Ordos City

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Ordos
鄂尔多斯市 · ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Prefecture-level city
Genghis Khan Memorial in Ordos City
Genghis Khan Memorial in Ordos City
Ordos City (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Ordos City (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Ordos is located in Inner Mongolia
Ordos
Ordos
Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia
Coordinates: 39°36′N 109°47′E / 39.600°N 109.783°E / 39.600; 109.783Coordinates: 39°36′N 109°47′E / 39.600°N 109.783°E / 39.600; 109.783
Country People's Republic of China
Region Inner Mongolia
Municipal seat Dongsheng District
Area
 • Total 87,000 km2 (34,000 sq mi)
Elevation 1,305 m (4,281 ft)
Highest elevation 2,149 m (7,051 ft)
Lowest elevation 850 m (2,790 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Total 1,940,653
 • Density 22/km2 (58/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 017000
GDP
(2011)
CNY 321.85 billion
(US$ 49.83 billion)[1]
GDP per capita
(2011)
CNY 163,012
(US$ 25,239)
Licence plate prefixes K
Administrative division code 150600
ISO 3166-2 CN-15-06
Website ordos.gov.cn
Ordos City
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 鄂尔多斯
Traditional Chinese 鄂爾多斯
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Ордос хот
Mongolian script ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ

Ordos (Mongolian: ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Ordos qota; Chinese: 鄂尔多斯市) is one of the twelve major subdivisions of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. It is located within the Ordos Loop of the Yellow River. Although mainly rural, Ordos is administered as a prefecture-level city. The administrative seat is at Dongsheng.

The area had been administered as Ih Ju League (Mongolian: ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠵᠤᠤᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ Yeke Juu ayimaγ; Chinese: 伊克昭盟; pinyin: Yīkèzhāo Méng) since the 17th century, and was redesignated a prefecture-level city and renamed to Ordos on 26 February 2001. "Ordos" means "palaces" in the Mongolian language.[2] Ordos originally referred to a tribe belonging to the Yeke Juu (Ike Chao ‘great monastery’) league and later included the tribe’s area, hence the Ordos, or Ordus, the area within the big bend of the Yellow River. Mongolian ordu(n), ord ‘court, residence of a ruler; palace; camp’, also for 'camp bodyguards'. According to Ramstedt -s is a plural suffix; further: ordu, orda; Turkic orta ‘a center’; Mongolian > Turkish orda ‘camp’ > Hindi urdū > English “horde.” [3] The name is sometimes claimed to be related to the eight white yurts of Genghis Khan.[4] Linguistically, the Ordos dialect of Mongolian is quite different from neighboring Chakhar Mongolian. Ordos is known for its lavish government projects, including the new Ordos City, a large city with abundant infrastructure, seldom used by residents and frequently described as a "ghost city".[5] It hosted the 2012 Miss World Final.

Geography and climate[edit]

Ordos's prefectural administrative region occupies 86,752 square kilometres (33,495 sq mi) and covers the bigger part of the Ordos Desert, although the urban area itself is relatively small. It borders the prefecture-level divisions of Hohhot to the east, Baotou to the northeast, Bayan Nur to the north, Alxa League to the northwest, Wuhai to the west, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region to its southwest, and the provinces of Shaanxi and Shanxi to the south. The maximal north-south extent is 340 km (210 mi), while from east to west it stretches for 400 km (250 mi).[6]

The area of Ordos Shi can roughly be divided into a hilly area in the east, high plateaus in the west and center, sandy deserts in the north and south, and plains at the southern bank of the Yellow river. The highest elevation, at 2,149 metres (7,051 ft), is located in the west, the lowest point, at 850 m (2,790 ft), is in the east.

There are two large deserts within the territory of Ordos Shi, namely the Kubuqi Desert (库布其沙漠) in the north, and the Maowusu Desert (毛乌素沙漠) in the south. The Kubuqi Desert occupies 19.2% of Ordos, or 16,600 km2 (6,400 sq mi), while the Maowusu Desert takes up 28.8% of the area, or 25,000 km2 (9,700 sq mi).

Ordos features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), marked by long, cold and very dry winters, very warm, somewhat humid summers, and strong winds, especially in spring. The annual precipitation is 300 to 400 millimetres (11.8 to 15.7 in) in the eastern part of the city, and 190 to 350 mm (7.5 to 13.8 in) in the western part. Most of the rain falls between July and September, with very little snow in winter; average annual evaporation reaches 2,000 to 3,000 mm (79 to 118 in). In the city proper, the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −10.5 °C (13.1 °F) in January to 21.0 °C (69.8 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 6.16 °C (43.1 °F). Sunshine duration averages 2,700 to 3,200 hours annually.[6]

Climate data for Ordos (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
5.2
(41.4)
14.1
(57.4)
20.8
(69.4)
25.0
(77)
26.7
(80.1)
24.5
(76.1)
19.4
(66.9)
12.6
(54.7)
4.0
(39.2)
−2.9
(26.8)
11.9
(53.5)
Average low °C (°F) −14.7
(5.5)
−11.5
(11.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
1.9
(35.4)
8.4
(47.1)
13.0
(55.4)
15.8
(60.4)
14.3
(57.7)
8.8
(47.8)
2.1
(35.8)
−5.9
(21.4)
−12.3
(9.9)
1.2
(34.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.1
(0.083)
4.4
(0.173)
10.8
(0.425)
11.4
(0.449)
25.8
(1.016)
44.8
(1.764)
105.7
(4.161)
105.5
(4.154)
44.7
(1.76)
19.4
(0.764)
5.3
(0.209)
1.3
(0.051)
381.2
(15.009)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.1 2.9 4.3 3.4 5.9 8.7 12.2 11.9 8.1 4.4 2.6 1.9 68.4
Source: Weather China[6]

Economy[edit]

Ordos is one of the richest regions of China. With a nominal per-capita GDP of US$14,500 in 2008, it is ranked ahead of Beijing.[citation needed] It is extremely rich in natural resources, having one sixth of national coal reserves. The pillars of its economy are textile (wool), coal mining, petrochemicals, electricity generation and production of building materials.

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

Ordos Shi is divided into one district and seven banners:

Map
Ordos mcp.png
# Name Mongolian Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Dongsheng District ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠱᠧᠩ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Düŋšėŋ toɣoriɣ)
东胜区 Dōngshèng Qū 582,544 2,137 108
2 Dalad Banner ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠳ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Dalad qosiɣu)
达拉特旗 Dálātè Qí 322,101 8,192 40
3 Jungar Banner ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Jegünɣar qosiɣu)
准格尔旗 Zhǔngé'ěr Qí 356,501 7,535 36
4 Otog Front Banner ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Otoɣ-un Emünedü qosiɣu)
鄂托克前旗 Ètuōkè Qián Qí 68,282 12,318 6
5 Otog Banner ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Otoɣ qosiɣu)
鄂托克旗 Ètuōkè Qí 148,844 20,064 4
6 Hanggin Banner ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Qaŋɣin qosiɣu)
杭锦旗 Hángjǐn Qí 111,102 18,903 7
7 Uxin Banner ᠦᠦᠰᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Üüsin qosiɣu)
乌审旗 Wūshěn Qí 124,527 11,645 9
8 Ejin Horo Banner ᠡᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Ejin Qoroɣ-a qosiɣu)
伊金霍洛旗 Yījīnhuòluò Qí 226,752 5,958 23

Kangbashi New Area[edit]

A large, and largely uninhabited urban real estate development has been constructed 25 km (16 mi) from Dongsheng District. Intended to house a million people, it remains largely uninhabited.[7][8] Intended to have 300,000 residents by 2010, government figures stated it had 28,000.[9] It has been the subject of several well publicized articles, some profusely illustrated.[10] The Daily Mail has documented Ordos/Kangbashi and other similar urban developments in China.[11][12]

Transportation[edit]

Travel within Ordos City is primarily made by car or bus, using the city's network roads. Two tolled expressways, the G18 Rongcheng–Wuhai Expressway and the G65 Baotou–Maoming Expressway, provide connections with other towns and cities including Dongsheng.

There are no direct rail lines to the city. The closest is the Baoshen Line in Dongshen.

Ordos Airport is located to the south of the city.

Demographics[edit]

In the 2000 census, there were 1,369,766 inhabitants:

ethnic group population share
Han 1,207,971 88.19%
Mongols 155,845 11.38%
Manchu 2,905 0.21%
Hui 1,861 0.14%
Tibetans 1,023 0.07%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 鄂尔多斯市2011年国民经济和社会发展统计公报
  2. ^ http://www.ordos.gov.cn/zjeedx/sqgk/ 市情概况
  3. ^ G. John Ramstedt: Kalmückisches Wörterbuch, Helsinki, 1935, Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, and Ferdinand D. Lessing, ed.: Mongolian-English Dictionary, Bloomington, Ind., 1982, The Mongolia Society, Inc.
  4. ^ W. R. Carles, "Problems in Exploration II. Ordos", in The Geographical Journal, Vol. 33, No. 6 (Jun., 1909), p. 669
  5. ^ Al-Jazeera (2009-11-09). "China's Empty City" (video). YouTube. 
  6. ^ a b c Weather China
  7. ^ Time Photos of Ordos/Kangbashi, Time Photos Website 2011
  8. ^ Gus Lubin (2011-06-13). "NEW SATELLITE PICTURES OF CHINA'S GHOST CITIES". Business Insider. Retrieved 2011-12-09. 
  9. ^ Barboza, David (2010-10-19). "A New Chinese City, With Everything but People". New York Times. 
  10. ^ "China's Ghost Town". AlJazeera. 10 November 2009. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  11. ^ The Ghost Towns of China...The Daily Telegraph 18 Dec 2010
  12. ^ "Ordos: The biggest ghost town in China". BBC News. 2012-03-17. 

External links[edit]