An organoid is a three-dimensional organ-bud grown in a laboratory that specializes in regenerative medicine. The technique for growing organoids has rapidly improved since the early 2010s, and it was named by The Scientist as one of the biggest scientific advancements of 2013.
In 2013, Madeline Lancaster at the Austrian Academy of Sciences established a protocol for culturing cerebral organoids derived from stem cells that mimic the developing human brain’s cellular organization. In 2014, Artem Shkumatov et al. at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign demonstrated that cardiovascular organoids can be formed from ES cells through modulation of the substrate stiffness, to which they adhere. Physiological stiffness promoted three-dimensionality of EBs and cardiomyogenic differentiation 
Types of organoids
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