Órfãs d'El-Rei

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The órfãs do rei were Portuguese girl orphans who were sent from Portugal to overseas colonies during the Portuguese Empire as part of Portugal's colonization efforts. The orphans were married to native rulers or Portuguese settlers.[1]

Marriage[edit]

Orfãs do Rei translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were all girls. Their fathers were Portuguese men who died in battle for the king.[2][3] They were sent to the colonies of the Portuguese Empire.[4][5] The Asian colonies contained more Portuguese females than was previously thought.[6] Bernard Sta Maria wrote that "From 1545, King John III began to send to India (and the Far East) with all pomp and distinction many young Portuguese women known as 'Orphans of the Queen' to be married with local young men." Both noble and non noble girls were in the órfãs do rei.[7][8][9]

Since these girls were specifically designated as the "King's", the Portuguese government paid for their care and upbringing before and after they were sent to Portuguese India.[10][11] Goa in particular received most of the girls.[12][13] Some were also sent to the colony of Brazil.[14] The "Shelter of the Castle" was one of the organizations which arranged for the órfãs do rei to be sent overseas. The age limits were 12–30 years of age.[15]

They departed from Lisbon and other Portuguese cities and arrived in Portuguese India, most of them were sent to Goa. Incentives such as dowries were given with the girls to potential husbands. The dowries consisted of official positions or land.[16][17][18] Regarding the timespan of the órfãs do rei being shipped overseas, it was said that "the system apparently continued to function intermittently until the (early) eighteenth century."[19]

In particular extensive boatloads of girls and dowries were sent by Queen Catarina de Austria.[20] During the Iberian Union the Habsburg King of Portugal continued the policy of sending girl orphans to Goa and ignored protests from the Portuguese authorities at Goa not to send them.[21] Being "white, Catholic, and of good birth" were the requirements for a girl to become an órfãs do rei. The reason that the authorities protested against the King sending the órfãs to India was because of the lack of husbands. The King ignored their protests.[22] A proponent of the continued shipment of Portuguese girls to India was Fr. Álvaro Penteado [23]

One of the aims of shipping the órfãs was to stop Portuguese men from miscegenating with women of other races and provide them with Portuguese wives.[24][25][26][27] The prevention of miscegenation would have resulted in a greater amount of white Portuguese.[28] The sex ratio between men and women in Goa was skewed and the shipments of órfãs do rei was an attempt to correct this.[29]

Frederick Charles Danvers wrote in 1894 that "It had for some time been customary to send out orphan girls to India, from orphanages at Lisbon, with the view of getting them husbands and so providing for them, and, at the same time, with the view of furnishing wives of their own nation to the Portuguese in India, to prevent them from marrying native Indian women. In many instances these orphans were also provided with dowries by the State, which occasionally took the form of appointments in the Government service, which, though given to the girls themselves, were of course intended to be filled by their husbands. Appointments were similarly given to the daughters of Indian officials on their marriage, in consideration of the good services rendered to the State by their respective parents; in one case this dowry took the form of the appointment of Governor of Cranganor. "[30][31]

Afonso de Albuquerque also brought in Portuguese orphan girls to Portuguese Malacca in order to colonize the area.[32][33]

One tale related how some Dutch seize a ship with Portuguese orphan girls and took them as brides.[34]

James Talboys Wheeler wrote in 1881 that "It was the custom of the king of Portugal to send a number of well-born orphan girls every year to Goa, with sufficient dowries to procure them husbands in Portuguese India. Donna Lucia was one of three Portuguese orphan girls of good family who had been sent to India the previous year. The fleet which carried them was attacked by the Dutch, who captured some of the ships, and carried off the three damsels to Surat. Being passably handsome, the[35] most eminent merchants in Surat were anxious to marry them. All three became Protestants, and were provided with Protestant husbands. Two had gone off with their husbands to Java or elsewhere, but Donna Lucia had married the wealthiest Dutchman at Surat and remained there. Della Valle found, however, to his great joy, that Donna Lucia was only a Protestant in name. She had been obliged to conform publicly to the Protestant "heresy," but was a Catholic in private, with the knowledge and connivance of her Protestant husband."[36][37][38]

Bahia in Brazil received some of the orphans in 1551.[39]

It was said of Portuguese merchants in "The voyage of François Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas and Brazil" that "The principal merchant made one of 800 cruzados: to wit, 400 for an orphan girl to marry withal, and 400 for a lamp and other utensils for a shrine of Our Lady that is hard by. As soon as he set foot on land he sought out an orphan girl, and fulfilled his promise to her, as also to the churchwardens of the said church. Many others, too, did the like; nor did any fail therein, according to his means and the extent of his vows. It is a custom of the Portuguese, when they are in peril, to make these vows; but the worst of it is that it makes them indolent and careless about working stoutly to save their lives."[40]

Dowry and Incentives[edit]

1,000 xerafins were added to the dowry by Conde de Redondo in order to attract suitors for the orphans.[41] Girl orphans born in India did not have the same privileges as the orfas do rei.[42]

Native rulers[edit]

Some órfãs do Rei married native rulers who ere either in exiled or allied to the Portuguese.[43][44]

The exiled former ruler (liwali) of Pemba converted to Christianity from Islam and was married to an órfãs do rei named Dona Anna de Sepulveda in 1607. He also changed his name to Felipe da Gama, Dom Filipe, or Philip. However he became Muslim again later.[45][46][47][48][49][50] One child, a son, Estevao was born from their marriage.[51] He had been exiled from Pemba to Mombasa in 1596.[52]

In the 1500s the exiled ruler of the Maldives, Hassan converted to Christianity and also married a Portuguese orphan.[53] Her name was D. Francisca de Vasconcelos.[54][55][56][57][58][59] The Portuguese girls also in Goa married native high caste Christians.[60]

One of the Portuguese orphans kidnapped by the Dutch privateer ended up in Akbar the Great's harem.[61][62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Margaret Sarkissian (2000). D'Albuquerque's Children: Performing Tradition in Malaysia's Portuguese Settlement (illustrated ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 22. ISBN 0226734986. ISBN 0226734986, 9780226734989 Length 219 pages
  2. ^ J. B. Prashant More, M. Manickam, Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of MESHAR. (2001). Freedom movement in French India: the Mahe revolt of 1948. IRISH. p. 126. ISBN 8190016695. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 27, 2009 ISBN 8190016695, 9788190016698 Length 262 pages
  3. ^ S. Jeyaseela Stephen (2006). S. Jeyaseela Stephen, ed. Literature, Caste and Society: The Masks and Veils. Gyan Books. p. 271. ISBN 8178354489. ISBN 8178354489, 9788178354484 Length 427 pages
  4. ^ J. B. Prashant More, M. Manickam, Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of MESHAR. (2001). Freedom movement in French India: the Mahe revolt of 1948. IRISH. p. 127. ISBN 8190016695. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 27, 2009 ISBN 8190016695, 9788190016698 Length 262 pages
  5. ^ University of Allahabad. Dept. of Modern Indian History, University of Kerala. Dept. of History, University of Travancore, University of Kerala (1980). Journal of Indian history, Volume 58. Dept. of Modern Indian History. p. 57. Original from the University of California Digitized Jul 31, 2008
  6. ^ Timothy J. Coates (2001). Convicts and Orphans: Forced and State-Sponsored Colonizers in the Portuguese Empire, 1550-1755 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0804733597. ISBN 0804733597, 9780804733595 Length 259 pages
  7. ^ Bernard Sta Maria (1982). My people, my country. Malacca Portuguese Development Centre. p. 34. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Feb 27, 2007 Length 236 pages
  8. ^ James C. Boyajian (2007). Portuguese Trade in Asia Under the Habsburgs, 1580-1640 (illustrated ed.). JHU Press. p. 33. ISBN 0801887542, 9780801887543 Length 360 pages
  9. ^ Centre for Strategic and International Studies (1973). The Indonesian quarterly, Volume 2. Yayasan Proklamasi, Centre for Strategic and International Studies. p. 117. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Sep 5, 2008
  10. ^ University of Allahabad. Dept. of Modern Indian History, University of Kerala. Dept. of History, University of Travancore, University of Kerala (1980). Journal of Indian history, Volume 58. Dept. of Modern Indian History. p. 57. Original from the University of California Digitized Jul 31, 2008
  11. ^ Timothy J. Coates (2001). Convicts and Orphans: Forced and State-Sponsored Colonizers in the Portuguese Empire, 1550-1755 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 145. ISBN 0804733597. ISBN 0804733597, 9780804733595 Length 259 pages
  12. ^ Goa (India : State). Directorate of Archives and Archaeology (2000). Purabhilekh-puratatva: journal of the Directorate of Archives and Archaeology, Panaji, Goa, Volume 1, Issue 1. The Directorate. p. 9. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Aug 29, 2008
  13. ^ International Conference Group on Portugal (2006). Portuguese studies review, Volume 14 (in Portuguese). International Conference Group on Portugal. p. 212. 
  14. ^ William Telfer (1932). The treasure of São Roque: a sidelight on the counter-reformation. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. p. 184. Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison Digitized Mar 18, 2008 Length 222 pages
  15. ^ Timothy J. Coates (2001). Convicts and Orphans: Forced and State-Sponsored Colonizers in the Portuguese Empire, 1550-1755 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0804733597. ISBN 0804733597, 9780804733595 Length 259 pages
  16. ^ The tragic history of the sea, 1589-1622: narratives of the shipwrecks of the Portuguese East Indiamen São Thomé (1589), Santo Alberto (1593), São João Baptista (1622), and the journeys of the survivors in South East Africa, Volume 112. Published by the Hakluyt Society at the University Press. 1959. p. 21. Original from University of Texas Digitized May 7, 2008
  17. ^ Hakluyt Society (1957). Works issued by the Hakluyt Society. The Society. p. 21. Original from the University of California Digitized Aug 3, 2007
  18. ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1975). Women in Iberian Expansion Overseas, 1415-1815: Some Facts, Fancies and Personalities. Oxford University Press. p. 66. ISBN 0195198174. The chief exception to this rule of officially discouraging female emigration from Portugal to the East lies in the so-called "Orphans of the King" (Órfãs do Rei), whose numbers Dr. Germano da Silva Correia has investigated so diligently, if often so uncritically. These, as their name implies, were orphan girls of marriageable age, who were sent out in annual batches from orphanages at Lisbon an Oporto (and very occasionally from a few other places such as Coimbra) at the expense of the Crown. They were usually provided with dowries in the form of minor government posts, or with small grants of land, for the men who might marry them after their arrival at Goa. The first contingent left Lisbon in 1545 and the system apparently continued to function intermittently until the eighteenth century. ISBN 0195198174, 9780195198171 Length 142 pages
  19. ^ Jorge de Sena Center for Portuguese Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara. Center for Portuguese Studies (1995). Santa Barbara Portuguese studies, Volume 2. Center for Portuguese Studies. p. 43. Original from Indiana University Digitized Dec 16, 2010
  20. ^ Haruko Nawata Ward (2009). Women Religious Leaders in Japan's Christian Century, 1549-1650 (illustrated ed.). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 317. ISBN 0754664783. ISBN 0754664783, 9780754664789 Length 405 pages
  21. ^ University of Allahabad. Dept. of Modern Indian History, University of Kerala. Dept. of History, University of Travancore, University of Kerala (1980). Journal of Indian history, Volume 58. Dept. of Modern Indian History. p. 59. Original from the University of Virginia Digitized May 27, 2009
  22. ^ A. J. R. Russell-Wood (1968). Fidalgos and Philanthropists: The Santa Casa Da Misericórdia of Bahia, 1550-1755 (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 32. Length 429 pages
  23. ^ Délio de Mendonça (2002). Conversions and Citizenry: Goa Under Portugal, 1510-1610. Volume 11 of Xavier Centre of historical research studies series (illustrated ed.). Concept Publishing Company. p. 373. ISBN 817022960X. ISBN 817022960X, 9788170229605 Length 454 pages
  24. ^ Margaret Rich Greer, Walter Mignolo, Maureen Quilligan (2007). Margaret Rich Greer, Walter Mignolo, Maureen Quilligan, ed. Rereading the Black Legend: The Discourses of Religious and Racial Difference in the Renaissance Empires (illustrated ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 215. ISBN 0226307220. ISBN 0226307220, 9780226307220 Length 478 pages
  25. ^ Business Archives Council (Great Britain). Conference, South Indian History Congress. Conference, Business Archives Council (Great Britain) (1995). Proceedings of the ... annual conference ..., Issue 14. The Congress. p. 157. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Aug 29, 2008
  26. ^ Délio de Mendonça (2002). Conversions and Citizenry: Goa Under Portugal, 1510-1610. Volume 11 of Xavier Centre of historical research studies series (illustrated ed.). Concept Publishing Company. p. 369. ISBN 817022960X. ISBN 817022960X, 9788170229605 Length 454 pages
  27. ^ Fátima da Silva Gracias (1996). Kaleidoscope of Women in Goa, 1510-1961. Concept Publishing Company. p. 38. ISBN 8170225914. ISBN 8170225914, 9788170225911
  28. ^ Fátima da Silva Gracias (2000). Beyond the self: Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Goa. Surya Publications. p. 81. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 28, 2009 Length 122 pages
  29. ^ Tony Ballantyne, Antoinette M. Burton (2009). Tony Ballantyne, Antoinette M. Burton, ed. Moving Subjects: Gender, Mobility, and Intimacy in an Age of Global Empire (illustrated ed.). University of Illinois Press. p. 236. ISBN 0252075684. 
  30. ^ Frederick Charles Danvers (1894). The Portuguese in India: A.D. 1571-1894. Volume 2 of The Portuguese in India: Being a History of the Rise and Decline of Their Eastern Empire. WYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED, PRINTERS, LONDON AND REDHILL: W.H. Allen & co., limited. p. 225. It had for some time been customary to send out orphan girls to India, from orphanages at Lisbon, with the view of getting them husbands and so providing for them, and, at the same time, with the view of furnishing wives of their own nation to the Portuguese in India, to prevent them from marrying native Indian women. In many instances these orphans were also provided with dowries by the State, which occasionally took the form of appointments in the Government service, which, though given to the girls themselves, were of course intended to be filled by their husbands. Appointments were similarly given to the daughters of Indian officials on their marriage, in consideration of the good services rendered to the State by their respective parents; in one case this dowry took the form of the appointment of Governor of Cranganor. In consequence of the necessities of the State rendering it desirable to limit these appointments, with the view of having a greater number to dispose of by sale, orders were W. H. ALLEN & CO., LIMITED, 13, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W. Publishers to the India Office Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jan 30, 2008 Length 579 pages
  31. ^ Frederick Charles Danvers (1988). The Portuguese in India: Being a History of the Rise and Decline of Their Eastern Empire. Asian Educational Services. p. 225. ISBN 8120603915. ISBN 8120603915, 9788120603912
  32. ^ Gary W. McDonogh (2009). Iberian Worlds (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 167. ISBN 0415947715. ISBN 0415947715, 9780415947718 Length 336 pages
  33. ^ Margaret Sarkissian (2000). D'Albuquerque's Children: Performing Tradition in Malaysia's Portuguese Settlement (illustrated ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 21. ISBN 0226734986. ISBN 0226734986, 9780226734989 Length 219 pages
  34. ^ J. Talboys Wheeler (1996). Madras in the Olden Time (reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 24. ISBN 8120605535. ISBN 8120605535, 9788120605534 Length 745 pages
  35. ^ James Talboys Wheeler (1881). The History of India from the Earliest Ages: pt. I. Mussulman rule. pt.II. Mogul empire. Aurangzeb. Volume 4, Part 2 of The History of India from the Earliest Ages. PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. EDINBURGH AND LONDON: N. Trübner. p. 425. At this period the English in India were all Chap, Ix bachelors, or living as bachelors; for those who had Dutch marriages, been married in England were strictly prohibited by the laws of the East India Company from having their wives out in India. The Dutch, however, were mostly married men living with their wives. Originally the Dutch had been under the same restrictions as the English, but they had recently planted a colony in Java under the name of New Batavia, and great privileges had been offered to every Dutchman who married a wife and settled in Java. Accordingly, all unmarried Dutchmen in Surat were bent on finding wives, as one of the necessary conditions of a trading life in the East. In the absence of European women, they married Armenians, Syrians, and even Hindus; in fact, a Dutchman was ready to marry a wife belonging to any class or nationality, provided only that she was a Christian or would become a Christian. Della Valle states, and there is no reason to discredit him, that sometimes a Dutchman bought a female slave in the bazar, and required her to become a Christian, in order to many her at once and carry her off to Java. Donna Lucia, who took charge of the young Signora A<i ventures of Mariuccia, had been the heroine of a strange adventure the catholic' o • captive. It was the custom of the king of Portugal to send a number of well-born orphan girls every year to Goa, with sufficient dowries to procure them husbands in Portuguese India. Donna Lucia was one of three Portuguese orphan girls of good family who had been sent to India the previous year. The fleet which carried them was attacked by the Dutch, who captured some of the ships, and carried off the three damsels to Surat. Being passably handsome, the tion of Jehangfr. Original from University of Minnesota Digitized Mar 4, 2010
  36. ^ James Talboys Wheeler (1881). The History of India from the Earliest Ages: pt. I. Mussulman rule. pt.II. Mogul empire. Aurangzeb. Volume 4, Part 2 of The History of India from the Earliest Ages. PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. EDINBURGH AND LONDON: N. Trübner. p. 426. Chap. ix. most eminent merchants in Surat were anxious to marry them. All three became Protestants, and were provided with Protestant husbands. Two had gone off with their husbands to Java or elsewhere, but Donna Lucia had married the wealthiest Dutchman at Surat and remained there. Della Valle found, however, to his great joy, that Donna Lucia was only a Protestant in name. She had been obliged to conform publicly to the Protestant "heresy," but was a Catholic in private, with the knowledge and connivance of her Protestant husband. Religion* toie;a. At the time of Della Valle's visit to Surat the Moghul rule was tolerant in the extreme. The Emperor Jehangir was a Mussulman, but not a pure one; and Christians, Hindus, and people of all religions were allowed to live as they pleased, and in what style they pleased. The president of the English factory and the commendator of the Dutch factory went abroad with the same state as Moghul grandees, accompanied by music *and streamers, and a train of native servants armed with bows and arrows, and swords and bucklers. Such weapons were not necessary for protection, but were part of the pomp which was affected by every great man in India. Original from University of Minnesota Digitized Mar 4, 2010
  37. ^ James Talboys Wheeler (1881). The History of India from the Earliest Ages: pt. 1. Mussulman rule. Volume 4, Part 2 of The History of India from the Earliest Ages. PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. EDINBURGH AND LONDON: Trübner. p. 425. At this period the English in India were all Chap. ix. bachelors, or living as bachelors; for those who had »»teu m»rri»gM. been married in England were strictly prohibited by the laws of the East India Company from having their wives out in India. The Dutch, however, were mostly married men living with their wives. Originally the Dutch had been under the same restrictions as the English, but they had recently planted a colony in Java under the name of New Batavia, and great privileges had been offered to every Dutchman who married a wife and settled in Java. Accordingly, all unmarried Dutchmen in Surat were bent on finding wives, as one of the necessary conditions of a trading life in the East. In the absence of European women, they married Armenians, Syrians, and even Hindus; in fact, a Dutchman was ready to marry a wife belonging to any class or nationality, provided only that she was a Christian or would become a Christian. Della Valle states, and there is no reason to discredit him, that sometimes a Dutchman bought a female slave in the bazar, and required her to become a Christian, in order to marry her at once and carry her off to Java. Donna Lucia, who took charge of the young Signora a^emum. of Mariuccia, had been the heroine of a strange adventure th« cathoiie It was the custom of the king of Portugal to send a number of well-born orphan girls every year to Goa, with sufficient dowries to procure them husbands in Portuguese India. Donna Lucia was one of three Portuguese orphan girls of good family who had been sent to India the previous year. The fleet which carried them was attacked by the Dutch, who captured some of the ships, and carried off the three damsels to Surat. Being passably handsome, the Original from Oxford University Digitized Jun 30, 2006 Ballantyne Press BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. EDINBURGH AND LONDON. LONDON : TRUBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL. PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. EDINBURGH AND LONDON
  38. ^ James Talboys Wheeler (1881). The History of India from the Earliest Ages: pt. 1. Mussulman rule. Volume 4, Part 2 of The History of India from the Earliest Ages. PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. EDINBURGH AND LONDON: Trübner. p. 426. Chap. ix. most eminent merchants in Surat were anxious to marry them. All three became Protestants, and were provided with Protestant husbands. Two had gone off with their husbands to Java or elsewhere, but Donna Lucia had married the wealthiest Dutchman at Surat and remained there. Delia Valle found, however, to his great joy, that Donna Lucia was only a Protestant in name. She had been obliged to conform publicly to the Protestant "heresy," but was a Catholic in private, with the knowledge and connivance of her Protestant husband. Original from Oxford University Digitized Jun 30, 2006 Ballantyne Press BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. EDINBURGH AND LONDON. LONDON : TRUBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL. PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. EDINBURGH AND LONDON
  39. ^ Leslie Bethell (1984). Leslie Bethell, ed. The Cambridge History of Latin America. Volume 2 of The Cambridge History of Latin America 12 Volume Hardback Set (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 0521245168. ISBN 0521245168, 9780521245166 Length 932 pages
  40. ^ François Pyrard, Pierre de Bergeron, Jérôme Bignon (1890). ALBERT GRAY, H. C. P. BELL, ed. The voyage of François Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas and Brazil, Issue 80, Volume 2, Part 2. VOL. II, PART II. LONDON : WHITING AND CO., 30 and 32, SARDINIA STREET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS: Printed for the Hakluyt society. p. 334. bay. It was a very miracle that saved us, for the wind was from the sea, and we were so close ashore that we had great difficulty in doubling the point and getting out. I believe more than 1,500 crowns' worth of vows were made, which were afterwards duly paid. The principal merchant made one of 800 cruzados: to wit, 400 for an orphan girl to marry withal, and 400 for a lamp and other utensils for a shrine of Our Lady that is hard by. As soon as he set foot on land he sought out an orphan girl, and fulfilled his promise to her, as also to the churchwardens of the said church. Many others, too, did the like; nor did any fail therein, according to his means and the extent of his vows. It is a custom of the Portuguese, when they are in peril, to make these vows; but the worst of it is that it makes them indolent and careless about working stoutly to save their lives. Issues 76-77; Issue 80 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society The Voyage of François Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas and Brazil, Pierre de Bergeron LONDON : WHITING AND CO., SARDINIA STREET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS LONDON : WHITING AND CO., 30 and 32, SARDINIA STREET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS
  41. ^ Fátima da Silva Gracias (2000). Beyond the self: Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Goa. Surya Publications. p. 83. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 28, 2009 Length 122 pages
  42. ^ Fátima da Silva Gracias (2000). Beyond the self: Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Goa. Surya Publications. p. 85. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 28, 2009 Length 122 pages
  43. ^ J. B. Prashant More, M. Manickam, Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of MESHAR. (2001). Freedom movement in French India: the Mahe revolt of 1948. IRISH. p. 127. ISBN 8190016695. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 27, 2009 ISBN 8190016695, 9788190016698 Length 262 pages
  44. ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1969). Four Centuries of Portuguese Expansion, 1415-1825: A Succinct Survey. Volume 3 of Publications of the Ernest Oppenheimer Institute of Portuguese Studies of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 59. Length 102 pages
  45. ^ Justus Strandes (1971). James S. Kirkman, ed. The Portuguese period in East Africa (2 ed.). East African Literature Bureau. p. 166. Length 325 pages
  46. ^ Sir John Milner Gray (1958). Early Portuguese missionaries in East Africa. Macmillan. p. 17. Original from the University of California Digitized Dec 6, 2006 Length 53 pages
  47. ^ Richard Reusch (1954). History of East Africa. Evang. Missionsverlag. p. 248. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Oct 25, 2006 Length 343 pages
  48. ^ Tanzania Society (1936). Tanzania notes and records, Issues 1-6. p. 74. 1607. Don Phillip (ex-diwani of Pemba ) accepted Christianity and married Dona Anna, an orphan (Strandes). Original from the University of California Digitized Feb 24, 2009
  49. ^ Tanganyika Society (1953). Tanganyika notes and records, Issues 34-45. Tanganyika Society. p. 61. In 1607 the ex-ruler of Pemba, Don Phillip, became a Christian and married Donna Anna, an orphan. Original from the University of Virginia Digitized Apr 9, 2009
  50. ^ Richard Reusch (1954). History of East Africa. Evang. Missionsverlag. p. 248. In 1607 the ex-ruler of Pemba, Don Phillip, became a Christian and married Dona Anna, an orphan. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Oct 25, 2006 Length 343 pages
  51. ^ Sir John Milner Gray (1975). History of Zanzibar, from the Middle Ages to 1856 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 60. ISBN 0837180570.  Original from the University of Virginia Digitized Aug 4, 2008 ISBN 0837180570, 9780837180571 Length 314 pages
  52. ^ victorian.fortunecity.com/portfolio/543/crusades_in_znz.htm
  53. ^ http://www.maldivesculture.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=191&Itemid=42
  54. ^ Fátima da Silva Gracias (1996). Kaleidoscope of Women in Goa, 1510-1961. Concept Publishing Company. p. 38. ISBN 8170225914. In mid sixteenth century the ruler of Maldives (who had converted to Christianity) married D.Francisca de Vasconcelos, an orphan who had come from Portugal (Figueiredo-Correia Afonso 1933). ISBN 8170225914, 9788170225911 Length 166 pages
  55. ^ Fátima da Silva Gracias (2000). Beyond the self: Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Goa. Surya Publications. p. 83. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 28, 2009 Length 122 pages
  56. ^ Fátima da Silva Gracias (2000). Beyond the self: Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Goa. Surya Publications. p. 83. There were rare exceptions as in the case of orfds do Rei, D. Francisca de Vasconcelos who married the ruler of Maldives. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 28, 2009 Length 122 pages
  57. ^ Beyond the self: Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Goa (2000). Beyond the self: Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Goa. Surya Publications. p. 83. There were rare exceptions as in the case of orfds do Rei, D. Francisca de Vasconcelos who married the ruler of Maldives. Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 28, 2009 Length 122 pages
  58. ^ Maud Diver (1971). Royal India: A Descriptive and Historical Study of India's Fifteen Principal States and Their Rulers (reprint ed.). Ayer Publishing. p. 170. ISBN 0836921526. orphans was waylaid by a Dutch privateer. The crew carried off their prizes to Surat for sale to the highest. . .One young lady found herself throned Queen of the Maldives Essay Index Reprint Series ISBN 0836921526, 9780836921526 Length 278 pages
  59. ^ William Telfer (1932). The treasure of São Roque: a sidelight on the counter-reformation. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. p. 184. One of the Queen's orphans, sent abroad in this way, became Queen of the Maldives. Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison Digitized Mar 18, 2008 Length 222 pages
  60. ^ Timothy J. Coates (2001). Convicts and Orphans: Forced and State-Sponsored Colonizers in the Portuguese Empire, 1550-1755 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0804733597. As a result, orphan girls, when they did not marry Portuguese, turned to Goan Christians, usually higher-caste individuals with financial resources and status. ISBN 0804733597, 9780804733595 Length 259 pages
  61. ^ Maud Diver (1971). Royal India: A Descriptive and Historical Study of India's Fifteen Principal States and Their Rulers (reprint ed.). Ayer Publishing. p. 170. ISBN 0836921526. Shortly before his arrival, two lovely Portuguese sisters had also reached Delhi in the adventurous fashion of the time. ... orphans was waylaid by a Dutch privateer. The crew carried off their prizes to Surat for sale to the highest Essay Index Reprint Series ISBN 0836921526, 9780836921526 Length 278 pages
  62. ^ Maud Diver (1971). Royal India: A Descriptive and Historical Study of India's Fifteen Principal States and Their Rulers (reprint ed.). Ayer Publishing. p. 171. ISBN 0836921526. beautiful sisters, Maria and Julian Mascarenhas, were bought by one of Akbar's agents, deputed to find fresh inmates for his imperial harem. . .the young and ardent Akbar's choice fell on Marie, and he made her his Christian wife. Essay Index Reprint Series ISBN 0836921526, 9780836921526 Length 278 pages