Organic cotton

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Organic cotton yarn

Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton and is grown in subtropical countries such as Turkey, China, USA from non genetically modified plants, that is to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides.[1] Its production also promotes and enhances biodiversity and biological cycles.[2][dead link] In the United States cotton plantations must also meet the requirements enforced by the National Organic Program (NOP), from the USDA, in order to be considered organic. This institution determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic crops.[3][4] As of 2007, 265,517 bales of organic cotton were produced in 24 countries and worldwide production was growing at a rate of more than 50% per year.[5]

Ecological footprint[edit]

Cotton covers 2.5% of the world's cultivated land yet uses 16% of the world's insecticides, more than any other single major crop.[5][6] Other environmental consequences of the elevated use of chemicals in the non organic cotton growing methods consist of:

  • High levels of agrochemicals are used in the production of non-organic, conventional cotton. Cotton production uses more chemicals per unit area than any other crop and accounts in total for 10-16% of the world's pesticides (including herbicides, insecticides, and defoliants).[5][7]
  • Chemicals used in the processing of cotton pollute the air and surface waters.
  • Residual chemicals may irritate consumers' skin.[citation needed]
  • Decreased biodiversity and shifting equilibrium of ecosystems due to the use of pesticides.[8]

Advantages[edit]

Cotton growers who make the transition to biologically based growing practices expect not only to offer a healthier and cleaner product, but also to benefit the planet. Some of the contributions to the different ecosystems include:

  • Protecting surface and groundwater quality (eliminating contaminants in surface runoff)
  • Reduced risk in insect and disease control by replacing insecticide with the manipulation of ecosystems
  • Long-term prevention of pests through beneficial habitat planting.[9]
  • Conservation of biodiversity
  • Eliminate the use of toxic chemicals used in cotton [10]

Organic certification[edit]

In the USA is required by the law that any producer wanting to label and sell a product as "organic" must meet the standards established by the Organic Food Production Act of 1990, enforced by The State organic program (SOP)[11] This act specifies the procedures and regulations for production and handling of organic crops.

Organic system plan[12][edit]

Producers must elaborate an organic production or handling system plan which must also be approved by the state certifying agency or the USDA. This plan must include careful explanation of every process held in the plantation, as well as the frequency with which they are performed. A list of substances used on the crops is also necessary, along with a description of their composition, place where they will be used, and if possible documentation of commercial availability. This inventory of substances is important for the regulation of allowed and prohibited material established by the SOP. Organic cotton growers must also provide a description of the control procedures and physical barriers established to prevent contact of organic and non organic crops on split operations and to avoid contact of organic production with prohibited substance during gestation, harvesting, and handling operations .[12] This production plan can also be transferred to other states as long as it has already been approved by a certifying agency.

Production[13][edit]

Production requirements are specifically the set of changes that must be made to field and farming practices in order for a crop to be considered organic. To begin with, organic fields must go through a cleansing period of three years, without the use of any prohibited substances, before planting the first organic crop. Fields must also be equipped with physical barriers and buzzers in order to prevent contact of organic crops with any chemical substance product of surface runoff from crops nearby. Producers must also strive to promote soil fertility through cultivation practices while maintaining or improving the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the soil and minimizes soil erosion. Organic growers must also implement practices to support biodiversity. Such practices include integrated pest management (IPM), which consists of the manipulation of ecosystems that benefit both the crops and the organisms that live around it. In addition to these practices, producers may only apply crop nutrients and soil amendments included on the National List of synthetic substances allowed in crop production.

Handling[edit]

Handling procedures are all the processes related to product packaging, pest control in handling processing facilities among others. The SOP allows the use of mechanical or biological methods for the purpose of retarding spoilage of products, but at the same time it prohibits the use of volatile synthetic solvents in processed products or any ingredient that is labeled as organic.

Pesticides[edit]

Since organic cotton is grown without the use of synthetic pesticides, it should contain fewer pesticides than conventional cotton. Pesticides used in the production of conventional cotton include orthophosphates such as phorate and methamidophos, endosulfan (highly toxic to farmers, but not very environmentally persistent) and aldicarb.[14] Other pesticides persisting in cotton fields in the United States include Trifluralin, Toxaphene and DDT.[15] Although the last two chemicals are no longer used in the United States [16] their long breakdown period and difficulty in removal ensures their persistence. Thus even organic cotton fields may contain them since conventional cotton fields can be transitioned to organic fields in 2–3 years.[17]

Over time though, studies have been done to find alternatives to conventional pesticide substances. These nonconventional farmers have given up their land and its yields to the testing of different, more organic ways of pest control. Organic farmers argue that conventional farmers don’t know the longterm effects of the pesticides they use, especially when the evidence is hidden under the soil. Some farmers in the US use composted tea leaves to act as a substitute for pesticides.[18] Research continues to seek new environmentally friendly ways to rid the soil of harmful pesticides. There has even been a study on using certain animal manure, like chickens, to decrease pest population.[19]

Expanding industry[edit]

Diverse institutions and campaigns are now educating the community about organic cotton and supporting growers on the switch to organic farming. The Sustainable Cotton Project is helping farmers in the transition from chemically dependent crops to more biological sound approaches.[20] This institution has launched the Cleaner Cotton project, which promises to produce cotton with 73% less use of chemicals.[21] In 2003, SCP joined the Community Alliance with Family Farmers (CAFF) to strengthen its operations and reach other farm and consumer audiences. CAFF and SCP provide growers with information about biological farming techniques and educate the public about the importance of reducing chemical use in fiber and food production and supporting local farmers.[22]

Regional[edit]

Organic cotton is currently being grown successfully in many countries; the largest producers (as of 2007) are Turkey, India and China.[5]

Organic cotton production in Africa takes place in at least 8 countries. The earliest producer (1990) was the SEKEM organization in Egypt; the farmers involved later convinced the Egyptian government to convert 400,000 hectares of conventional cotton production to integrated methods,[23] achieving a 90% reduction in the use of synthetic pesticides in Egypt and a 30% increase in yields.[24]

Various companies including Nike, Wal-Mart, and C&A [25] (a European Fashion distributor) include or have switched to organic cotton.[26] As of 2011, China, the U.S., India, Pakistan, Brazil, Turkey, Greece, Australia, Syria, Mali, and Egypt are all producing organic cotton. With this rise in demand from 2007 to 2011 more and more countries are making the switch.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CCVT Sustainable
  2. ^ VineYardTeam Econ
  3. ^ AMSv1
  4. ^ OrganicConsumers.org
  5. ^ a b c d Organic Trade Association
  6. ^ EJF. (2007). The deadly chemicals in cotton. Environmental Justice Foundation in collaboration with Pesticide Action Network UK: London, UK. ISBN No. 1-904523-10-2.
  7. ^ "Picking Cotton Carefully". Institute of Science in Society. March 2007. 
  8. ^ Sustainable Cotton Project
  9. ^ EPA
  10. ^ SCP
  11. ^ AMSv1
  12. ^ a b SOP Land Requirements
  13. ^ Organic Crops Production and Handling
  14. ^ Pesticide Action Network
  15. ^ "Trace organic contaminants, including toxaphene and trifluralin, in cotton field soils from Georgia and South Carolina, USA". Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 45 (1): 30–6. July 2003. doi:10.1007/s00244-002-0267-7. PMID 12948170. 
  16. ^ Dirty dozen (Stockholm Convention)
  17. ^ a b http://search.proquest.com/docview/231385562/13ACCB428542D69BE3C/1?accountid=39053
  18. ^ http://search.proquest.com/docview/461344342/13ACCB2EB3F547FEAE2/1?accountid=39053
  19. ^ http://www.actahort.org/members/showpdf?booknrarnr=532_2
  20. ^ Sustainable Cotton
  21. ^ SPC/Manufacturers
  22. ^ SPC/Who We Are
  23. ^ Organic cotton projects in Africa
  24. ^ CSR case study
  25. ^ "We Care: Acting Sustainably" (PDF). C&R. 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  26. ^ http://search.proquest.com/docview/228993213/13ACCB799E610A45FA9/1?accountid=39053
  27. ^ http://www.lifethreadsclothing.com.au/pages/why-fair-trade

External links[edit]