||This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2012)|
|- City -|
Library of the Orenburg State University
Location of Orenburg Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of November 2011)|
|Federal subject||Orenburg Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||City of Orenburg|
|Administrative center of||Orenburg Oblast, Orenburgsky District, City of Orenburg|
|Municipal status (as of December 2011)|
|Urban okrug||Orenburg Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Orenburg Urban Okrug, Orenburgsky Municipal District|
|Head||Yury Mishcheryakov|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Population (2010 Census)||548,331 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||29th|
|Time zone||YEKT (UTC+06:00)|
|Postal code(s)||460000|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3532|
Orenburg (Russian: Оренбург; IPA: [ərʲɪnˈburk]) is a transcontinental city and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia, located on the Ural River 1,478 kilometers (918 mi) southeast of Moscow, very close to the border with Kazakhstan. Population: 548,331 (2010 Census); 549,361 (2002 Census); 546,501 (1989 Census).
The highest point of the city is 154.4 meters (507 ft).
The Russian Empire began plans for the expansion into Asia by construction of an eastern frontier fortress town in the southern Ural region to be named Orenburg in 1734. The colonists originally founded a settlement in 1735 at the confluence of the Ural River with the Or River. The town's name meant "fortress near the Or," as Burg is German for fortress. This settlement changed its name in 1739 to Orsk. An attempt was made to found another Orenburg about 175 kilometers (109 mi) west at a location called Krasnogor, or "Red Hill," in 1741, but this settlement failed. A third Orenburg was successfully established by Ivan Neplyuyev at its present location approximately 250 kilometers (160 mi) west down the Ural from Orsk in 1743. This third Orenburg functioned as an important military outpost on the frontier with the nomadic Kazakhs. It became the center for the Orenburg Cossacks.
Orenburg played a major role in the Pugachev rebellion (1773–1774). At the time, it was the capital of a vast district and the seat of the governor. Yemelyan Pugachev besieged the city and its fortress from nearby Berda from October 1773 - March 26, 1774. The defense was organized by lieutenant-general Reinsdorp. General Golytsin[disambiguation needed] defeated Pugachev at Berda, and later again at Kargala (north of Orenburg). Most of the city was left in ruins, and thousands of inhabitants had died in the siege.
The famous Russian writer Alexander Pushkin visited Orenburg in 1833 during a research trip for his books The History of Pugachev and his famous novel The Captain's Daughter. He met his friend Vladimir Dal here, who would later write the first serious dictionary of the Russian language.
Orenburg was the base for General Perovsky's expeditions against the Khanate of Khiva in the 1830s through 1850s. After the incorporation of Central Asia into the Russian Empire, Orenburg became a trading station and, since the completion of the Trans-Aral Railway, a prominent railway junction en route to the new Central Asian possessions and to Siberia.
Orenburg functioned as the capital of the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (in present-day Kazakhstan) within Russia from 1920–1925. When that republic was renamed Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1925, Orenburg joined Russia and Kyzylorda became the new capital. Alma-Ata became the capital in 1929 after the construction of the Turkestan–Siberia Railway. Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was promoted to the union republic status as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Kazakh SSR in 1936. Orenburg remained in Russia.
From 1938 to 1957, the city bore the name Chkalov (Чка́лов) (after the prominent test pilot Valery Chkalov). The city's distance from the German invasion during World War II led many Soviet enterprises to flee there, helping to spur the city's economic growth.
Administrative and municipal status 
Orenburg is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Orenburgsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated separately as the City of Orenburg—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Orenburg is incorporated as Orenburg Urban Okrug.
Orenburg is a home for several large companies or their subsidiaries: Orenburggazprom, the subsidiary of Gazprom; Orenburgneft, the subsidiary of TNK-BP oil company; Orenburgenergy, one of the biggest energy generating companies in Russia.
There is an airbase located 5.6 miles (9.0 km) southwest of the city.
|Climate data for Orenburg|
|Record high °C (°F)||4.7
|Average high °C (°F)||−8.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−11.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−15.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−43.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||29
Education and culture 
Orenburg is a regional center of education and has a number of cultural institutions and museums.
Established in 1955 as a Branch of Kuibyshev Polytechnical Institute (currently Samara State Technical University). It was transformed to the Orenburg Polytechnical Institute in 1971. In 1994 it was named as Orenburg State Technical University. Gained status of university in 1996. Currently, there are 18 Faculties, 3 Research & Development institutes, 4 Regional Branches, technology incubator “OSU Technopark”, botanic garden, meteorological station, sport complex.
Established in 1944 as Chkalov State Medical Institute. It was renamed to Orenburg State Medical Institute in 1957 (at that time Orenburg city regained its original name after being named Chkalov from 1937 till 1957). Gained status of academy in 1994. Currently there are 8 Faculties: Medicine, Pediatric, Stomatology (Dentistry), Pharmacy, Clinical Psychology, Nursing, Public Health (Медико-профилактический), Continuing Education.
Established in 1930 as Orenburg Agricultural Institute. It was transformed to Orenburg State Agricultural Academy in 1992. Since 1995 named as Orenburg State Agrarian University. There are 8 Faculties and 4 Institutes.
Established in 1919 as Institute of Public Education. Renamed to Pedagogical Institute in 1930. Transformed to Pedagogical University in 1996. There are 10 Faculties and 4 Research Institutes.
Established in 1991. Provides education in the fields of economics, management, information technologies, information securing, business informatics and innovation.
- Orenburg Branch of Moscow State Law Academy
- Orenburg Branch of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas
- Orenburg Campus of Russian State University of Trade and Economics
- Orenburg Regional Museum of History and Natural Science
- Orenburg Regional Museum of Art
- Museum of Orenburg History
- Memorial Apartment of Yuri and Valentina Gagarin
- Memorial Apartment of Leopold and Mstislav Rostropovich
- Memorial Apartment of T.G. Shevchenko
- Orenburg City Memorial House
- Orenburg Maxim Gorky State Dramatic Theater 
- Orenburg State Regional Musical Theater 
- Orenburg State Tatar Dramatic Theater
- Orenburg State Regional Puppet Theater
- Orenburg Municipal Puppet Theater "Pierrot
- Orenburg Municipal Chamber Choir
- Orenburg State Academic Russian Folk Choir
Mountain and river tourism is developed in the region. There are a number of fast mountain rivers and rocks in pleated spurs of the southern edge of the Urals range, popular with tourists.
The city is famous for its down Orenburg shawls. The thinnest lacy design, knitted by hand shawls and cobweb-like kerchiefs (pautinkas), is not only warm, but also is used for decorative purposes.
A famous boulevard on the embankment of the Ural River is one of the most notable places in Orenburg.
Orenburg TV Tower is a guyed mast of unusual design. It is a 200-meter (660 ft) tall mast equipped with six crossbars running from the mast structure to the guys.
- Lokomotiv has played in the highest division of the Russian Bandy League. Now they play in the second highest division. Their home arena has a capacity of 5000.
- Nadezhda Orenburg is a women's basketball club competing in the Russian Women's Basketball Premier League and playing in the Orenburzhe Sports Hall.
Notable people 
- Ivan Krylov (1769–1844), writer
- Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky (1794—1857), statesman
- Vladimir Dal (1801–1872), lexicographer
- Yevgraf Fyodorov (1853–1919), mathematician, crystallographer, and mineralogist
- Paul Nazaroff (1890–1942), geologist and writer
- Joseph Kessel (1898–1979), journalist and novelist
- Musa Cälil (1906–1944), poet
- Alexander Schmorell (1917–1943), a member of the anti-Nazi group White Rose
- Aleksander Burba (1918-1984), industry leader and educator
- Mstislav Rostropovich 1927–2007), cellist
- Yuri Gagarin (1934–1968), cosmonaut
- Denis Istomin (born 1986), tennis player
International relations 
- Law #1370/276-IV-OZ
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 53 234», в ред. изменения №193/2012 от 1 января 2013 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 53 234, as amended by the Amendment #193/2012 of January 1, 2013. ).
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 53 401», в ред. изменения №193/2012 от 1 января 2013 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 53 401, as amended by the Amendment #193/2012 of January 1, 2013. ).
- Law #2367/495-IV-OZ
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Correspondence, Foreign (November 7, 1904). "RUSSIA'S NEW GREAT RAILROAD IN ASIA; Orenburg-Tashkent Line Was Completed a Few Days Ago. GREAT VALUE STRATEGICALLY Prince Hilkoff Pushed the Construction of the Road with Much Energy -- The Cities Traversed". The New York Times.
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.
- profile documents, Orenburg
- Законодательное Собрание Оренбургской области. Закон №1370/276-IV-ОЗ от 11 июля 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Оренбургской области», в ред. Закона №666/178-V-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2011 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Оренбургской области». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южный Урал", №№134–135 (спецвыпуск №40 с документами Законодательного Собрания Оренбургской области), 21 июля 2007 г. (Legislative Assembly of Orenburg Oblast. Law #1370/276-IV-OZ of July 11, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Orenburg Oblast, as amended by the Law #666/178-V-OZ of November 28, 2011 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Orenburg Oblast. Effective as of after the official publication date.).
- Законодательное Собрание Оренбургской области. Закон №2367/495-IV-ОЗ от 15 сентября 2008 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований Оренбургской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Закона №666/178-V-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2011 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Оренбургской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Бюллетень Законодательного Собрания Оренбургской области", 22 заседание, I часть, 29 августа 2008 г. (Legislative Assembly of Orenburg Oblast. Law #2367/495-IV-OZ of September 15, 2008 On Adopting the Registry of the Municipal Formations of Orenburg Oblast and the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Law #666/178-V-OZ of December 28, 2011 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Orenburg Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days following the official publication.).
- Official website of Orenburg (Russian)
- Orenburg State Institute of Management
- Photos of Orenburg (Russian)