Ordnance BLC 15-pounder

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Ordnance BLC 15 pounder
BLC15pdrGunIWM.jpg
Type Light field gun
Place of origin United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service history
In service 1907 - 1918
Used by British Empire
Wars First World War
Production history
Number built 536[1]
Specifications
Weight Gun & breech 896 lb (406 kg);
Total 3,177 lb (1,441 kg)[2]
Barrel length Bore 7 ft (2.134 m)[2]

Shell Shrapnel, HE
14 lb (6.35 kg)
Calibre 3-inch (76.2 mm)
Breech Single-motion interrupted screw
Recoil Hydro-spring, 40 inches (1.02 m)
Carriage Wheeled, box trail
Elevation -9° - 16°
Traverse 2° L & R
Muzzle velocity 1,590 ft/s (485 m/s)
Maximum firing range 5,750 yd (5,260 m)

The Ordnance BLC 15 pounder gun (BLC stood for BL Converted) was a modernised version of the obsolete BL 15 pounder 7 cwt gun, incorporating a recoil and recuperator mechanism above the barrel and modified quicker-opening breech. It was developed to provide Territorial Force artillery brigades with a reasonably modern field gun without incurring the expense of equipping them with the modern 18 pounder. It is the gun which writers usually mean by "15 pounder gun" in World War I, but can be confused with the earlier Ordnance QF 15 pounder which fired the same shell.

History[edit]

Many modifications were made to the old 15 pounder barrels to adapt them to a new carriage with a recoil buffer and recuperator above the barrel similar to the modern 13 pounder design. Previously the barrels had been mounted directly on the carriage by trunnions. Now the barrel was suspended from a forged-steel inverted U-shaped cradle which had trunnions to attach it to the carriage. The trunnions, sight brackets and elevating gear attachment lugs were removed from the barrel. The radial T-vent hole on top was plugged, holes in the jacket passing through the trunnion centres were sealed with screwed steel plugs, and the holes in the hood for fitting tangent sights were plugged with white metal alloy.

The 3-motion breech was replaced by a single-motion interrupted screw breech which had an axial T vent running through it into the chamber, designed to take a T friction tube.

The new firing mechanism involved a new "push" type T friction tube which was inserted into the axial breech vent. The crosspiece of the T was positioned pointing upwards. A long layer's guard was added to the left side of the cradle projecting behind the breech. A spring-loaded firing handle was built into the layer's guard. When cocked by pulling back and then released, it sprang forward and struck a firing lever on the breech, which translated the forward motion to a downward motion and propelled a firing plunger into the T of the friction tube which in turn ignited the cordite propellant charge.

In 1915, Territorial batteries guarding the east coast of England adapted their 15 pounders for use against Zeppelins, by simply digging a pit to accommodate the trail of the gun, to allow it to be trained upwards. It is unlikely that this arrangement was ever used operationally.[3] In a more sophisticated adaptation, two 15 pounders were modified for anti-aircraft use by increasing allowed elevation to more than 60°.[4] These guns were installed at Ford Wynyard in Cape Town.

Combat service[edit]

Camel Battery of BLC 15 pounders after capture of Hatum, 5 January 1918

The weapon was used by British Territorial Force and New Army, and Canadian, infantry divisions in all theatres of World War I until replaced by the 18 pounder from 1916 onwards.

10th Battery of the Royal Canadian Field Artillery (RCFA), equipped with 4 guns, fought a notable action in the evening of 22 April 1915 north of St Julien to hold the left of the British line where the German infantry was breaking through following their gas attack on the first day of the Second Battle of Ypres.[5] Hence when skillfully utilised in the role it was intended for - against troops in the open - the gun was still effective despite being obsolete. Where infantry avoided being caught in the open the guns were of limited use due to their light shell.

After they became redundant, from late 1916 some were retained in fixed positions on the Western Front as anti-tank guns, freeing up modern guns for their usual duties.[6]

Number 1 15 Pounder Camel Battery RGA (today's 21 (Air Assault) Battery) served with 6 guns with the Indian Expeditionary Force in the Aden hinterland from 1915–1918 during the South Arabia campaign, to defend the important port at Aden against any Turkish advance. In July 1915 actions were fought in initially losing and then regaining the British advanced post at Sheik Othman controlling the water supply to Aden.[7] Sgt Curtis was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for saving his gun in these actions[8] (presumably the first, in which 2 guns were lost). The Camel Battery was present when the British captured Hatum in January 1918.

The gun was the standard field artillery for the early South African Union Defence Force and saw action with the Cape Field Artillery at the Battle of Kakamas and Battle of Upington during the South-West Africa Campaign.[4]

Ammunition[edit]

BL&BLC15pdrCartridgeDiagram.jpg
15pdrShrapnelShellMkVIDiagram.jpg
No65AMkILFuze.jpg
3inchCaseShotMkVDiagram.jpg
15 pdr HE Shell Mk I.jpg
TFrictionPushTubeMkIBLC15pounder.jpg
Cordite cartridge 15¾ oz, 1907
Cordite cartridge 1 lb 1 oz 11 dr, 1914
Mk VI Shrapnel shell
No. 65A Fuze
Mk V Case shot
Mk I high-explosive shell, 1915, with No. 101 fuze
T Friction tube, Push type

See also[edit]

Weapons of comparable role, performance and era[edit]

Surviving examples[edit]

Open-air display of two surviving examples in Graaff-Reinet, South Africa

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Clarke 2004, page 37. 536 were supplied to Territorial Force brigades. Clarke states that 50 were supplied to Italy during WWI, presumably out of the above as they were replaced by 18 pounders.
  2. ^ a b Hogg and Thurston 1972, Page 75
  3. ^ J D Sainsbury, The hertfordshire Batteries of the Royal Field Artillery, Hart Books, Welwyn, 1996 ISBN 0-9485278-04-8 (p.43)
  4. ^ a b c "Newsletter No 49". SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY HISTORY SOCIETY. October 2008. 
  5. ^ Farndale 1986, page 95
  6. ^ Clarke 2004, Page 13
  7. ^ Farndale 1988, Page 357
  8. ^ 21 (Air Assault) Battery - History

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]