Orders of magnitude (density)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Skylab measured several orders of magnitude of the Sun's density (top scale: 10−18 to 10−6 g⋅cm−3, equivalent to 10−15 to 10−3 kg⋅m−3) at different temperatures and heights above its surface.
List of orders of magnitude for density less than 1 kg/m3
Factor Multiple Value Item
10−27 1 yg/m3 1 × 10−27 kg/m3 Very approximate density of the universe
10−26
10−25
10−24 1 zg/m3
10−23
10−22 100 zg/m3 1 × 10−22 kg/m3 Probable lowest observed density of space in galactic spiral arm (1 hydrogen atom every 16 cubic centimeters)
10−21 1 ag/m3
10−20
10−19
10−18 1 fg/m3 1 × 10−18 kg/m3 Observed density of space in core of galaxy (600 hydrogen atoms in every cubic centimetre)
Best vacuum from a laboratory (1 pPa)[1]
10−17
10−16
10−15 1 pg/m3
10−14 2.0 × 10−14 kg/m3 (2.0 × 10−17 g/cm3) density of Sun's corona[2]
10−13 1.0 × 10−13 kg/m3 (1.0 × 10−16 g/cm3) density at top of solar transition region[2]
10−12 1 ng/m3
10−11 1.0 × 10−11 kg/m3 (1.0 × 10−14 g/cm3) density at bottom of solar transition region[2]
10−10
10−9 1 μg/m3
10−8
10−7
10−6 1 mg/m3
10−5 1.34 × 10−5 kg/m3 Earth atmosphere at 82 kilometre altitude;
star Mu Cephei's approximate mean density
10−4 0.1 g/m3 1.09 × 10−4 kg/m3 Earth atmosphere at 68 kilometre altitude
2.0 × 10−4 kg/m3 (2.0 × 10−7 g⋅cm−3) Density of Solar photospherechromosphere boundary[2]
4.0 × 10−4 kg/m3 (4.0 × 10−7 g⋅cm−3) Density of Solar photosphere's lower boundary[2]
10−3 1 g/m3 1 × 10−3 kg/m3 Vacuum from a mechanical vacuum pump;
density of Sun just below its photosphere[2]
10−2 10 g/m3 1.8 × 10−2 kg/m3 Earth atmosphere at 30 kilometre altitude[3]
9 × 10−2 kg/m3 Hydrogen gas, the least dense substance at STP
10−1 100 g/m3 1.6 × 10−1 kg/m3 Earth atmosphere at 16 kilometre altitude[3]


List of orders of magnitude for density 1 kg/m3 and greater
Factor Multiple Value Item
100 1 kg/m3 0.9 kg/m3 = 0.0009 g/cm3 Ultralight metallic microlattice.[4]
1.1 kg/m3 = 0.0011 g/cm3 lowest density achieved for aerogel[5]
1.48 kg/m3 = 0.00148 g/cm3 Earth atmosphere at sea level
101 10 kg/m3 10 kg/m3 = 0.01 g/cm3 lowest density of typical aerogel[5]
65 kg/m3 = 0.065 g/cm3 Atmosphere of Venus at surface[6]
102 100 kg/m3 500 kg/m3 = 0.5 g/cm3 highest density of typical aerogel[5]
534 kg/m3 = 0.534 g/cm3 Lithium at near room temperature
103 1 Mg/m3
1 t/m3
1000 kg/m3 = 1 g/cm3 Liquid water at 4 °C
1062 kg/m3 = 1.062 g/cm3 Average human body density[7]
1408 kg/m3 = 1.408 g/cm3 Average density of the Sun
5515 kg/m3 = 5.515 g/cm3 Average density of the Earth
104 10,000 kg/m3 10,490 kg/m3 = 10.49 g/cm3 Silver (Ag)
11,340 kg/m3 = 11.34 g/cm3 Lead (Pb)
13,534 kg/m3 = 13.534 g/cm3 Mercury (Hg)
19,100 kg/m3 = 19.1 g/cm3 Uranium (U)
19,250 kg/m3 = 19.25 g/cm3 Tungsten (W)
19,300 kg/m3 = 19.3 g/cm3 Gold (Au)
21,450 kg/m3 = 21.45 g/cm3 Platinum (Pt)
22,560 kg/m3 = 22.56 g/cm3[8] Iridium (Ir)
22,590 kg/m3 = 22.59 g/cm3[8] Osmium (Os), the densest known substance at STP
41,000 kg/m3 = 41 g/cm3 Hassium (Hs), estimated density, assuming that an isotope featuring a long half-life exists
105 150,000 kg/m3 = 150 g/cm3 Core of the Sun
106 1 Gg/m3
107
108
109 1 Tg/m3 White dwarf
1010
1011
1012 1 Pg/m3
1013 2 × 1013 kg/m3 Universe at end of the electroweak epoch (approximately)
1014
1015 1 Eg/m3
1016
1017 2 × 1017 kg/m3 Atomic nuclei and neutron stars
1018 1 Zg/m3
1019
1020
1021 1 Yg/m3
1022
1023 1023 kg/m3 Density of a hypothetical preon star
... ... ... ...
1096 5.1 × 1096 kg/m3 Planck density Planck star
∞ kg/m3 Density of a black hole at singularity

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0042-207X(93)90084-N
  2. ^ a b c d e f "SP-402 A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab". Archived from the original on 2004-11-18. 
  3. ^ a b "AtmosModeler Simulator - Version 1.2a". NASA. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  4. ^ "Ultralight Metallic Microlattices". 
  5. ^ a b c "What is Aerogel?". Aerogel.org. Retrieved 13 May 2012. "low as 0.0011 g cm-3 ... Typically, ... from 0.5 to 0.01 g cm-3" 
  6. ^ Williams, David R. (2010-11-17). "Venus Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 2012-05-13. "Surface density: ~65. kg/m3" 
  7. ^ Krzywicki, Harry J.; Chinn, Kenneth S. K. (1966-07-21). "Human Body Density and Fat of an Adult Male Population as Measured by Water Displacement" (PDF). Defense Documentation Center. Retrieved 2012-08-07. 
  8. ^ a b Arblaster, J. W. (1989). "Densities of osmium and iridium: recalculations based upon a review of the latest crystallographic data" (PDF). Platinum Metals Review 33 (1): 15. "at 20°C" 

External links[edit]