrival of a large British force at Quebec City, and some of those troops were then rushed south to assist in New York.[34] The American defense of Long Island became complicated when Major General Nathanael Greene fell ill on August 15. He had directed the defense work on Long Island, and was thus the general most familiar with the terrain. Washington replaced him on August 20 with Major General John Sullivan, lately returned from Ticonderoga.[34] After sending reinforcements onto Long Island on August 25, Washington replaced Sullivan with the ranking major general, Israel Putnam.[35] David Hackett Fischer observes that the American command situation was "[s]o tangled [...] that units were uncertain about their commanders and not sure of the positions they were to defend."[36]

The basis for this order of battle is a return prepared by General Washington on August 3. It encompasses all of the units stationed in the New York area, not only those involved in the battle. The total provided is a listing of all troops, not just those listed as ready for duty. A substantial number of troops were sick during July and August. For example, General William Heath, writing in his memoirs, recorded that about 10,000 men were sick on August 8, and Washington reported on September 2 having fewer than 20,000 men present and fit for duty.[37] Later returns were apparently impossible: Washington wrote to Congress on August 26 that "[t]he shifting and changing which the regiments have undergone of late has prevented their making proper returns, and of course puts it out of my power to transmit a general one of the army."[38]

The notes for each unit give some indication of where it was stationed, and what sort of movements it made, especially between August 22 and 29, a time period in which there were several significant movements and reassignments of troops. A number of units were moved from Manhattan to Long Island after the British landing on Long Island, and more were sent over during and after the fighting to bolster the defenses before they were finally abandoned on August 29.[39]

Detailed American casualties are not available because many of the relevant records were destroyed by fire in 1800.[40] British and Hessian estimates placed the total American losses at around 3,000, and a return prepared by General Howe listed 1,097 prisoners, including Generals John Sullivan, Lord Stirling, and Nathaniel Woodhull. Casualty numbers for specific units are rare; historian John Gallagher has compiled a partial listing confirming 1,120 killed or missing, noting that returns for 52 of 70 units under Washington's command are missing.[41] The Maryland Regiment of William Smallwood was virtually wiped out, suffering 256 killed and more than 100 captured out of a unit numbering nearly 400.[42] Casualty figures are listed as notes if they are available for a given unit.

Unit Commander Unit size Notes
Putnam's Division
Commander Major General Israel Putnam 5,615 This division was stationed on Manhattan during the battle.[43]
Read's Brigade Colonel Joseph Read 1,997 This brigade was actually assigned to Brig. Gen. James Clinton. Read commanded it in the general's absence.[44]
3rd Continental Regiment Colonel Ebenezer Learned 521
13th Continental Regiment Colonel Joseph Read 505
23rd Continental Regiment Colonel John Bailey 503
26th Continental Regiment Colonel Loammi Baldwin 468
Scott's Brigade Brigadier General John Morin Scott 1,527 This unit was originally stationed in lower Manhattan.[45] It was sent to Long Island before the battle.[46]
New York militia Colonel John Lasher 510
New York levies Colonel William Malcolm 297
New York militia Colonel Samuel Drake 459
New York militia Colonel Cornelius Humphrey 261
Fellows' Brigade Brigadier General John Fellows 2,091 This brigade was stationed on Manhattan, and did not participate in the battle.[47]
Massachusetts militia Colonel Jonathan Holman 606 This unit was from Worcester County.[48]
Massachusetts militia Colonel Simeon Cary 569 This unit had men from Bristol and Plymouth Counties.[48]
Massachusetts militia Colonel Jonathan Smith 551 This unit was from Berkshire County.[48]
14th (Marblehead) Continental Regiment Colonel John Glover 365 Glover's regiment, stationed on Manhattan during the battle, was sent over to Brooklyn on August 28, and was instrumental in evacuating the army on the night of August 29–30.[49]
Heath's Division
Commander Major General William Heath 4,265 Heath, based at King's Bridge, was responsible for the northernmost defenses, on the Hudson just above Manhattan. Most of his units were not involved in the battle.[50]
Mifflin's Brigade Brigadier General Thomas Mifflin 2,453 This brigade was stationed at Harlem Heights, and did not participate in the battle.[51] Mifflin went to Brooklyn with some of his troops, and commanded the rear of the retreat to Manhattan.[52]
5th Pennsylvania Battalion Colonel Robert Magaw 480 These units was sent to Brooklyn on the morning of August 28.[51]
3rd Pennsylvania Battalion Colonel John Shee 496
27th Continental Regiment Colonel Israel Hutchinson 513 This unit (along with John Glover's) manned the boats during the retreat.[53]
16th Continental Regiment Colonel Paul Dudley Sargent 527
Ward's Connecticut Regiment Colonel Andrew Ward 437
Clinton's Brigade Brigadier General George Clinton 1,812 This unit was stationed in upper Manhattan before the battle.[47]
New York militia Colonel Isaac Nichol 289 This unit was from Orange County.[54]
New York militia Colonel Thomas Thomas 354 This unit was from Westchester County.[54]
New York militia Colonel James Swartwout 364 This unit was from Dutchess County.[55]
New York militia Colonel Levi Paulding 368 This unit was from Ulster County.[55]
New York militia Colonel Morris Graham 437 This unit was from Dutchess County.[55]
Spencer's Division
Commander Major General Joseph Spencer 5,889 Initially stationed in lower Manhattan, some of these units were sent over to Long Island before the battle.[47]
Parson's Brigade Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons 2,469 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target.[56] Parsons had overall command of the Gowanus Heights defenses.[57]
10th Continental Regiment Colonel John Tyler 569
17th Continental Regiment Colonel Jedediah Huntington 348 This unit suffered heavy casualties: 199 killed or missing.[58]
20th Continental Regiment Colonel John Durkee 520
21st Continental Regiment Colonel Jonathan Ward 502
22nd Continental Regiment Colonel Samuel Wyllys 530 This regiment was assigned to guard the Bedford Pass the night before the battle.[59]
Wadsworth's Brigade Brigadier General James Wadsworth 3,420
1st Connecticut State Levies Colonel Gold Selleck Silliman 415 This unit was initially stationed on Manhattan, but was transferred to Long Island before the battle.[60]
2nd Connecticut State Levies Colonel Fisher Gay 449
3rd Connecticut State Levies Colonel Comfort Sage 482 This unit was initially stationed on Manhattan, but was transferred to Long Island before the battle.[60]
4th Connecticut State Levies Colonel Samuel Selden 464
5th Connecticut State Levies Colonel William Douglas 506
6th Connecticut State Levies Colonel John Chester 535 This unit was initially stationed on Manhattan, but was transferred to Long Island before the battle.[60] It was assigned to guard the Bedford Pass the night before the battle.[59]
7th Connecticut State Levies Colonel Phillip Burr Bradley 569
Sullivan's Division
Commander Major General John Sullivan 5,688 Sullivan took command of this division on August 20, when Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene fell ill.[61] The division was on the far left of the American line, and suffered the most from the British onslaught. Sullivan was the most senior Continental officer taken prisoner in the battle.
Stirling's Brigade Brigadier General William Alexander (Lord Stirling) 3,700 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target.[56] Stirling was stationed on the right side of the American line on the Gowanus Heights.[57] His command was almost wiped out after becoming surrounded, and he was taken prisoner.[62]
1st Maryland Regiment Colonel William Smallwood 400[42] This unit anchored the right against British General Grant's diversionary attack.[63] Some of its men, the Maryland 400, fought a vicious rearguard action making possible the escape of much of Stirling's command.[64] More than 100 men were captured and 256 killed, practically wiping the regiment out.[42]
1st Delaware Regiment Colonel John Haslet 750 This unit fought in the center against British General Grant's diversionary attack.[63][65]
Pennsylvania State Rifle Regiment Colonel Samuel Miles 650 This unit was responsible for guarding the hills at the far left of the American line.[66] It suffered heavy casualties: 209 killed or missing.[58]
Pennsylvania State Battalion of Musketry Colonel Samuel John Atlee 650 This unit fought against British General Grant's diversionary attack,[65] and suffered 89 casualties.[58]
Pennsylvania militia Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas Lutz 200 This militia unit was a part of the Pennsylvania "Flying Camp" and was attached to Lord Stirling's force. It suffered heavy losses.[citation needed]
Pennsylvania militia Lieutenant Colonel Peter Kachlein[citation needed] 200 This militia unit was a part of the Pennsylvania "Flying Camp" and was attached to "Lord Stirling's" force. It suffered heavy losses.[citation needed]
Pennsylvania militia Major William Hay 200
McDougall's Brigade Brigadier General Alexander McDougall 1,988 Originally stationed in lower Manhattan, some of these troops were sent to Long Island before the battle.[47]
1st New York Regiment Colonel Goose Van Schaick[67] 428 This was McDougall's regiment prior to his promotion.
2nd New York Regiment Colonel Rudolphus Ritzema 434
19th Continental Regiment Colonel Charles Webb 542 This unit was sent to Long Island before the battle.[46]
Artificers Colonel Jonathan Brewer 584
Greene's Division
Commander Major General Nathanael Greene 3,912 Greene was taken ill on August 15; his division was commanded by John Sullivan. It was the principal force defending Long Island.[34]
Nixon's Brigade Brigadier General John Nixon 2,318 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target.[56]
1st Pennsylvania Regiment Colonel Edward Hand 288
Varnum's Rhode Island Regiment Colonel James Mitchell Varnum 391
Hitchcock's Rhode Island Regiment Colonel Daniel Hitchcock 368
4th Continental Regiment Colonel Thomas Nixon[47] 419
7th Continental Regiment Colonel William Prescott 399
12th Continental Regiment Colonel Moses Little 453
Heard's Brigade Brigadier General Nathaniel Heard 1,594 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target.[56]
New Jersey State Troops Colonel David Forman 372
New Jersey militia Colonel Philip Johnston 235 Johnston's unit was on guard duty on the Flatbush Road the night before the attack. Johnston was mortally wounded in the battle.[68]
New Jersey militia Colonel Ephraim Martin 382
New Jersey militia Colonel Silas Newcomb 336
New Jersey militia Colonel Phillip Van Cortlandt 269
Other units
Connecticut militia brigade Brigadier General Oliver Wolcott 4,200 This brigade was stationed on Manhattan, and did not participate in the battle.[47] The unit strengths are described in surviving documents as an average.[69]
2nd Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Jabez Thompson 350
13th Connecticut Militia Colonel Benjamin Hinman 350
18th Connecticut Militia Colonel Jonathan Pettibone 350
16th Connecticut Militia Colonel Joseph Platt Cooke[70] 350
23rd Connecticut Militia Colonel Matthew Talcott[71] 350
22nd Connecticut Militia Colonel Samuel Chapman 350
10th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Jonathan Baldwin 350
9th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel John Mead 350
4th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Ichabod Lewis 350
19th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel George Pitkin 350
15th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Selah Heart (taken prisoner 9/15/1776) Major Simeon Strong 350
1st Connecticut Militia Major Roger Newberry 350
Long Island militia Brigadier General Nathaniel Woodhull 450 These units performed "fatigue" work, principally driving cattle. Stationed on the American left, it included small cavalry units familiar with the area, but these were not used for guard duty.[72]
Long Island militia Colonel Josiah Smith 250 This unit was from Suffolk County.[73]
Long Island militia Colonel Jeronimus Remsen 200 This unit was mainly from Queens County,[73] and included men from Kings County.[54]
Artillery Colonel Henry Knox 403
Total size 30,434
Unless otherwise cited, the information in this table is provided by Fischer, pp. 385–388.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gallagher, pp. 75–80
  2. ^ Gallagher, p. 99
  3. ^ Gallagher, pp. 97–134
  4. ^ Fischer, pp. 99–101
  5. ^ Field, p. 124
  6. ^ Field, p. 130
  7. ^ Fischer, p. 52
  8. ^ Eelking, p. 23
  9. ^ Eelking, pp. 24–25
  10. ^ Johnston, p. 136
  11. ^ Eelking, p. 45
  12. ^ Field, p. 129
  13. ^ a b Fischer, p. 388
  14. ^ Fischer, pp. 34–35
  15. ^ Carrington, p. 201
  16. ^ a b Gallagher, p. 124
  17. ^ a b Carrington, p. 199
  18. ^ Carrington, p. 200
  19. ^ Field, pp. 416–419
  20. ^ a b c d e Johnston, p. 176
  21. ^ Johnston, p. 179
  22. ^ Eelking, p. 29
  23. ^ a b c Johnston, p. 160
  24. ^ Schecter, p. 141
  25. ^ Schecter, p. 146
  26. ^ a b Johnston, p. 187
  27. ^ a b Johnston, p. 184
  28. ^ Johnston, p. 300
  29. ^ a b c Johnston, p. 182
  30. ^ Johnston, p. 185
  31. ^ Fischer, pp. 385–388
  32. ^ Fischer, p. 11
  33. ^ Johnston, p. 111
  34. ^ a b c Schecter, p. 121
  35. ^ Schecter, p. 131
  36. ^ Fischer, p. 93
  37. ^ Johnston, p. 125
  38. ^ Field, p. 163
  39. ^ Gallagher, pp. 89,95,110–111,141,147–149
  40. ^ Reno, p. 30
  41. ^ Gallagher, p. 136
  42. ^ a b c Gallagher, p. 130
  43. ^ Johnston, pp. 131–132
  44. ^ Johnston, p. 127
  45. ^ Johnston, p. 131
  46. ^ a b Carrington, p. 213
  47. ^ a b c d e f Johnston, p. 132
  48. ^ a b c Johnston, p. 117
  49. ^ Johnston, pp. 208,221
  50. ^ Johnston, p. 63
  51. ^ a b Johnston, p. 208
  52. ^ Johnston, p. 216
  53. ^ Johnston, p. 221
  54. ^ a b c Johnston, p. 110
  55. ^ a b c Johnston, p. 109
  56. ^ a b c d Schecter, p. 130
  57. ^ a b Schecter, p. 132
  58. ^ a b c Gallagher, p. 137
  59. ^ a b Johnston, p. 156
  60. ^ a b c Smith, p. 27
  61. ^ Johnston, p. 103
  62. ^ Schecter, pp. 150,153
  63. ^ a b Johnston, p. 166
  64. ^ Schecter, p. 150
  65. ^ a b Schecter, p. 143
  66. ^ Field, p. 185
  67. ^ Heitman, p. 557
  68. ^ Johnston, p. 196
  69. ^ Johnston, p. 121
  70. ^ Heitman, p. 169
  71. ^ Heitman, p. 531
  72. ^ Field, p. 292
  73. ^ a b Field, p. 290

References[edit]