Organ concerto

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

An organ concerto is a piece of music, an instrumental concerto for a pipe organ soloist with an orchestra. The form first evolves in the 18th century, when composers including George Frideric Handel, Antonio Vivaldi and Johann Sebastian Bach wrote organ concertos with small orchestras, and with solo parts which rarely call for the organ pedal board. A few Classical and Romantic works are extant. Finally, there are some 20th- and 21st-century examples, of which the concerto by Francis Poulenc has entered the repertoire, and is quite frequently played.

The organ concerto form is not usually taken to include orchestral works that call for an organ used as an extra orchestral section, examples of which include the Third Symphony of Camille Saint-Saëns, Gustav Holst's The Planets or Richard Strauss's Also sprach Zarathustra.

List of organ concertos[edit]

G. F. Handel (1685–1759)[edit]

Handel wrote organ concertos as interludes for his oratorios—playing the organ part himself while directing the orchestra. Some are arrangements of his earlier works, or of works by other composers. For more details see the list of Handel's concertos. Many alternatives exist, so it is difficult to precisely number his organ concertos, however it is generally accepted that he wrote 16:

  1. HWV 289 - Op. 4 No. 1 in G minor: larghetto, allegro, adagio, andante
  2. HWV 290 - Op. 4 No. 2 in B flat major: tempo ordinario, allegro, adagio, allegro ma non troppo
  3. HWV 291 - Op. 4 No. 3 in G minor: adagio, allegro, adagio, allegro
  4. HWV 292 - Op. 4 No. 4 in F major: allegro, andante, adagio, allegro
  5. HWV 293 - Op. 4 No. 5 in F major: larghetto, allegro, alla siciliana, presto
  6. HWV 294 - Op. 4 No. 6 in B flat major: andante, allegro, larghetto, allegro moderato
  7. HWV 306 - Op. 7 No. 1 in B flat major: andante, allegro, largo, adagio, allegro
  8. HWV 307 - Op. 7 No. 2 in A major: overture, tempo ordinario, tempo ordinario II, allegro
  9. HWV 308 - Op. 7 No. 3 in B flat major: allegro, fuga, spiritoso, minuets 1 & 2
  10. HWV 309 - Op. 7 No. 4 in D minor: adagio, allegro, adagio, allegro
  11. HWV 310 - Op. 7 No. 5 in G minor: allegro ma non troppo, adagio, andante, minuet, gavotte
  12. HWV 311 - Op. 7 No. 6 in B flat major: pomposo, adagio, tempo ordinario
  13. HWV 295a - F major (No. 13): largo, allegro, larghetto, allegro
    HWV 295b - second version: larghetto, allegro, larghetto, allegro
  14. HWV 296a - A major (No. 14) : largo e staccato, organo ad libitum: fuga – allegro, andante, grave, allegro
    HWV 296b - second version, Pasticcio Konzert: andante, adagio, grave, andante allegro, a tempo ordinario
  15. HWV 304 - D minor (No. 15) : andante, organo ad libitum: adagio – fuga, allegro
  16. HWV 305a - F major (No. 16) : concerto, allegro, andante, andante allegro
    HWV 305b - second version: overture, allegro, andante, andante allegro

Organ concertos arranged from Concerti Grossi, Op.6:

  1. HWV 297 - D minor, after HWV 328: overture, air, allegro, allegro, allegro moderato
  2. HWV 298 - G major, after HWV 319: a tempo giusto, allegro, adagio, allegro, allegro
  3. HWV 299 - D major, after HWV 323 : larghetto e staccato, allegro, presto, largo, allegro, minuet un poco larghetto
  4. HWV 300 - G minor, after HWV 324 : largo e affettuoso, a tempo giusto, musette larghetto, allegro, allegro

Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741)[edit]

  • D minor for violin, organ and strings, RV541
  • F major for violin, organ and strings, RV542 (allegro, lento, allegro)
  • C major for violin, cello, organ and strings, RV554a
  • F major for 2 violins, 2 organs and double orchestra, RV584 (incomplete)
  • C minor for violin, organ and strings, RV766
  • F major for violin, organ and strings, RV767
  • C major for violin, organ and strings, RV774 (incomplete)
  • F major for violin, organ and strings, RV775 (incomplete)
  • C major for 2 organs and strings, RV793 (incomplete)

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)[edit]

There is no clearly named "organ concerto" (i.e., for organ and orchestral ensemble) by Bach, but several cantata movements contain extensive organ solo parts. One example is Cantata 146, whose first and second movements are adapted from the keyboard concerto BWV 1052. [1]. Cantata 35 contains two instrumental Sinfonias with organ solo, the first of which agrees with the fragmentary keyboard concerto BWV1059. [2]. (A recording of a reconstruction of this as an organ concerto was made by Ton Koopman. [3]

Bach's admiration for Vivaldi and the Italian style led to several transcriptions of instrumental concertos for solo organ, without an orchestra:

BWV key source movements
BWV 592 G major after Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Weimar
Transcription of a concerto for violin, strings and continuo
allegro, grave (E minor), presto
BWV 593 A minor after Antonio Vivaldi
Based on Op. 3 No. 8 for 2 violins and basso continuo (RV 522)
allegro (or Tempo Giusto), adagio (D minor) senza pedale a due claviere, allegro
BWV 594 C major after Antonio Vivaldi
Based on Op. 7 No. 5 for violin and basso continuo (RV 208)
allegro, adagio (A minor), recitativ, allegro - cadenza - allegro
BWV 595 C major After Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Weimar Uses the first movement only.
BWV 596 D minor after Vivaldi
Based on Op. 3 No. 11 - RV 565
allegro - grave - fuga, largo e spiccato, finale allegro
BWV 597 E flat major unknown composer Gigue

Michel Corrette (1709–1793)[edit]

The French organist-composer Michel Corrette wrote six concertos.

  • Concerto No. 1 in G major: allegro, aria I, aria II, allegro
  • Concerto No. 2 in A major: allegro, adagio, allegro
  • Concerto No. 3 in D major: adagio, aria, andante, adagio, allegro
  • Concerto No. 4 in C major: allegro, aria, allegro
  • Concerto No. 5 in F major: allegro, aria, allegro
  • Concerto No. 6 in D minor: allegro, andante, presto

Thomas Arne (1710–1778)[edit]

The English composer Thomas Arne composed six concertos.

  • Concerto No. 1 in C major: largo ma con spirito, andante, allegro, minuetto
  • Concerto No. 2 in G major: allegro, lento, moderato, allegro, con spirito
  • Concerto No. 3 in A major: con spirito, con spirito, minuetto, moderato
  • Concerto No. 4 in B flat major: con spirito, minuetto, giga moderato
  • Concerto No. 5 in G minor: largo, allegro con spirito, adagio, vivace
  • Concerto No. 6 in B flat major: allegro, moderato, ad libitum, allegro, minuetto

Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714–1788)[edit]

The German composer C. P. E. Bach wrote examples, including the following.

  • Concerto for organ and orchestra No. 4 in B flat major: con spirito, minuetto, giga
  • Concerto for organ and orchestra No. 5 in G minor: largo, allegro con spirito, adagio, vivace
  • Concerto for organ and orchestra No. 6 in B flat major: allegro moderato, minuetto - variations
  • Concerto for organ, strings and basso continuo in G major: allegro di molto, largo, presto

Antonio Soler (1729–1783)[edit]

The Spanish composer Antonio Soler wrote six concertos for two organs (without other instruments):

  • Concerto No. 1 in C major: andante, minué
  • Concerto No. 2 in A minor: andante-allegro, tempo di minué
  • Concerto No. 3 in G: andantino, minué
  • Concerto No. 4 in F: afectuoso, andante non largo, minué
  • Concerto No. 5 in A: cantabile, minué
  • Concerto No. 6 in D: allegro-andante-allegro-andante, minué

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Josef Gabriel Rheinberger (1839–1901)[edit]

Alexandre Guilmant (1837–1911)[edit]

Félix-Alexandre Guilmant Alexandre Guilmant, [6] wrote one of his organ sonatas (1874) in two versions [7], one as a symphony for organ and orchestra:

  • Sonata No. 1 in D Minor / Symphonie No. 1 in D Minor for Organ and Orchestra: Introduction et Allegro / Pastorale (Andante quasi allegretto) / Final (Allegro assai)

Marco Enrico Bossi (1861–1925)[edit]

  • Concerto in A minor op. 100 for Organ, String Orchestra, 4 Horns and Timpani (Bossi wrote this Concerto in two versions, the first in B flat minor with a different orchestration but with the same opus number)
  • Konzertstück in C minor op. 130 for Organ and Orchestra
  • Fantasia Sinfonica Op.147 for organ & orchestra

20th and 21st centuries[edit]

  • Joseph Jongen (1873–1953): Symphonie Concertante for Organ and Orchestra op. 81 (1926)
  • Hans Gál (1890–1987): Concertino for Organ and String Orchestra Op. 55 (1954)
  • Paul Hindemith (1895–1963):
    • Kammermusik No. 7, concerto for organ and wind band, Op. 46 No. 2 (1927)
    • Concerto for organ and orchestra (1963)
  • Flor Peeters (1903–1986): Concerto for Organ and Orchestra, op.52
  • Jean Langlais (1907–1991):
    • Concerto No. 1 for organ or harpsichord and orchestra (1949)
    • Concerto No. 2 for organ and string orchestra (1961)
    • Concerto No. 3 Réaction for organ, string orchestra and timpani (1971)
  • Samuel Barber (1910–1981):
    • Toccata Festiva, for organ and orchestra Op. 36
  • Charles Chaynes (b. 1925): Concerto for organ, strings, timpani and percussion after the Spiritual Canticle of St. John of the Cross (1973)
  • Jean Guillou (b. 1930):
    • Invention for organ and orchestra (concerto No. 1) Op. 7
    • Concerto Héroïque for organ and orchestra (concerto No. 2) Op. 10
    • Concerto No. 3, for organ and string orchestra Op. 14
    • Concerto No. 4, for organ and orchestra Op. 31
    • Concerto No. 5, Roi Arthur for organ and string quintet Op. 35
    • Concerto 2000 for organ and orchestra Op. 62
    • Concerto No. 6 for organ and orchestra (triple woodwind, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, tuba, percussion, strings) Op. 68
    • Concerto No. 7 for organ and orchestra Op. 70
  • Thierry Escaich (b. 1965):
    • Concerto for organ and orchestra (Concerto No. 1, 1995)
    • Concerto for organ, string orchestra percussions (Concerto No. 2, 2006)
  • Stephen Paulus (b. 1949):
    • Concerto for Organ, Chorus and Orchestra
    • Concerto for Organ, Strings and Percussion (1992)
    • Grand Concerto for Organ and Orchestra (2004)
    • Double Concerto for Piano and Organ with Strings and Percussion (c. 2010)
  • Leonid Karev (b. 1969):
    • Mots Interrompus for Organ and Orchestra (2007)
  • Frederik Magle (1977):
    • Concerto for organ and orchestra "The Infinite Second" (1994)
  • Valentin Villard (b. 1985):
    • Concerto for Organ and string orchestra Op. 46 (2009)

References[edit]

  • Concerto pour orgue See the French Wikipedia page for a more complete list.
  • Bouquet-Boyer, Marie-Thérèse, Vivaldi et le concerto, Paris, Éditions des Presses Universitaires de France, coll. «Que sais-je ?», 1985.
  • Orgues Nouvelles no 5, été 2009, Lyon, juin 2009. Dossier concertos orgue et orchestre.
  • Richard H. Satorius, Bibliography of Concertos for Organ and Orchestra, Evanston (IL), The Instrumentalist Co., 1961.
  • Pipedreams Selected Repertoire for Organ and Orchestra par Michale Barone (2008).