Orders of magnitude (voltage)

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To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various voltage levels.

SI prefix Factor (volt) Value Item
micro 10−7 0.5 µV Change in nerve cell potential caused by opening a single acetylcholine receptor channel[1]
10−6 2 µV Noise in an EEG taken at the scalp[2]
milli 10−5 10–100 µV Peak-to-peak amplitude of an average EEG taken at the scalp[2][3]
15 µV Minimum terrestrial digital-TV RF antenna signal (−85 dBm over 75 Ω)[4][5]
56 µV Minimum terrestrial analog-TV RF antenna signal (35 dB[µV])[6][7][8]
10−4 0.5–1 mV Miniature endplate potentials, spontaneous fluctuations in neuron potentials[1]
10−3 1–2 mV potential created at ambient temperatures from K Type Thermocouple
centi 10−2 ~10–50 mV Ripple voltage in the output of a good DC power supply[9]
75 mV Nerve cell resting potential[10]
deci 10−1 0.32 V Typical voltage reference level in consumer audio electronics (0.316 V rms)[11]
~0.5 V Typical MOSFET threshold voltage for modern processes[citation needed]
~0.7 V Forward voltage drop of normal silicon diodes[12]
0.8–1.0 V Typical positive supply voltage of a FET[citation needed]
0.9 V Lemon battery cell (made with copper and zinc electrodes)[13]
N/A 100 0-3 V Magnitudes of standard reduction potentials in chemistry[14]
1.5 V Alkaline battery AA, AAA, C or D battery[15]
5 V USB power, used for example to charge a cell phone or a digital camera[16]
6 V A common voltage for medium-size electric lanterns.[17] A voltage for older electric systems of automobiles.
deca 101 12 V Typical car battery[18]
hecto 102 110–240 V Domestic wall socket voltage[19]
600 V Electric eel sends this voltage in an average attack
630 V London Underground railway tracks[20]
kilo 103 2450 V Electric chair execution in Nebraska[21]
3–10 kV Electric fence[22]
3–35 kV Accelerating voltage for a typical television cathode ray tube[23]
3300 V Common early urban distribution voltage for grid electricity in the UK[citation needed] (still used for many industrial overhead cable distribution systems)[24]
4160-34,500 V Typical voltages in North America for distribution of power from distribution substations to end users[25]
104 15 kV Train 15 kV AC railway electrification overhead lines, 16⅔ Hz
25 kV European high-speed train overhead power lines[26]
69–230 kV Range used in North American power high-voltage transmission substations[25]
105 345–800 kV Range used in EHV power transmission systems[27]
800 kV Lowest voltage used by ultra-high voltage (UHV) power transmission systems[28]
mega 106 3 MV Used by the ultra-high voltage electron microscope at Osaka University[29]
107 25.5 MV The largest man-made voltage – produced in a Van de Graaff generator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory[30]
108 100 MV The potential difference between the ends of a typical lightning bolt[31]
peta 1015 7 PV Voltage around a particular energetic highly magnetized rotating neutron star[32]
N/A 1027 1.04×1027 V The Planck voltage

SI multiples[edit]

SI multiples for volt (V)
Submultiples Multiples
Value Symbol Name Value Symbol Name
10−1 V dV decivolt 101 V daV decavolt
10−2 V cV centivolt 102 V hV hectovolt
10−3 V mV millivolt 103 V kV kilovolt
10−6 V µV microvolt 106 V MV megavolt
10−9 V nV nanovolt 109 V GV gigavolt
10−12 V pV picovolt 1012 V TV teravolt
10−15 V fV femtovolt 1015 V PV petavolt
10−18 V aV attovolt 1018 V EV exavolt
10−21 V zV zeptovolt 1021 V ZV zettavolt
10−24 V yV yoctovolt 1024 V YV yottavolt

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Synaptic transmission". NeuroWiki. Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Epstein, Charles M. "Home built EEG". Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Ernst Neidermeyer (1999). "9. The Normal EEG of the Waking Adult". In Niedermeyer, Ernst; Lopes da Silva, F. Electroencephalography: basic principles, clinical applications, and related (PDF) (4th ed.). pp. 149–173. ISBN 0-683-30284-1. Retrieved 1 November 2011. The amplitudes of the scalp EEG are markedly reduced and lie between 10 and 100 μV 
  4. ^ eecs.berkeley.edu - Spectrum Sensing, Fundamental Limits and Practical Challenges, page 82, 2005
  5. ^ Decibel#Voltage P=pow(10,-3)*pow(10,(dBmW)/10) ; U=pow(R*P,1/2) ; R=75 Ω ; pow(10,-3)*pow(10,(-85)/10) = 3.162278 pW ; pow(75*pow(10,-3)*pow(10,(-85)/10) , 1/2) = 15.400351 µV
  6. ^ as76.net - How to use the booster. (To see the terrestrial digital broadcasting beautifully.), 2011-12-01
  7. ^ maxim-ic.com - CATV dBm, dBmV, and dBµV Conversions - Tutorial - Maxim, 2002-07-17
  8. ^ Decibel#Voltage pow(10,-6)*pow(10,35/20) = 56 µV
  9. ^ "DC Power Supply Specifications". Radio-Electronics.Com. Retrieved 10 November 2011. Most good supplies should offer noise and ripple figures of better than 10 mV rms and for switching supplies figures of 50mV or less should be achievable 
  10. ^ Bullock, Orkand, and Grinnell, pp. 150–151; Junge, pp. 89–90; Schmidt-Nielsen, p. 484
  11. ^ "Pro Audio Reference D". Rane Professional Audio Products. Retrieved 10 November 2011. -10 dBV Standard voltage reference level for consumer and some pro audio use 
  12. ^ "Diodes". The Electronics Club. Retrieved 11 November 2011. about 0.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon 
  13. ^ "Lemon Battery". Hila Science Camp. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  14. ^ Nave, Rod. "Standard Electrode Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25°C". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  15. ^ David Linden, Thomas B. Reddy (ed). Handbook of Batteries, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002 ISBN 0-07-135978-8 chapter 4
  16. ^ "About USB-IF". USB Implementers Forum, Inc. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  17. ^ Eveready Battery Company. "EVR-1209 Engineering Data". Retrieved 2010-01-15. 
  18. ^ Horst Bauer Bosch Automotive Handbook 4th Edition Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart 1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, pages 803–807
  19. ^ ita.doc.gov - Electric current abroad
  20. ^ "8. London Underground Facts and Figures". [uk.transport.london] Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  21. ^ "Electrocution protocol questioned". Lincoln Journal Star. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "Electric Fencing for Pastured Livestock" (PDF). Soil & Crop Improvement Association of Nova Scotia. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  23. ^ "Voltage of a Television Picture Tube". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  24. ^ Isle of Man power distribution.
  25. ^ a b "Electric Power eTool: Illustrated Glossary: Substations". Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  26. ^ Caltrain-Electrification Project
  27. ^ "Definitions: E". Bonneville Power Administration. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  28. ^ "Definitions: TUV". Bonneville Power Administration. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  29. ^ Features of 3 MV Ultrahigh voltage electron microscope
  30. ^ http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp?purl=/6446725-T101Ai Oak Ridge Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1988
  31. ^ "Voltage of a Lightning Bolt". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  32. ^ "Chandra Examines a Quadrillion-Volt Pulsar". Chandra X-ray Observatory Center. September 6, 2001. Retrieved 7 March 2010. 

External links[edit]