Orders of magnitude (temperature)

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Temperature in °C compared to the thermodynamic scale in electron volts, which are also used as a unit of temperature.

List of orders of magnitude for temperature[edit]

Factor Multiple Item
0 0 K absolute zero: free bodies are still, no interaction within or without a thermodynamic system
10−30
10−6 yK particular speeds bound paths to exceed size and lifetime of the universe
(see least-energy in orders of magnitude (energy))
10−18
1 aK macroscopic teleportation of matter
Hawking temperature of Supermassive black holes
10−15
1 fK atomic waves coherent over centimeters
atomic particles decoherent over centimeters
10−12
1 pK 100 pK, lowest temperature ever produced, during the nuclear magnetic ordering at Helsinki University of Technology's Low Temperature Lab[1]
450 pK, lowest temperature sodium Bose–Einstein condensate gas ever achieved in the laboratory, at MIT[2]
10−9
1 nK 50 nK, Fermi temperature of potassium-40
critical temperature of alkali Bose–Einstein condensates
10−6
1 μK nuclear demagnetization
Doppler-cooled refrigerants in laser cooling and magneto-optical traps
10−3
1 mK radio excitations
1.7 mK, temperature record for helium-3/helium-4 dilution refrigeration, and the lowest temperature which may be sustained for arbitrarily long time with known techniques.
2.5 mK, Fermi melting point of helium-3
60 mK adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic molecules
300 mK in evaporative cooling of helium-3
700 mK, helium-3/helium-4 mixtures begin phase separation
950 mK, melting point of helium
microwave excitations
1
1 K 1 K at the Boomerang Nebula, the coldest natural environment known
1.5 K, melting point of overbound helium
2.19 K, lambda point of overbound superfluid helium
2.725 K, cosmic microwave background
4.1 K, superconductivity point of mercury
4.22 K, boiling point of bound helium
5.19 K, critical temperature of helium
7.2 K, superconductivity point of lead
9.3 K, superconductivity point of niobium
101 10 K Fermi melting point of valence electrons for superconductivity
14.01 K, melting point of bound hydrogen
20.28 K, boiling point of bound hydrogen
33 K, critical temperature of hydrogen
44 K mean on Pluto
53 K mean of Uranus
63 K, melting point of bound nitrogen
68 K mean of Neptune
77.35 K, boiling point of bound nitrogen
90.19 K, boiling point of bound oxygen
92 K, superconductivity point of YBaCuoxide (YBCO)
102 100 K infrared excitations
134 K, highest-temperature superconductor at ambient pressure, mercury barium calcium copper oxide
165 K, glass point of supercooled water
184.0 K (–89.2 °C), coldest air recorded on Earth
192 K, Debye temperature of ice
273.15 K (0 °C), melting point of bound water
273.16 K (0.01 °C), temperature of triple point of water (defining constant)
~293 K, room temperature
373.15 K (100 °C), boiling point of bound water
647 K, critical point of superheated water
737.5 K, mean on Venus

See detailed list below

103
1 kK visible light excitations
500–2200 K on brown dwarfs (photosphere)
1170 K at wood fire
1300 K in lava flows, open flames
1500 K in basalt lava flows
~1670 K at blue candle flame
1811 K, melting point of iron (lower for steel)
1830 K in Bunsen burner flame
1900 K at the Space Shuttle orbiter hull in 8 km/s dive
2022 K, boiling point of lead
2230 K, Debye temperature of carbon
2320 K at open hydrogen flame
2150–2450 K at open hydrocarbon flame
2900 K, color temperature of halogen lamps, blackbody radiation maximum at 1000 nm
3683 K, melting point of tungsten
3925 K, sublimation point of carbon
4160 K, melting point of hafnium carbide
4800 K, 10 MPa, triple point of carbon[3]
5000 K, 12 GPa melting point of diamond[4]
5100 K in cyanogen-dioxygen flame
5516 K at dicyanoacetylene (carbon subnitride)-ozone flame
5650 K at Earth's Inner Core Boundary
5780 K on Sun
5933 K, boiling point of tungsten
6000 K, mean of the Universe 300,000 years after the Big Bang
7445 K, 850 GPa;[5] 8750 K, 520 GPa;[6] 5400 K, 220 GPa,[7] critical point of diamond/solid III
7735 K, a monatomic ideal gas has one electron volt of kinetic energy
ultraviolet excitations
8000 K, routinely sustainable temperature in an analytical inductively coupled plasma
8801 K, 10.56 GPa[8] 7020.5 K, 797 MPa,[9] critical point of carbon
anionic sparks
104 10 kK 10 kK on Sirius A
10–15 kK in mononitrogen recombination
15.5 kK, critical point of tungsten
25 kK, mean of the Universe 10,000 years after the Big Bang
26 kK on white dwarf Sirius B
28 kK in record cationic lightning over Earth
4–8–40–160 kK on white dwarfs
30–400 kK on a planetary nebula's asymptotic giant helium star
37 kK in protonelectron reactions
38 kK on Eta Carinae
50 kK at protostar (core)
53 kK on Wolf–Rayet star R136a1
54.5 kK on ON2 III(f*) star LH64-16[10]
>200 kK on Butterfly Nebula
~300 kK at 17 meters from Little Boy's detonation
Fermi boiling point of valence electrons
X-ray excitations
106
1 MK 0.8 MK in solar wind
γ-ray excitations
1 MK at old neutron stars, brown dwarfs, and gravital deuterium fusion range
1–3–10 MK above Sun (corona)
2.4 MK at T Tauri stars and gravital lithium-6 fusion range
2.5 MK at red dwarfs and gravital protium fusion range
10 MK at orange dwarfs and gravital helium-3 fusion range
15.6 MK at Sun's core
10–30–100 MK in stellar flares
20 MK in novae
23 MK, beryllium-7 fusion range
60 MK above Eta Carinae
85 MK (15 keV) in a magnetic confinement fusion plasma
200 MK at helium star and gravital helium-4 fusion range
230 MK, gravital carbon-12 fusion range
460 MK, gravital neon fusiondisproportionation range
5–530 MK in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor's plasma
750 MK, gravital oxygen fusion range
109
1 GK 1 GK, everything 100 seconds after the Big Bang
1.3–1.7 GK, gravital silicon fusion range
3 GK in electronpositron reactions
10 GK in supernovae
10 GK, everything 1 second after the Big Bang
700 GK in quasars' accretion discs
740 GK, Hagedorn temperature or Fermi melting point of pions
1012
1 TK 0.1–1 TK at new neutron star
0.5–1.2 TK, Fermi melting point of hadrons into quark–gluon plasma
3–5 TK in protonantiproton reactions
Z0 electronuclear excitations
10 TK, 100 microseconds after the Big Bang
45–67 TK at collapsar of a gamma-ray burst
300–900 TK at protonnickel conversions in the Tevatron's Main Injector
1015
1 PK 0.3–2.2 PK at protonantiproton collisions

2.8 PK at electroweak star

1018
1 EK 2–13 EK at heavy nuclear conversions in the Large Hadron Collider
1021
1 ZK dark matter at active galactic nuclei
1024
1 YK 0.5–7 YK at ultra-high-energy cosmic ray collisions
1027
103 YK electrocoloral excitations
everything 10−35 seconds after the Big Bang
1030
106 YK Hagedorn temperature of strings
1032
108 YK 142 million YK, Planck temperature of Planck particles and geons or kugelblitzes
everything 5×10−44 seconds after the Big Bang

Detailed list for 100 K to 1000 K[edit]

Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude. Circumstances where water naturally occurs in liquid form are shown in light grey.

Kelvin Degrees
Celsius
Degrees
Fahrenheit
Condition Metric Kelvin
100 K −173.15 °C −279.67 °F colder than any non-dwarf planet -963.076 °MEK
125 K −148 °C −234 °F superconductivity point of thalliumbariumcopperoxygen -880.87 °MEK
138 K −135 °C −211 °F superconductivity point of mercurythalliumbariumcalciumcopperoxygen -839.47 °MEK
140 K −130 °C −200 °F mean on Saturn -819.67 °MEK
150 K −120 °C −190 °F mean on Jupiter -801.67 °MEK
179.9 K −93.2 °C −135.8 °F coldest luminance temperature recorded on Earth (measured remotely by satellite), in Antarctica at 81.8° S, 59.3° E on 2010-08-10[11] -704.11 °MEK
182 K −91 °C −132 °F unconfirmed air temperature at Stántsiya Vostók, Antarctica in 1997[12][13] -697.27 °MEK
183.7 K −89.5 °C −129.1 °F freezing/melting point of isopropyl alcohol[14] -692.05 °MEK
183.9 K −89.2 °C −128.6 °F coldest officially recorded air temperature on Earth, at Stántsiya Vostók, Antarctica on 1983-07-21 01:45 UTC (see Vostok Station) -691.15 °MEK
194.6 K −78.5 °C −109.3 °F sublimation point of carbon dioxide (dry ice) -656.41 °MEK
202 K −71 °C −96 °F unofficial air temperature in the Rocky Mountains near Fort Nelson, British Columbia, Canada on the night of January 6–7, 1982[13] -632.47 °MEK
203.8 K −69.4 °C −92.9 °F unofficial air temperature in Greenland on 1991-12-22 at 72°18' N, 40°28' W[13] -626.89 °MEK
205.5 K −67.7 °C −89.9 °F coldest officially recorded air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, at Oymyakon, Siberia, Soviet Union on 1933-02-06[13] -621.49 °MEK
210 K −63 °C −81 °F coldest officially recorded air temperature in North America, at Snag, Yukon, Canada on 1947-02-03[13][15] -605.47 °MEK
210 K −63 °C −80 °F mean on Mars -603.67 °MEK
214.9 K –58.3 °C –72.9 °F coldest annual mean temperature on Earth, at Dome Argus, Antarctica[16] -590.89 °MEK
224.8 K −48.4 °C −55.0 °F coldest temperature that water can remain a liquid (see supercooling -558.67 °MEK
225 K −48 °C −55 °F freezing/melting point of cottonseed oil[17] -558.67 °MEK
233.15 K −40 °C −40 °F intersecting point of the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales
skin may freeze almost instantly at or below this temperature[18]
-531.67 °MEK
234.3 K −38.83 °C −37.89 °F freezing/melting point of mercury -527.872 °MEK
240.4 K −32.8 °C −27.0 °F coldest air temperature recorded in South America, at Sarmiento, Argentina on 1907-06-01[15] -508.27 °MEK
249 K –24 °C –11 °F freezing/melting point of flax seed oil[17] -479.47 °MEK
249.3 K –23.9 °C –11.0 °F coldest air temperature recorded in Africa, at Ifrane, Morocco on 1935-02-11[15] -479.47 °MEK
250 K –23 °C –9 °F coldest air temperature recorded in Australia, at Charlotte Pass, New South Wales, Australia on 1994-06-29[15] -475.87 °MEK
255 K −18 °C −0.4 °F recommended for keeping food frozen -460.39 °MEK
255.37 K –17.78°C 0 °F coldest brine-ice solution found by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit -459.67 °MEK
255 K –18 °C 0 °F freezing/melting point of almond oil[17]
256 K –17 °C 1 °F freezing/melting point of sunflower oil[17]
256 K –17 °C 2 °F freezing/melting point of safflower oil[17]
257 K –16 °C 3 °F freezing/melting point of soybean oil[17]
262 K −11 °C 12 °F freezing/melting point of corn oil[17]
263 K –10 °C 14 °F freezing/melting point of canola oil[17]
freezing/melting point of grape seed oil[17]
265 K –8 °C 18 °F white frost can form below this temperature (see frost)
freezing/melting point of hemp seed oil[17]
265.8 K -7.2 °C 19 °F freezing/melting point of bromine
267 K –6 °C 21 °F freezing/melting point of olive oil[17]
freezing/melting point of sesame oil[17]
272 K −1.1 °C 30 °F chilly sea
273.15 K 0.00 °C 32.00 °F freezing/melting point of water (at STP)
276 K 3 °C 37 °F freezing/melting point of peanut oil[19]
277.13 K 3.98 °C 39.16 °F water is at maximum density[20]
278 K 5 °C 41 °F recommended for keeping food cool
286.9 K 13.7 °C 56.7 °F coldest human body survived (Anna Bågenholm)
287 K 14 °C 57 °F mean on Earth
288 K 15 °C 59 °F hottest air temperature recorded in Antarctica, at Vanda Station on 1974-05-01[15]
295 K 21 °C 70 °F room temperature
297 K 24 °C 75 °F melting/freezing point of palm kernel oil[17]
298 K 25 °C 77 °F melting/freezing point of coconut oil[17]
300 K 27 °C 80.6 °F estimated melting/freezing point of francium
301.2 K 28 °C 82.4 °F minimum temperature for a naked human to be comfortable[21]
303 K 29 °C 84 °F Heated indoor swimming pool for recreational swimming
302.9 K 29.8 °C 85.6 °F melting/freezing point of gallium
303.2 K 30 °C 86 °F maximum temperature for a naked human to be comfortable[21]
304 K 31 °C 88 °F melting/freezing point of butter, critical point for carbon dioxide
307 K 34 °C 93 °F kindling point of white phosphorus
307.6 K 34.4 °C 93.9 °F hottest annual mean temperature on Earth, at Dallol, Ethiopia[16]
308 K 35 °C 95 °F Hypothermic body temperature for humans (see Hypothermia)
warmest sea measured, at the Red Sea
melting/freezing point of palm oil[17]
310.0 K 36.8 °C 98.2 °F average body temperature for a human[22] (see Human body temperature)
310.9 K 37.7 °C 99.9 °F beginnings of a fever for humans[23]
311.8 K 38.6 °C 101.5 °F average body temperature for a cat[24]
315 K 42 °C 108 °F usually fatal human fever
319.3 K 46.1 °C 115 °F world's hottest air temperature recorded while raining, at Needles, California, USA on August 13, 2012[25]
319.7 K 46.5 °C 115.7 °F highest human fever survived (Willie Jones)[26]
322.1 K 48.9 °C 120.0 °F hottest air temperature recorded in South America, at Rivadavia, Argentina on 1905-12-11[15]
323.9 K 50.7 °C 123.3 °F hottest air temperature recorded in the Southern Hemisphere, at Oodnadatta, Australia on 1960-02-01[15]
326.7 K 53.5 °C 128.3 °F hottest reliably measured air temperature in Eurasia, at Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan on 2010-05-26[27]
327 K 54 °C 129 °F hottest officially recorded air temperature in Eurasia, at Tirat Tsvi, Israel on 1942-06-21 (this measurement is an error[28])
327.2 K 54.0 °C 129.2 °F hottest reliably measured air temperature on Earth (according to some meteorologists), at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, USA on 2013-06-30[29]
328.2 K 55.0 °C 131.0 °F hottest official air temperature in Africa, at Kebili, Tunisia on 1931-07-07[15] (accuracy of this measurement is disputed)[28]
330 K 57 °C 134 °F hottest official air temperature on Earth, at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, USA on 1913-07-10[15] (accuracy of this measurement is disputed)[28][29]
330 K 60 °C 140 °F recommended for keeping food warm
336 K 63 °C 145.4 °F milk pasteurization
343 K 69 °C 157 °F boiling point of water on the summit of Mount Everest[30]
340 K 70 °C 160 °F food is well done
hot springs at which some bacteria thrive
350 K 77 °C 170 °F poaching of food
355 K 82 °C 180 °F recommended for coffee brewing
355.6 K 82.4 °C 180.3 °F boiling point of isopropyl alcohol[14]
366 K 93 °C 200 °F simmering of food
367 K 94 °C 201 °F hottest luminance temperature recorded on Earth at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, USA on 1972-07-15[31]
371 K 98 °C 209 °F melting point of sodium
372 K 99 °C 210 °F cake is well done
373.13 K 99.98 °C 211.97 °F boiling point of water at sea level (see Celsius)
380 K 105 °C 225 °F oven on very low
smoke point of raw safflower oil
syrup is concentrated to 75% sugar
388 K 115 °C 239 °F melting/freezing point of sulfur
400 K 127 °C 260 °F Concorde nose tip during supersonic flight
Coldest known stars in space (approximate temperature)[32]
410 K 140 °C 275 °F oven on low
435 K 160 °C 320 °F syrup is concentrated to 100% sugar
440 K 170 °C 325 °F oven on low-medium
450 K 175 °C 350 °F oven on medium
mean on Mercury
smoke point of butter
453 K 180 °C 356 °F popcorn pops (see popcorn)
470 K 200 °C 400 °F oven on medium-high
485 K 210 °C 410 °F kindling point of diesel fuel
490 K 220 °C 425 °F oven on high
kindling range of paper
510 K 240 °C 475 °F oven on very high
kindling range of automotive gasoline
515 K 245 °C 480 °F kindling point of jet fuel (Jet A/Jet A-1)[33]
525 K 250 °C 485 °F smoke point of milkfat
kindling point of jet fuel (Jet B)[33]
540 K 265 °C 510 °F smoke point of refined safflower oil
574.59 K 301.44 °C 574.59 °F approximate intersecting point of the Fahrenheit and Kelvin temperature scales
600.65 K 327.5 °C 621.5 °F melting/freezing point of lead
723 K 450 °C 842 °F autoignition point for paper[34]
kindling point of aviation gasoline[33]
740 K 460 °C 870 °F mean on Venus
749 K 476 °C 889 °F kindling point of magnesium
760 K 480 °C 900 °F electric oven on the self-cleaning cycle
798 K 525 °C 977 °F Draper Point (the point at which nearly all objects start to glow dim red[35])
809 K 536 °C 997 °F kindling point of hydrogen
933.47 K 660.32 °C 1220.58 °F melting/freezing point of aluminium
1000 K 726.85 °C 1340.33 °F mean on Sun

SI Multiples[edit]

SI multiples for kelvin (K)
Submultiples Multiples
Value Symbol Name Value Symbol Name
10−1 K dK decikelvin 101 K daK decakelvin
10−2 K cK centikelvin 102 K hK hectokelvin
10−3 K mK millikelvin 103 K kK kilokelvin
10−6 K µK microkelvin 106 K MK megakelvin
10−9 K nK nanokelvin 109 K GK gigakelvin
10−12 K pK picokelvin 1012 K TK terakelvin
10−15 K fK femtokelvin 1015 K PK petakelvin
10−18 K aK attokelvin 1018 K EK exakelvin
10−21 K zK zeptokelvin 1021 K ZK zettakelvin
10−24 K yK yoctokelvin 1024 K YK yottakelvin

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World record in low temperatures". Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  2. ^ http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/18214.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ Savvatimskii, Aleksandr I (2003). "Melting point of graphite and liquid carbon (Concerning the paper 'Experimental investigation of the thermal properties of carbon at high temperatures and moderate pressures' by EI Asinovskii, A V Kirillin, and a V Kostanovskii)". Physics-Uspekhi 46 (12): 1295. Bibcode:2003PhyU...46.1295S. doi:10.1070/PU2003v046n12ABEH001699. 
  4. ^ Yang, C.C.; Li, S. (2008). "Size-Dependent Temperature-Pressure Phase Diagram of Carbon". Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112 (5): 1423. doi:10.1021/jp076049+. 
  5. ^ Correa, A. A.; Bonev, S. A.; Galli, G. (2006). "Carbon under extreme conditions: Phase boundaries and electronic properties from first-principles theory". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (5): 1204–8. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.1204C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510489103. PMC 1345714. PMID 16432191. 
  6. ^ Wang, Xiaofei; Scandolo, Sandro; Car, Roberto (2005). "Carbon Phase Diagram from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics". Physical Review Letters 95 (18). Bibcode:2005PhRvL..95r5701W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.185701. 
  7. ^ Gerald I. Kerley and Lalit Chhabildas, "Multicomponent-Multiphase Equation of State for Carbon", Sandia National Laboratories (2001)
  8. ^ Glosli, James; Ree, Francis (1999). "Liquid-Liquid Phase Transformation in Carbon". Physical Review Letters 82 (23): 4659. Bibcode:1999PhRvL..82.4659G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.4659. 
  9. ^ Man Chai Chang; Ryong, Ryoo; Mu Shik Jhon (1985). "Thermodynamic properties of liquid carbon". Carbon 23 (5): 481. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(85)90083-1. 
  10. ^ Massey, Philip; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf P.; Puls, Joachim; Pauldrach, A. W. A. (2004). "The Physical Properties and Effective Temperature Scale of O‐Type Stars as a Function of Metallicity. I. A Sample of 20 Stars in the Magellanic Clouds". The Astrophysical Journal 608 (2): 1001. arXiv:astro-ph/0402633. Bibcode:2004ApJ...608.1001M. doi:10.1086/420766. 
  11. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25287806 Coldest spot on Earth identified by satellite
  12. ^ http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/YongLiLiang.shtml The Physics Handbook – Coldest Temperature on Earth
  13. ^ a b c d e http://www.wunderground.com/blog/weatherhistorian/the-coldest-places-on-earth Weather Underground – Coldest Places on Earth
  14. ^ a b http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=690&page=56 The National Academies Press – Emergency and Continuous Exposure Limits for Selected Airborne Contaminants Volume 2 ( 1984 )
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i http://wmo.asu.edu/ ASU World Meteorological Organization – Global Weather & Climate Extremes
  16. ^ a b http://www.currentresults.com/Weather-Extremes/ Current Results – Worlds Hottest and Coldest Places
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Veganbaking.net – Fat and Oil Melt Point Temperatures http://www.veganbaking.net/tools/fat-and-oil-melt-point-temperatures
  18. ^ http://www.weathernotebook.org/transcripts/2001/02/07.html The Weather Notebook – 40 Below
  19. ^ http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/chem03/chem03265.htm U.S. Dept. of Energy – Office of Science – Oils and Low Temperature
  20. ^ http://www.esf.edu/efb/schulz/Limnology/mixing.html College of Environmental Science and Forestry – Thermal Stratification
  21. ^ a b http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/comfort+zone Dictionary.com – Comfort Zone
  22. ^ MacKowiak, Philip A. (1992). "A Critical Appraisal of 98.6°F, the Upper Limit of the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 268 (12): 1578. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490120092034. 
  23. ^ MacKowiak, Philip A. (1992). "A Critical Appraisal of 98.6°F, the Upper Limit of the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 268 (12): 1578. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490120092034. 
  24. ^ http://people.rit.edu/hmm5837/320/project2/page4.html Rochester Institute for Technology – Random Cat Facts
  25. ^ http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/hottest-rain-on-record-rain-falls-at-115f-in-needles-california Wunderground.com – Dr. Jeff Masters' Wunderblog – Hottest rain on record? Rain falls at 115°F in Needles, California
  26. ^ http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/clock.html Biological Rhythums
  27. ^ http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/asia-records-its-hottest-temperature-in-history-category-4--phet-thre Dr. Jeff Masters' WunderBlog – Asia records its hottest temperature in history; Category 4 Phet threatens Oman
  28. ^ a b c http://www.wunderground.com/blog/weatherhistorian/hottest-air-temperatures-reported-on-earth Wunderground.com – Weather Extremes: Hottest air temperatures reported on Earth
  29. ^ a b Masters, Jeff. "Historic Heat Wave Reponsible for Death Valley's 129°F Gradually Weakening". WunderBlog. Wunderground. 
  30. ^ http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/chemistry-terms/boiling-info.htm HowStuffWorks – Boiling
  31. ^ http://www.nps.gov/deva/naturescience/weather-and-climate.htm National Park Service – Death Valley – Weather and Climate
  32. ^ http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/research/Stars.shtml University of Hawaii – Institute for Astronomy
  33. ^ a b c INTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE: FIREFIGHTER INITIAL: AVIATION FUELS AND FUEL TANKS - International Fire Training Centre
  34. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=qa-I8QAOUL8C&pg=PA406&lpg=PA406&dq=flash+point+of+paper&source=web&ots=FjB5FslcKK&sig=Vlr2cc8M2-TWy3qkdwzGUeK-vnM&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result#v=onepage&q=flash%20point%20of%20paper&f=false Handbook of Physical Testing of Paper
  35. ^ John William Draper (1847). "Production of Light by Heat". The London, Edinburgh and Dublin philosophical magazine and journal of science (Taylor & Francis): 345–359. 

External links[edit]