# Orders of magnitude (acceleration)

This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.

Factor
[m/s²]
Multiple Value [g] Item
100 1 m/s² 0 m/s² 0 g The gyro rotors in Gravity Probe B and the free-floating
0 m/s² 0 g A ride in the Vomit Comet
0.25 m/s² 0.026 g Train acceleration for SJ X2
1.62 m/s² 0.1654 g Standing on the Moon at its equator
4.3 m/s² 0.44 g Car acceleration 0–100 km/h 6.4s with Saab 9-5 Hirsch
9.82 m/s² 1 g Gravity acceleration on earth at sea level-standard.[2]
101 1 deca
(da) m/s²
11.2 m/s² 1.14 g Saturn V moon rocket just after launch
15.2 m/s² 1.55 g Bugatti Veyron from 0 to 100 km/h in 2.4 s
29 m/s² 3 g Space Shuttle, maximum during launch and reentry
29 m/s² 3 g Sustainable for > 25 seconds, for a human.[2]
34 – 62 m/s² 3.5 – 6.3 g High-G roller coasters[3]:340
41 m/s² 4.2 g Top Fuel drag racing world record of 4.4 s over 1/4 mile
49 m/s² 5 g Causes disorientation, dizziness and fainting in humans.[2]
49+ m/s² 5+ g Formula One car, maximum under heavy braking
51 m/s² 5.2 g Luge, maximum expected at the Whistler Sliding Centre
49 – 59 m/s² 5 – 6 g Formula One car, peak lateral in turns [4]
59 m/s² 6 g Parachutist peak during normal opening of parachute[5]
+69 / -49 m/s² +7 / -5 g Standard, full aerobatics certified glider
70.6 m/s² 7.19 g Apollo 16 on reentry[6]
79 m/s² 8 g F16 aircraft pulling out of dive[7]
88 m/s² 9 g Maximum for a fit, trained person with G-suit to keep consciousness (G-LOC)
88 – 118 m/s² 9 – 12 g Typical max. turn in an aerobatic plane or fighter jet
102 1 hecto
(h) m/s²
147 m/s² 15 g Explosive seat ejection from aircraft[7]
177 m/s² 18 g Physical damage in humans like broken capillaries.[2]
454 m/s² 46.2 g Maximum acceleration a human has survived on a rocket sled.[2]
> 491 m/s² > 50 g Death or serious injury likely
982 m/s² 100 g Sprint missile
982 m/s² 100 g Automobile crash (100 km/h into wall)[7]
> 982 m/s² > 100 g Brief human exposure survived in crash[8]
982 m/s² 100 g Deadly limit for most humans
1540 m/s² 157 g Peak acceleration of fastest rocket sled run[9]
1964 m/s² 200 g 3.5" harddisc non-operating shock tolerance for 2 ms, weight 0.6 kg[10]
2946 m/s² 300 g Soccer ball struck by foot[7]
3200 m/s² 320 g A jumping human flea[11]
3800 m/s² 380 g A jumping click beetle[12]
104 10 kilo
(k) m/s²
17 680 m/s² 1800 g Space gun with a barrel length of 1 km and a muzzle velocity of 6 km/s,
as proposed by Quicklaunch (assuming constant acceleration)
29460 m/s² 3000 g Baseball struck by bat[7]
>49 100 m/s² > 5000 g Shock capability of mechanical wrist watches[13]
84 450 m/s² 8600 g Current formula one engines, maximum piston acceleration [14]
105 100 kilo
(k) m/s²
102 000 m/s² 10 400 g A mantis shrimp punch[15]
152 210 m/s² 15 500 g Rating of electronics built into military artillery shells[16]
196 400 m/s² 20 000 g Spore acceleration of the Pilobolus fungi.[17]
304 420 m/s² 31 000 g 9 × 19 Parabellum handgun bullet (average along the length of the barrel)[18]
106 1 mega
(M) m/s²
1 000 000 m/s² 100 000 g Closing jaws of a trap-jaw ant.[19]
1 865 800 m/s² 190 000 g 9 × 19 Parabellum handgun bullet, peak[20]
3 600 000 m/s² 300 000 g Ultracentrifuge[7]
3 800 000 m/s² 390 000 g Surface gravity of white dwarf Sirius B.[21]
107 10 mega
(M) m/s²
53 000 000 m/s² 5 400 000 g Jellyfish stinger[22]
109 1 giga
(G) m/s²
1.9×109 m/s² 1.9×108 g Mean acceleration of a proton in the Large Hadron Collider[23]
1012 1 tera
(T) m/s²
7×1012 m/s² 7×1011 g Max surface gravity of a neutron star.
8.8×1013 m/s² 9×1012 g Protons in Fermilab accelerator[7]
1021 1 zetta
(Z) m/s²
8.7×1021 m/s² 8.9×1020 g Acceleration from a Wakefield plasma accelerator[24]

† Directed 40 degrees from horizontal.

## References

1. ^ Stanford University: Gravity Probe B, Payload & Spacecraft, and NASA: Investigation of Drag-Free Control Technology for Earth Science Constellation Missions. The TRIAD 1 satellite was a later, more advanced navigation satellite that was part of the U.S. Navy’s Transit, or NAVSAT system.
2. csel.eng.ohio-state.edu - High Acceleration and the Human Body, Martin Voshell, November 28, 2004
3. ^ George Bibel. Beyond the Black Box: the Forensics of Airplane Crashes. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. ISBN 0-8018-8631-7.
4. ^ 6 g has been recorded in the 130R turn at Suzuka circuit, Japan. [1] Many turns have 5 g peak values, like turn 8 at Istanbul or Eau Rouge at Spa
5. ^ http://www.pcprg.com/g-forces.htm
6. ^ NASA: Table 2: Apollo Manned Space Flight Reentry G Levels
7. tomshardware.co.uk - Hard Drive Shock Tolerance - Hard-Disks - Storage, Physics, by O'hanian, 1989, 2007-01-03
8. ^ “Several Indy car drivers have withstood impacts in excess of 100 G without serious injuries.” Dennis F. Shanahan, M.D., M.P.H.: ”Human Tolerance and Crash Survivability, citing Society of Automotive Engineers. Indy racecar crash analysis. Automotive Engineering International, June 1999, 87–90. And National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Recording Automotive Crash Event Data
9. ^ http://www.holloman.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet_print.asp?fsID=6130&page=1
10. ^ wdc.com - Legacy Product Specifications : WD600BB, read 2012-01-11
11. ^
12. ^ http://www.its.caltech.edu/~biomech/papers/BennetClarkLucey1967.pdf
13. ^ Omega [2], Ball Watch Technology
14. ^ Cosworth V8 engine ; Up to 10,000 g before rev limits
15. ^ S. N. Patek, W. L. Korff & R. L. Caldwell (2004). "Deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp" (PDF). Nature 428 (6985): 819–820. Bibcode:2004Natur.428..819P. doi:10.1038/428819a. PMID 15103366.
16. ^
17. ^ bu.edu - Rockets in Horse Poop, 2010-12-10
18. ^ Assuming an 8.04 gram bullet, a muzzle velocity of 350 metres per second (1,100 ft/s), and a 102 mm barrel.
19. ^ Patek SN, Baio JE, Fisher BL, Suarez AV (22 August 2006). "Multifunctionality and mechanical origins: Ballistic jaw propulsion in trap-jaw ants" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (34): 12787–12792. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604290103. PMC 1568925. PMID 16924120. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
20. ^ Assuming an 8.04 gram bullet, a peak pressure of 240 MPa (35,000 psi) and 440 N of friction.
21. ^ Calculated in equation of surface gravity.
22. ^ "Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings". Retrieved 22 April 2015.
23. ^ (7 TeV / (20 minutes * c))/proton mass
24. ^ (42 GeV / 85 cm)/electron mass