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An organoid is a three-dimensional organ-bud grown in a laboratory that specializes in regenerative medicine. The technique for growing organoids has rapidly improved since the early 2010s, and it was named by The Scientist as one of the biggest scientific advancements of 2013.[1]


In 2008, Yoshiki Sasai and his team at RIKEN institute demonstrated that stem cells can be coaxed into balls of neural cells that self-organize into distinctive layers.[2]

In 2013, Madeline Lancaster at the Austrian Academy of Sciences established a protocol for culturing cerebral organoids derived from stem cells that mimic the developing human brain’s cellular organization.[3] In 2014, Artem Shkumatov et al. at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign demonstrated that cardiovascular organoids can be formed from ES cells through modulation of the substrate stiffness, to which they adhere. Physiological stiffness promoted three-dimensionality of EBs and cardiomyogenic differentiation [4]

Types of organoids[edit]


  1. ^ Kerry Grens (December 24, 2013). "2013’s Big Advances in Science". The Scientist. Retrieved 26 December 2013. 
  2. ^ Ed Yong (August 28, 2013). "Lab-Grown Model Brains". The Scientist. Retrieved 26 December 2013. 
  3. ^ Chambers, Stuart M.; Tchieu, Jason; Studer, Lorenz (October 2013). "Build-a-Brain". Cell Stem Cell 13 (4): 377–378. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2013.09.010. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ Martin, Andreas (1999). "T-cell Receptors and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease - Signposts for T-Cell-Antigen Driven Diseases". International Reviews of Immunology 18 (1-2): 111–140. PMID 10614741.