Oregon State Penitentiary

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Oregon State Penitentiary
Oregon State Pen.JPG
Location Salem, Oregon, United States
44°55′55″N 123°00′18″W / 44.932°N 123.005°W / 44.932; -123.005Coordinates: 44°55′55″N 123°00′18″W / 44.932°N 123.005°W / 44.932; -123.005
Status Operational
Security class maximum, male
Capacity 2,242
Opened 1851/1866
Managed by Oregon Department of Corrections (ODOC)
Warden Brian Belleque
Street address 2605 State Street
City Salem, Oregon
ZIP code 97310
Country United States
Website Official site

Oregon State Penitentiary (OSP), sometimes called Oregon State Prison, is a maximum security prison in Oregon, United States. Opened in 1851, the 2,242 capacity prison is the oldest prison in the state. The all-male facility is located in Salem and is operated by the Oregon Department of Corrections.

OSP contains Oregon's death row, which houses most of the 37 people awaiting execution in Oregon. It also contains an intensive management wing, which is being transformed into a psychiatric facility for mentally ill prisoners throughout Oregon.

History[edit]

Oregon State Penitentiary in 1892

Prior to the construction of prisons in Oregon, many people convicted of crimes were either hanged or pardoned.[1] Oregon State Penitentiary was originally built in Portland in 1851. Operating this facility proved difficult because it spanned two blocks, with a city street running through the middle. In 1859, the facility was leased to private contractors (Robert Newell and L. N. English), who instituted a system of prison labor. This new system led to many escapes.[2][3] In 1866 the state officially moved the penitentiary to a 26-acre (110,000 m2) site in Salem, enclosed by a reinforced concrete wall averaging 14 feet (4.3 m) in height. The prison also began using a device called the "Gardner shackle" (later called the "Oregon Boot"), a heavy metal device attached to prisoners' legs to impede movement.[3]

Bunko Kelly describes prison guards flogging several people to death, including a disabled Black man named Monroe.

Escapes continued at the new facility, despite the wall and the Boot. The most famous of these occurred in 1902, when Harry Tracy and David Merrill killed three guards with a gun.[3] Details about this period can be read in Thirteen Years in Oregon State Penitentiary, a book written by Joseph "Bunko" Kelly. Kelly describes scenes of extreme brutality, particularly floggings, which he recounts happening to whites, Blacks, Indians, and a Chinese "half boy and half woman". He describes negligent doctors and a lack of mental health care, and complains that whiskey drinking affects the behavior of the guards. He also identifies a five-year period in which the warden stopped newspaper deliveries to prevent convicts from learning of pardons.[4] The prison announced in 1904 that it would end the use of flogging, and instead punish prisoners by spraying them with cold water from a garden hose.[5]

The prison experimented briefly in 1917–1918 with an "honor system" in which 130 prisoners were paroled with certain conditions. The prisoners were released into jobs outside the prison during the daytime. After 66 of these absconded, Governor James Withycombe announced that he would find a way for them to work jobs within the prison facility.[6]

In the 1920s, the Penitentiary created a flax plant which employed more than half of its inmates. Inmates worked on construction and in the fields, and were paid $0.50–$1.00 per day. The plant was touted nationally as a way to the prison financially self-sustaining, and to rehabilitate prisoners by giving them something to do and preparing them to work.[7] In 1925, OSP had the largest flax scutching mill in the world, with 175 workers producing 100–150 tons of flax per day.[8]

With assistance from the federal Bureau of Education, OSP ran a unique and successful adult education program during the same era.[9] With Prohibition in effect, 80 of the prison's 575 inmates at this time were moonshiners.[10] Nine prisoners were shot in a 1926 riot beginning in the prison cafeteria.[11]

Seven hundred inmates were involved in a riot on August 1, 1936, in response to a court ruling that made it more difficult for prisoners to be released after serving their minimum sentence. The riot was put down by armed guards; one prisoner, Thomas Baughn, was killed and two were wounded.[12][13] After being deprived of their weapons (and of food, in punishment), prisoners began to break windows and throw projectiles from their cells.[14] Inmates at OSP attempted a mass escape in December 1951, after receiving weapons from a sympathetic guard. The plan was foiled by an informant, John Edward Ralph, who was quickly transferred to Folsom Prison for his own protection.[15] Unrest continued through 1952 with civil disobedience and more escape attempts.[16][17] Over 1300 prisoners conducted an eight-day hunger strike in August to protest alleged brutality of a guard named Morris Race.[18][19] In October 1952, an escape attempt involving armed conflict with guards was suppressed with gunfire.[20] On January 1, 1953, prison officials announced the discovery of an escape tunnel being dug by prisoner Robert Green. The tunnel was 12 feet underground and 50 feet long, reaching within 15 feet of the world outside OSP walls.[21]

A major insurrection erupted in July 1953 when prisoners stopped working, on strike for better food and medical care.[22] They barricaded themselves in the cafeteria. Under instructions from Warden Clarence T. Gladden, guards used tear gas to prevent the prisoners from reaching food supplies. The angry prisoners gained control of most of the prison and started fires in the flax plant, laundry room, tailor room, and machine shop.[23] Ultimately the prisoners were subdued by guards with tear gas, shotguns, and rifles.[24] 1100 Rebels were confined to a baseball diamond without food or water, with Warden Gladden saying they would stay there until "I am sure they are repentant".[25] They stayed on the diamond for two days and one night, until twenty ringleaders identified by prison authorities were surrendered, and prisoners agreed to be individually searched.[22]

In what may have been the first gender confirmation surgery officially conducted in a prison, a DMAB prisoner changed her sex to female, through surgery and hormones, in a period prior to release in 1965.[26]

Discontent continued in the 1960s. The public became aware that only 200 of the 1200 inmates at OSP actually had sentences calling for maximum security incarceration; yet all inmates were treated according to maximum security standards. Prisoners continued to complain about medical care, dental care, and visitation rights.[27]

Unrest culminated in March 1968, in an uprising which began with a surprise takeover of the prison's control center.[28] 700 prisoners took control of the facility, started a fire in the flour shop, and held 40 guards and prison employees hostage.[29] The hostages were freed after prison officials announced the resignation of Warden Gladden (then 73 years old), as well as immunity for the rioters.[30] Prisoners were criticized for damaging facilities that supported them.[31] Ron Schmidt, press secretary of Governor Tom McCall, said: "It's pure devastation. The men destroyed everything that was of any benefit to them."[32] Two inmates were stabbed during the riot: Delmar DuBray, 30, was stabbed in the right kidney; Melvin Newell, 36, was stabbed in the abdomen and groin.

In November 1968, a work stoppage by 81 prisoners in the laundry room was controlled by guards with clubs, and the prisoners placed in isolation[33]

Also in 1968, OSP inmates founded UHURU, an organization dedicated to Afro-American culture, history, and community service. Although the prison establishment was skeptical at first, UHURU gained official support and had a membership of several hundred in 1982.[34] OSP prisoners were politically active in the following decades, holding forums on politics[35] and communicating with the Oregon NAACP. OSP began to recruit Black staff in 1981 in response to pressure from activist Black prisoners.[36]

In September 1988, 28 female inmates at the Oregon Correctional Center staged a sit-down protest that prison Superintendent Robert H. Scheidler described as the first of its kind in the facility's history. On October 1, between four and eight women staged a hunger strike—inmate Jody Bedell fasted for 24 days before ending the strike. Both the sit-down protest and hunger strike were meant to call attention to overcrowding, poor medical care, inadequate education programs and the shortage of showers and laundry machines. At the time, the prison was built for 80 women but was housing over 140 women and had only one shower for every 43 inmates. The women who participated in the hunger strike were ordered to spend a year in a segregation unit and were fined $214.[37]

Facility and programs[edit]

The prison is located on 194 acres of land in the southeast of Salem, Oregon. The facility itself consists of ten acres, surrounded by a 25-foot wall which is patrolled by armed guards.[3]

Most housing in the penitentiary is in large cell blocks with most inmates housed in single man cells that have been converted to double man cells to increase capacity. The penitentiary also has a full service infirmary.

Intensive Management Unit[edit]

Oregon State Penitentiary was the site of Oregon's first supermax unit: the "Intensive Management Unit" (IMU), constructed in 1991. The 196-bed self-contained Intensive Management Unit provides housing and control for those death row and male inmates who disrupt or pose a substantial threat to the general population in all department facilities. In 2006 this facility held 147 people (out of a total of 784 across Oregon)[38] in solitary confinement.[39]

Conditions IMU were the object of public criticism, triggered particularly by multiple suicide of mentally ill prisoners.[39] Former warden Brian Belleque also expressed doubts about the possibility of rehabilitation in the IMU, saying: "We realize that 95 to 98 percent of these inmates here are going to be your neighbor in the community. They are going to get out."[40] Prisoners in the OSP IMU were moved in 2009 to Snake River Correctional Institution in Ontario, Oregon.[38]

In 2010, ODOC began to convert the IMU into a psychiatric facility, which will serve mentally ill prisoners from across Oregon.[41][42] Some advocates for the mentally ill have argued that the IMU facility is not suitable for treating the mentally ill because it is "dark" and "crowded", and generally designed for solitary confinement.[43]

Death row[edit]

OSP has long been the site of death row in Oregon. As of November 2012, death row contains 34 men (with two men and one woman, also slated for execution, held elsewhere for medical reasons). Death row includes notorious serial killers such as Dayton Leroy Rogers.[44] OSP also contains the lethal injection chamber where prisoners are executed.[45]

Executions in Oregon were conducted in public by counties until 1902, when they were centralized (and made less spectacular) at the State Penitentiary.[46] Since the US Supreme Court reaffirmed the death penalty in Gregg v. Georgia (1976), Oregon has executed only two people: Douglas Wright, in 1996, and Harry Charles Moore, in 1997.[45] Governor John Kitzhaber announced an official moratorium on executions in November 2011.[47] OSP prisoner Gary Haugen says he is ready to die and has sought to waive this waiver and be executed.[48]

Hospice[edit]

Oregon State Penitentiary is home to a hospice, which is staffed by volunteers from among the prison population. The current incarnation of the hospice began in 1999, and won "Program of the Year Award" from the National Commission on Correctional Health Care in 2001. The OSP hospice was at the forefront of a national trend of prison hospices—reacting to increased prison deaths resulting from the HIV/AIDS epidemic and from harsher sentencing laws. The program's volunteer-based structure has served as a model for other institutions.[49][50]

Minimum security annex[edit]

Oregon State Penitentiary has a separate minimum security facility located on its grounds.[51] It was first opened in 1964 as Oregon's first women's prison,[52] and was called Oregon Women's Correctional Center. In 2010, the state closed the minimum security annex.[3][52][53]

Criticism and legal actions[edit]

Prisoners and advocates have charged the OSP system with racism, saying that the system discriminates against Black inmates—both by placing them in worse conditions and by failing to protect them from racially motivated violence. They cite the case of Pete Wilson, a Black prisoner who was stabbed by ten white inmates while white guards looked on.[54] Black inmates also charged the OSP library with showing racial bias in access and employment. One Black inmate described their opinion on the causes and effects of this bias:[55]

Black and other minorities at OSP have an acute problem with the librarian when it comes to their gaining access to courts. First we recognize racism is an ingrained traditional attitude. And second, prisons are reflections of those views. Therefore, Blacks and others in their own wherewithal struggle towards the path of freedom through redress in our courts. But quite often the librarian tries to preclude these efforts in many different ways. Such as telling prisoners his notary seal is broken and of course this tactic will go on for two or three weeks until one of the counselors puts a stop to it, being that if the librarian doesn't notarize documents they will have to do his job.

Prisoners have accused OSP guards of homophobia, censoring homosexual materials in the men's prison and contact among inmates in the women's prison (closed in 2010).[56] In 1982, prisoners filed a class-action lawsuit against the prison, charging that their rights to receive mail were being violated. In particular, they charged prison officials with censoring the mail by withholding "not approved" material, including material related to homosexuality.[57] District Judge Owen Panner decided for the prisoners and the ACLU, ruling that blacklisting certain publications and materials (including those related to homosexuality) violated the First and Fourteenth Amendment rights of the prisoners. However, some advocates believed that the legal ruling would have little effect. Carole Pope, a former prisoner at OSP, said: "We've had five major law suits. After each one, there was a token change, then it went back to the way it was. They [prison officials] don't take any of this seriously."[56]

In 1977, three inmates (two current and one former) filed a lawsuit alleging that they had been harmed by medical experiments using drugs and radiation. The experiments were voluntary and affected 67 prisoners, who were paid $125 each.[58]

In popular culture[edit]

Oregon State Prison appears in the opening scene of the 2001 film Bandits, during an escape scene in which the two protagonists forcibly break out of the prison and then proceed on a bank robbing spree.

Notable inmates[edit]

Old formal gates at the prison

List of inmates (with dates of incarceration) at Oregon State Penitentiary:

Former inmates[edit]

Escape of Tracy & Merrill, depicted in Kelly's 1908 book
  • Hank Vaughan (1865–1870) – moved with the prison from Portland to Salem, narrowly avoiding a lynch mob; paroled early for good behavior, moved to Nevada, and became a blacksmith[64]
  • Joseph "Bunko" Kelly (1895–1908) – released; author of Thirteen Years In The Oregon Penitentiary
  • Harry Tracy (1901–1902) – escaped, committed suicide when threatened with capture
  • Carl Panzram (1915–1918) – escaped, assumed a false identity, committed more crimes, captured in 1928 in Washington, D.C., incarcerated at USP Leavenworth and executed there in 1930
  • Albert Rosser (1938, 1939–1943) – held then released with a stay, facing a 12-year sentence from the Oregon Supreme Court; imprisoned in 1939; released after minimum sentence of four years with good behavior;[65] secretary of the Oregon teamsters, dubbed a "labor terrorist" and convicted of complicity with arson at the West Salem Box plant;[66][67] delivered testimony while imprisoned for the Harry Bridges trial[68]
  • John Omar Pinson (1947–1959) – paroled after six years of good behavior; accused of killing police officer Delmond E. Rondeau and setting fire to the flax plant in 1949;[69][70][71] profiled on the television show Gang Busters![72]
  • Gary Gilmore (1962,1964–1972, 1972–1975) – released to halfway house, quickly convicted of new crimes, re-incarcerated, transferred to USP Marion for bad behavior, paroled to Utah in April 1976, committed multiple murders in July 1976, executed in January 1977
  • Jerry Brudos (1969–2006) – died of colon cancer; OSP's longest-term resident[73][74][75][76]
  • Randal Krager (1992–1994, 1995–1996) – released, re-arrested, pardoned; founded Volksfront in 1994 while incarcerated[77][78]
  • Harry Charles Moore (1993–1997) – executed by lethal injection
  • Bobby Jack Fowler (1996–2006) – connected to the Highway of Tears murders, died in prison of lung cancer

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon (1888), pp. 155–156.
  2. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon (1888), pp. 644–645.
  3. ^ a b c d e Jessica Rondema, "Oregon State Penitentiary", The Oregon Encyclopedia, c. May 2011.
  4. ^ Joseph "Bunko" Kelly, Thirteen Years in Oregon State Penitentiary, 1908.
  5. ^ "Oregon Water Cure: As Administered in Penitentiary It Proves Better Than Flogging", Washington Post (from the Portland Oregonian), 26 August 1904, p. 11; accessed via ProQuest.
  6. ^ "Honor System in the Oregon Prison", Christian Science Monitor, 24 August 1918; accessed via ProQuest.
  7. ^ "Oregon State Penitentiary Finds Work Proves Its Worth: Flax Works, Flax Works, Chief Industry at Oregon State, Nationally Known" Christian Science Monitor, 21 April 1926, p. 5A; accessed via ProQuest.
  8. ^ "Prisoners Share in Profits of Large Oregon Flax Mill: Convicts Work Without Armed Guards—Product Said to Equal That of Canada, Ireland, Belgium", Christian Science Monitor,8 August 1925; accessed via ProQuest.
  9. ^ "Prisoners Eager to Learn to Improve Life by Study", Christian Science Monitor, 8 November 1926; accessed via ProQuest.
  10. ^ "Eighty Moonshiners In Oregon Prison: All Are 45 To 55 Years Old--Violent Crimes Laid To Younger Men", Baltimore Sun, 18 July 1926; accessed via ProQuest.
  11. ^ "9 Convicts Shot to Quell Riot in Oregon Prison", Chicago Daily Tribune, 17 February 1926; accessed via ProQuest.
  12. ^ "Oregon Convicts Riot Over Ruling on Releases", Christian Science Monitor, 1 August 1936; accessed via ProQuest.
  13. ^ "Tear-Gas Threats Quell Prison Riot", Baltimore Sun (AP), 1 August 1936; accessed via ProQuest.
  14. ^ "700 Howl in Cells at Oregon Prison: Convicts Break Windows and Bang Doors as Warden Refuses Food After Riot ", New York Times, 2 August 1936; accessed via ProQuest.
  15. ^ "Toughest 'Canary' Gets Parole So Pen Pals Can't Kill Him", Baltimore Sun, 28 February 1952; accessed via ProQuest.
  16. ^ "16 'Strike' in Oregon Prison", New York Times, 1 November 1952; accessed via ProQuest.
  17. ^ "Oregon Prison Escape Foiled", Lewiston Morning Tribune (AP), 29 October 1952.
  18. ^ "1310 Convicts Skip Meals; 40 Give In", Spokane Daily Chronicle, 20 August 1951.
  19. ^ "Convicts Back At Work At Oregon Prison", News and Courier, 24 August 1951.
  20. ^ "Oregon Prison Break Nipped: 300 Convicts Demand Chance to Confer with Stevenson", Spokane Daily Chronicle (AP), 28 October 1952.
  21. ^ "Escape Tunnel Discovered in Oregon Prison", Chicago Daily Tribune, 2 January 1953, p. 5; accessed via ProQuest.
  22. ^ a b "1,000 Convicts End Revolt At State Prison In Oregon", Baltimore Sun, 13 July 1953, p. 1; accessed via ProQuest.
  23. ^ "Convict Rebellion Still On in Oregon: 800 Prisoners Forced Behind Fences After Fires Are Set—Gas Clears Commissary", New York Times, 12 July 1953, p. 55; accessed via ProQuest.
  24. ^ "1100 in Prison Riot Corralled In Ball Park", Washington Post, 12 July 1953, p. M16; accessed via ProQuest.
  25. ^ "Prison Rebels In Oregon Toss in Towel", Washington Post, 13 July 1936; accessed via ProQuest.
  26. ^ "Inmate's Sex Is Changed in Oregon Prison", Chicago Tribune (AP), 4 October 1965, p. A11; accessed via ProQuest.
  27. ^ "Unlikely Gladden entirely to blame for prison riot", The Bulletin, 11 March 1968.
  28. ^ Paul W. Harvey, Jr., "Big Shelter Problem Faced at Riot-Torn Oregon Prison", Spokane Daily Chronicle, 11 March 1968.
  29. ^ "700 Convicts Riot at Oregon Prison", New York Times, 10 March 1960, accessed via ProQuest.
  30. ^ Lawrence E. Davies, "Oregon Convicts Win Concessions; Revolt Ends, Guards Freed", New York Times, 11 March 1968; accessed via ProQuest.
  31. ^ "Convicts Easy Winners?", Spokane Daily Chronicle, 13 March 1968.
  32. ^ "Oregon Inmates Riot and Force Reforms, Warden's Resignation", Lodi News-Sentinel (AP), 11 March 1968.
  33. ^ "Prison Sitdown Ended", New York Times, 6 November 1968; accessed via ProQuest.
  34. ^ Joe Brown, "UHURU: Its History", The Skanner, 16 May 1979; accessed via ProQuest.
  35. ^ Larry Baker, "Imprisoned: Political forum 'success'", The Skanner, 5 May 1982; accessed via ProQuest.
  36. ^ "Corrections Division recruits minorities", The Skanner, 24 June 1981; accessed via ProQuest.
  37. ^ Sarah B. Ames "Protests Put Women's Prison in Spotlight", Oregonian, 31 October 1988; accessed via Newsbank
  38. ^ a b Sal Rodriguez, "'Total Isolation': Solitary Confinement in Oregon", Solitary Watch, 11 September 2012.
  39. ^ a b Mary Beth Pfeiffer, "Mentally ill inmates need more help", Portland Oregonian, 12 February 2005.
  40. ^ Laura Sullivan, "As Populations Swell, Prisons Rethink Supermax", NPR, 27 July 2006.
  41. ^ Stuart Tomlinson, "Oregon's mentally ill prison inmates will all move to one building at the Oregon State Penitentiary", The Oregonian, 15 April 2010.
  42. ^ Alan Gustafson, "Oregon State Penitentiary to adapt to mental illnesses", Statesman Journal, 25 April 2010.
  43. ^ Chris Lehman, "Prison Mental Health Unit Not Designed for Treatment", Oregon Public Broadcasting (Northwest News Network), 29 February 2012.
  44. ^ "Oregon Death Row", Oregon Live (The Oregonian), accessed 10 November 2012.
  45. ^ a b James Pitkin, "Killing Time:Dead Men Waiting on Oregon’s Death Row", Willamette Week, 23 January 2008.
  46. ^ William R. Long, "Death penalty", The Oregon Encyclopedia, c. 2008.
  47. ^ William Yardley, "Oregon Governor Says He Will Block Executions", New York Times, 22 November 2011.
  48. ^ a b Cliff Collins, "Continuing the Death Penalty Discussion: How some Oregon lawyers are grappling with capital punishment", Oregon State Bar Bulletin, November 2012.
  49. ^ Jaime Shimkus, "Prison Hospice Comforts the Dying, Touches the Living", CorrectCare, Spring 2002.
  50. ^ Jeff Barnard, "Convicted Murderers Relearn Compassion in Prison Hospice", Los Angeles Times (AP), 1 August 1999.
  51. ^ "Oregon State Penitentiary." Oregon Department of Corrections. Retrieved on November 2, 2010.
  52. ^ a b Zaitz, Les. "Oregon to close prison, lay off 63 workers in $2.5 million budget cut." The Oregonian. Thursday September 30, 2010. Updated on Friday October 1, 2010. Retrieved on November 2, 2010.
  53. ^ Zaitz, Les (February 1, 2012). "Oregon prison in Salem proposed for closure because of budget cuts". The Oregonian. Retrieved February 1, 2012. 
  54. ^ Larry Baker, "IMPRISONED: OSP Prisoner Stabbed", The Skanner, 6 October 1982; accessed via ProQuest. "Wilson recalled one of the guards who was supposedly supervising him repeatedly shouting for the inmates to stop fighting, while others merely stood in the gun tower and watched with rifles in hand. But the guards were white. Wilson stated it was 10 minutes before any guards were able to rescue him and by that time his lungs had been punctured and he had sustained many other wounds. During his struggle with the 10 whites, a Cuban prisoner, Ricardo Guerra, tried to assist Wilson but to no avail. 'I couldn't just stand by and see 10 white prisoners beating on a Black man just because his skin is a different color,' said Guerra."
  55. ^ Larry Baker, "IMPRISONED: Bias in Library", The Skanner, 17 November 1982; accessed via ProQuest.
  56. ^ a b Jil Clark, "Court Bars Prison Censorship of Periodicals", Gay Community News 10 (38), 16 April 1983; accessed via ProQuest.
  57. ^ "ACLU files against prison censorship", The Skanner, 10 March 1982; accessed via ProQuest.
  58. ^ "Convicts Who Were Part of Test Of Drugs File $3.6 Million Suit", New York Times (UPI), 11 September 1977; accessed via ProQuest.
  59. ^ Domestic News. United Press International, October 3, 1983, Monday, AM cycle.
  60. ^ Tims, Dana. Murderer’s libel suit dismissed. The Oregonian, January 18, 1988.
  61. ^ Lynne Terry, "Gary Haugen can reject Gov. Kitzhaber's reprieve, judge rules", The Oregonian, 3 August 2012.
  62. ^ Peter Wong, "Oregon Supreme Court to hear Haugen appeal", Statesman Journal, 23 October 2012.
  63. ^ Rick Bella, "State Supreme Court orders fourth sentencing trial for serial killer Dayton Leroy Rogers", The Oregonian, 11 October 2012.
  64. ^ Jim Yuskavitch, Outlaw Tales of Oregon, Globe Pequot, 2012, ISBN 9780762772636, p. 105.
  65. ^ "Al Rosser Released from Prison Tuesday", Eugene Register-Guard, 8 July 1943.
  66. ^ "Reign of Labor Leader Broken by Prison Term": Rosser Gets 12 Years on Arson Charge", Chicago Daily Tribune, 10 July 1939; accessed via ProQuest.
  67. ^ "Prison Decreed for Al Rosser: Former Teamster Leader at Portland Loses His Appeal to the Supreme Court", Lewiston Morning-Tribune (AP), 7 June 1939.
  68. ^ "Rosser Questioned by Bridges Attorney", Eugene Register-Guard (AP), 5 September 1939.
  69. ^ "Felon Makes About Face, Wins Parole", Spokesman-Review (AP), 9 December 1959.
  70. ^ "Officer Delmond E. Rondeau", Oregon State Police, accessed 9 November 2012.
  71. ^ Mike Thoele, "Journey from behind bars", Eugene Register-Guard, 5 October 1975.
  72. ^ "Payback 21:00", Turner Classic Movies, (see video clip)
  73. ^ "Prosecution winds up case in Mrs. Brudos murder trial", Eugene Register-Guard, 27 September 1969.
  74. ^ Tony Lystra, "Ex-officer recalls hunt for killer", Corvalis Gazette-Times, 9 April 2006.
  75. ^ "Murderer's Request Denied", The Bulletin, 30 September 1992.
  76. ^ "Passages", Seattle Times, 2 April 2006.
  77. ^ "Profiles of 10 Racist Skinheads: Randal Lee Krager, 32" Intelligence Report 123, Southern Poverty Law Center, Fall 2006.
  78. ^ Philip Dawdy, "The Flickering Torch of Racism", Willamette Week, 12 December 2001.

Bibliography[edit]