Oriel College, Oxford

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Oriel College

Oriel College Main Gate.jpg
                   
College name The Provost and Scholars of the House of the Blessed Mary the Virgin in Oxford, commonly called Oriel College, of the Foundation of Edward the Second of famous memory, sometime King of England
Latin name Collegium Orielense
Named after Blessed Virgin Mary
Established 1324
Sister college Clare College, Cambridge
Trinity College, Dublin
Provost Moira Wallace
Undergraduates 301[1] (2011/2012)
Graduates 158

Oriel College, Oxford is located in Oxford city centre
Oriel College, Oxford

Location of Oriel College within central OxfordCoordinates: 51°45′06″N 1°15′13″W / 51.751567°N 1.253702°W / 51.751567; -1.253702
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Boatclub
Oriel College Oxford Coat Of Arms.svg
Blazon Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or within a bordure engrailed argent.

Oriel College[2] is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in Oxford, England. Located in Oriel Square, the college has the distinction of being the oldest royal foundation in Oxford (a title formerly claimed by University College, whose claim of being founded by King Alfred is no longer promoted). In recognition of this royal connection, the college has also been known as King's College and King's Hall.[3] The reigning monarch of the United Kingdom (since 1952, Elizabeth II) is the official Visitor of the College.[4]

The original medieval foundation set up by Adam de Brome, under the patronage of Edward II, was called the House or Hall of the Blessed Mary at Oxford.[5] The first design allowed for a Provost and ten Fellows, called 'scholars', and the College remained a small body of graduate Fellows until the 16th century, when it started to admit undergraduates.[6] During the English Civil War, Oriel played host to high-ranking members of the King's Oxford Parliament.[7]

The main site of the College incorporates four medieval halls: Bedel Hall, St Mary Hall, St Martin Hall and Tackley's Inn, the last being the earliest property acquired by the college and the oldest standing medieval hall in Oxford.[8] The College has nearly 40 Fellows, about 300 undergraduates and some 160 graduates, the student body having roughly equal numbers of men and women.[6]

Oriel's notable alumni include two Nobel laureates; prominent Fellows have included founders of the Oxford Movement. Among Oriel's more notable possessions are a painting by Bernard van Orley and three pieces of medieval silver plate.

History[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

On 24 April 1324,[9] the Rector of the University Church, Adam de Brome, obtained a licence from Edward II to found a "certain college of scholars studying various disciplines in honour of the Virgin" and to endow it to the value of £30 a year.[10] De Brome bought two properties in 1324, Tackley's Hall, on the south side of the High Street and Perilous Hall, on the north side of Broad Street, and as an investment, he purchased the advowson of a church in Aberford.

The 1326 college charter given by Edward II. The concluding nine words give the date as 21 January in the nineteenth year of his reign.

De Brome's foundation was confirmed in a charter of 21 January 1326, in which the Crown, represented by the Lord Chancellor, was to exercise the rights of Visitor; a further charter drawn up in May of that year gave the rights of Visitor to Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln, Oxford at that time being part of the diocese of Lincoln. Under Edward's patronage, de Brome diverted the revenue of the University Church to his college, which thereafter was responsible for appointing the vicar and providing four chaplains to celebrate the daily services in the church.[5] The college lost no time in seeking royal favour again after Edward II's deposition, and Edward III confirmed his father's favour in February 1327, but the amended statutes remained in force with the Bishop of Lincoln as Visitor.[11] In 1329, the college received through royal grant a large house belonging to the crown, known as La Oriole,[12] standing on the site of what is now First quad;[13] it is from this property that the college acquired its common name, "Oriel", the name being in use from about 1349. The word referred to an oratoriolum, or oriel window, forming a feature of the earlier property.[10]

In the early 1410s several Fellows of Oriel took part in the disturbances accompanying Archbishop Arundel's attempt to stamp out Lollardy in the University; the Lollard belief that religious power and authority came through piety and not through the hierarchy of the Church particularly inflamed passions in Oxford, where its proponent, John Wycliffe, had been head of Balliol. Disregarding the Provost's authority, Oriel Fellows fought bloody battles with other scholars, killed one of the Chancellor's servants when they attacked his house, and were prominent among the group that obstructed the Archbishop and ridiculed his censures.[3]

In 1442, Henry VI sanctioned an arrangement whereby the town was to pay the college £25 a year from the fee farm in exchange for decayed property, allegedly worth £30 a year, which the college could not afford to keep in repair. The arrangement was cancelled in 1450.[14]

Early Modern[edit]

1675 copper engraving of the College, looking east across the front entrance and First quad; on the left is the tiered garden where Second quad would be built.

In 1643 a general obligation was imposed on Oxford colleges to support the Royalist cause in the English Civil War, the King called for Oriel's plate and almost all of it was given, the total weighing 29 lb.0 oz.5 dwt. of gilt, and 52 lb.7 oz.14 dwt. of "white" plate. In the same year the College was assessed at £1 for the weekly sum of £40 charged on the colleges and halls for the fortification of the city.[5] When the Oxford Parliament was assembled during the Civil War in 1644, Oriel housed the Executive Committee of the Privy council, Parliament being held at neighbouring Christ Church.[7] Following the defeat of the Royalist cause, the University was scrutinised by the Parliamentarians, and five of the eighteen Oriel Fellows were removed. The Visitors, using their own authority, elected Fellows between 1648 and October 1652, when without reference to the Commissioners, John Washbourne was chosen; the autonomy of the College in this respect seems to have been restored.[5]

In 1673 James Davenant, a Fellow since 1661, complained to William Fuller, then Bishop of Lincoln, about Provost Say's conduct in the election of Thomas Twitty to a Fellowship. Bishop Fuller appointed a commission that included the Vice-Chancellor, Peter Mews, the Dean of Christ Church, John Fell, and the Principal of Brasenose, Thomas Yates. On 1 August Fell reported to the Bishop that;

When this Devil of buying and selling is once cast out, your Lordship will, I hope, take care that he return not again, lest he bring seven worse than himself into the house after 'tis swept and garnisht.

On 24 January 1674, Bishop Fuller issued a decree dealing with the recommendations of the commissioners — a majority of all the Fellows should always be insisted on, so the Provost could not push an election in a thin meeting, and Fellows should be admitted immediately after their election. On 28 January Provost Say obtained a recommendation for Twitty's election from the King, but it was withdrawn on 13 February, following the Vice-Chancellor's refusal to swear Twitty into the University and the Bishop's protests at Court.[5]

1733 copper engraving of the College, looking south, after the completion of Bishop Robinson's and Provost Carter's buildings in Second quad

During the early 1720s, a constitutional struggle began between the Provost and the Fellows, culminating in a lawsuit. In 1721, Henry Edmunds was elected as a Fellow by 9 votes to 3; his election was rejected by Provost George Carter, and on appeal, by the Visitor, Edmund Gibson, then Bishop of Lincoln. Rejections of candidates by the Provost continued, fueling discontent among the Fellows, until a writ of attachment against the Bishop of Lincoln was heard between 1724 and 1726. The opposing Fellows, led by Edmunds, appealed to the first set of statutes, claiming the Crown as Visitor, making Gibson's decisions invalid; Provost Carter, supported by Bishop Gibson, appealed to the second set, claiming the Bishop of Lincoln as Visitor. The jury decided for the Fellows, supporting the original charter of Edward II.[11]

In a private printing of 1899 Provost Shadwell lists thirteen Gaudies observed by the College during the 18th century; by the end of the 19th century all but two, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception and the Purification of the Virgin, had ceased to be celebrated.[5]

Modern[edit]

In the early 19th century, the reforming zeal of Provosts John Eveleigh and Edward Copleston gained Oriel a reputation as the most brilliant college of the day. It was the centre of the "Oriel Noetics" — clerical liberals such as Richard Whately and Thomas Arnold were Fellows,[15] and during the 1830s, two intellectually eminent Fellows of Oriel, John Keble and John Henry Newman, supported by Canon Pusey (also an Oriel fellow initially, later at Christ Church) and others, formed a group known as the Oxford Movement, alternatively as the Tractarians, or familiarly as the Puseyites. The group were disgusted by the prevailing Church, and they sought to revive the spirit of early Christianity.[16][17] Tension arose in College since Provost Edward Hawkins was a determined opponent of the Movement.[15]

1919 photogravure of the College, looking south, after the completion of the Rhodes Building (in the foreground)

During World War I, a wall was built dividing Third quad from Second quad to accommodate students of Somerville College, while their college was being used as a military hospital. At this time Oxford separated male and female students as far as possible; Vera Brittain, one of the Somerville students, recalled an amusing occurrence during her time there in her autobiography, Testament of Youth;

[...] the few remaining undergraduates in the still masculine section of Oriel not unnaturally concluded that it would be a first-rate "rag" to break down the wall which divided them from the carefully guarded young females in St. Mary Hall. Great perturbation filled the souls of the Somerville dons when they came down to breakfast one morning to find that a large gap had suddenly appeared in the protecting masonry, through which had been thrust a hilarious placard:
"'OO MADE THIS 'ERE 'OLE?"
"MICE!!!"
Throughout that day and the following night the Senior Common Room, from the Principal downwards, took it in turns to sit on guard beside the hole, for fear any unruly spirit should escape through it to the forbidden adventurous males on the other side.[18]

In 1985, the college became the last all-male college in Oxford to admit women for matriculation as undergraduates. In 1984, the Senior Common Room voted 23-4 to admit women undergraduates from 1986. The Junior Common Room president believed that "the distinctive character of the college will be undermined".[19]

A second Feast Day was added in 2007 by a benefaction from Orielensis George Moody, to be celebrated on or near St George's Day (23 April). The only remaining gaudy had been Candlemas, the new annual dinner will be known as the St. George's Day Gaudy. The dinner is black tie and gowns, and by request of the benefactor, the main course will normally be goose.[20] The inaugural event took place on Wednesday 25 April 2007.

Buildings and environs[edit]

Front Quad (First quadrangle)[edit]

East range of First quad; the ornate portico in the centre leads into hall, the doors on either side lead to the undercroft (left) and chapel (right).

Nothing survives of the original buildings, La Oriole and the smaller St Martin's Hall in the south-east; both were demolished before the quadrangle was built in the artisan mannerist style during the 17th century. The south and west ranges and the gate tower were built around 1620 to 1622; the north and east ranges and the chapel buildings date from 1637 to 1642.[3][6] The façade of the east range forms a classical E shape comprising the college chapel, hall and undercroft. The exterior and interior of the ranges are topped by an alternating pattern of decorative gables. The gate house has a Perp portal and canted Gothic oriel windows, with fan vaulting in the entrance. The room above has a particularly fine plaster ceiling and chimneypiece of stucco caryatids and panelling interlaced with studded bands sprouting into large flowers.[12]

The cartouches over staircases one, two, three, five and six and the chapel, bar and provost's lodgings entrances bear the arms of important figures in the College's history; (1) Anthony Blencowe (Provost 1574-1618) who left money that paid for building the west side of front quad. (2) Richard Dudley (Fellow 1495-1536) who gave property for Fellowships. (3) John Carpenter (Provost 1428-1435, later Bishop Carpenter) who gave property, plate, Fellowships and Exhibitions. (Chapel) John Frank (Master of the Rolls) gave property for Fellowships around 1441. (Bar) William Lewis (Provost 1618-1621) who canvassed successfully for donations for the rebuilding of college. (5) William Smith (Bishop of Lincoln) who gave property for a Fellowship around 1508. (Provost's lodgings) John Tolson who was Provost during the building of Front Quad. (6) Edward Hawkins (Provost 1828-1882).

Hall[edit]

In the centre of the East range, the portico of the hall entrance commemorates its construction during the reign of Charles I with the legend "REGNANTE CAROLO", Charles, being King, in pierced stonework. The portico was completely rebuilt in 1897, and above it are statues of two Kings: Edward II on the left, and probably either Charles I or James I, although this is disputed; above those is a statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary after whom the College is officially named.[6] The top breaks the Jacobean tradition and has classical pilasters, a shield with garlands, and a segmental pediment.[12]

The hall has a hammerbeam roof; the louvre in the centre is now glazed, but was originally the only means of escape for smoke rising from a fireplace in the centre of the floor. The wooden panelling was designed by Ninian Comper and was erected in 1911 in place of some previous 19th-century Gothic type, though even earlier panelling, dating from 1710, is evident in the Buttery.

Behind the High Table is a portrait of Edward II; underneath is a longsword brought to the college in 1902 after being preserved for many years on one of the college's estates at Swainswick, near Bath. On either side are portraits of Sir Walter Raleigh and Joseph Butler. The other portraits around the hall include other prominent members of Oriel such as Cecil Rhodes, Matthew Arnold, Thomas Arnold, James Anthony Froude, John Keble, John Henry Newman, Richard Whately and John Robinson.

The heraldic glass in the windows display the coats of arms of benefactors and distinguished members of the College; three of the windows were designed by Ninian Comper.[6] The window next to the entrance on the East side contains the arms of Regius Professors of Modern History who have been ex-officio Fellows of the College.[3]

Chapel[edit]

The current chapel is Oriel's third, the first being built around 1373 on the north side of the front quadrangle. By 1566, the chapel was located on the south side of the quadrangle, as shown in a drawing made for Elizabeth I's visit to Oxford in that year. The present building was consecrated in 1642 and despite subsequent restorations it largely retains its original appearance.

In the gallery of the chapel is a late medieval stained glass image of St Margaret of Antioch.

The bronze lectern was given to the College in 1654. The black and white marble paving dates from 1677–78. Except for the pews on the west, dating from 1884, the panelling, stalls and screens are all 17th-century, as are the altar and carved communion rails. Behind the altar is Bernard van Orley's The Carrying of the Cross — a companion-piece to this painting is in the National Gallery of Scotland. The organ case dates from 1716; originally designed by Christopher Schreider for St Mary Abbots Church, Kensington, it was acquired by Oriel in 1884.[21]

In the north-west window of the gallery there is a small piece of late medieval glass, a figure of St Margaret of Antioch. In the south window of the gallery there is a painted window of "The Presentation of Christ in the Temple", executed by William Peckitt of York. It was originally set in the east window in 1767; a later version of his work can be seen in New College Chapel. The rest of the stained glass is Victorian: the earliest is on the easternmost part of the south side; the rest date from after the 1884 restorations by Powell.

Above the entrance to the chapel is an oriel that, until the 1880s, was a room on the first floor that formed part of a set of rooms that were occupied by Richard Whately, and later by John Henry Newman. Whately is said to have used the space as a larder and Newman is said to have used it for his private prayers — when the organ was installed in 1884, the space was used for the blower. The wall that once separated the room from the ante-chapel was removed, making it accessible from the chapel. The organ was built by J. W. Walker & Sons in 1988;[21] in 1991 the space behind the organ was rebuilt as an oratory and memorial to Newman and the Oxford Movement. A new stained glass window designed by Vivienne Haig and realised by Douglas Hogg was completed and installed in 2001.

During the late 1980s, the chapel was extensively restored with the assistance of donations from Lady Norma Dalrymple-Champneys. During this work, the chandelier, given in 1885 by Provost Shadwell while still a Fellow, was put back in place, the organ was restored, the painting mounted behind the altar, and the chapel repainted. A list of former chaplains and organ scholars was erected in the ante-chapel.[22] The Chaplain is Rev Dr Robert Tobin and the Senior Organ Scholar for 2010-11 was Edwin Lock. At that time David Maw was appointed Director of Chapel Music.

Back Quad (Second quadrangle)[edit]

Originally a garden, the demand for more accommodation for undergraduates in the early 18th century resulted in two free-standing blocks being built. The first block erected was the Robinson Building on the east side, built in 1720 by Bishop Robinson at the suggestion of his wife, as the inscription over the door records. Its twin block, the Carter Building, was erected on the west side in 1729, as a result of a benefaction by Provost Carter. The two buildings stood for nearly a hundred years as detached blocks in the garden, and the architectural elements of the First quad are repeated on them — only here the seven gables are all alike. Between 1817 and 1819,[12] they were joined up to the Front quad with their present, rather incongruous connecting links. In the link to the Robinson Building, two purpose-built rooms have been incorporated - the Champneys Room, designed by Weldon Champneys, the nephew of Basil Champneys, and the Benefactors Room, a panelled room honouring benefactors of the college. A Gothic oriel window, belonging to the Provost's Lodgings, was added to the Carter Building in 1826.[12]

Designed by James Wyatt and completed in 1796, this building houses the senior common rooms and library.
On the first floor of James Wyatt's building, the senior library, looking east

The north range houses the library and senior common rooms; designed in the Neoclassical style by James Wyatt, it was built between 1788 and 1796 to accommodate the books bequested by Edward, Baron Leigh, formerly High Steward of the University and an Orielensis, whose gift had doubled the size of the library.[23] The two-storey building has rusticated arches on the ground floor and a row of Ionic columns above, dividing the façade into seven bays — the ground floor contains the first purpose built senior common rooms in Oxford, above is the library.[3]

On 7 March 1949, a fire spread from the library roof; over 300 printed books and the manuscripts on exhibition were completely destroyed, and over 3,000 books needed repair,[23] though the main structure suffered little damage and restoration took less than a year.[3]

St. Mary's Quad (Third quadrangle)[edit]

The south, east and west ranges of third quadrangle contain elements of St Mary Hall, which was incorporated into Oriel in 1902; less than a decade later, the Hall's buildings on the northern side were demolished for the construction of the Rhodes Building. Bedel Hall in the south was formally amalgamated with St Mary Hall in 1505.

In the south range, parts of the medieval buildings survive and are incorporated into staircase ten — the straight, steep flight of stairs and timber framed partitions date from a mid-15th century rebuilding of St Mary Hall. The former Chapel, Hall and Buttery of St Mary Hall, built in 1640, form part of the Junior Library and Junior Common Room. Viewed from the third quad, the Chapel, with its Gothic windows, can be seen to have been built neatly on top of the Hall, a unique example in Oxford of such a plan.

On the east side of the quad is a simple rustic style timber-frame building; known as "the Dolls' House", it was erected by Principal King in 1743.

In 1826 an ornate range was erected in the Gothic Revival style, incorporating the old gate of St Mary Hall, on the west side of the quad. Designed by Daniel Robertson, it contains two quite ornate oriels placed asymmetrically, one is of six lights, the other four. They are the best example of the pre-archaeological Gothic in Oxford.[12] The large oriel on the first floor at the north end was once the drawing room of the Principal of Hall. Parts of the street wall incorporated into this range show traces of blocked windows dating from the same period of rebuilding in the 15th century as staircase ten.[3]

Statues of Cecil Rhodes, Edward VII and George V on the central bay of the Rhodes Building's High Street façade

The Rhodes Building, pictured right, was built in 1911 using £100,000 left to the College for that purpose by former student Cecil Rhodes.[12] It was designed by Basil Champneys and stands on the site of the Principal's house, on the High Street. Champneys' first proposal for the building included an open arcade to the High Street, a domed central feature and balustraded parapet. The left hand block and much of the centre was to be given up to a new Provost's Lodging, and the five windows on the first floor above the arcade were to light a gallery belonging to the Lodging. The college eventually decided to retain the existing Provost's Lodging and demanded detailing "more in accordance with the style which has become traditional in Oxford". It became the last building of the Jacobean revival style in Oxford.[24]

On the side facing the High Street, there is a statue of Rhodes over the main entrance, with Edward VII and George V beneath. The inscription reads: "e Larga MUnIfICentIa CaeCILII rhoDes", which, as well as acknowledging Rhodes' munificence, is a chronogram giving the date of construction, MDCCCLLVIIIIII.

The staircases of the interior façade are decorated with cartouches similar to those found in First Quad, and likewise bear the arms of important figures in the College's history; (13) Sir Walter Raleigh who was an undergraduate from 1572 to 1574, (14) John Keble who was a Fellow between 1811 and 1835), (archway) Edward Hawkins who was Provost from 1828 until 1882 and (15) Gilbert White who was an undergraduate from 1739 until 1743 and a Fellow from 1744 until 1793.

The building was not entirely well received; William Sherwood, Mayor of Oxford and Master of Magdalen College School, wrote:

Oriel [has] broken out into the High, ... destroying a most picturesque group of old houses in so doing, and, to put it gently, hardly compensating us for their removal.[25]

O'Brien Quad (Island site)[edit]

A convex quadrilateral of buildings, bordered by the High Street, and the meeting of Oriel Street and King Edward Street in Oriel Square. The site took six hundred years to acquire and although it contains teaching rooms and the Harris Lecture Theatre, it is largely given over to accommodation.

On the High Street, No. 106 and 107 stand on the site of Tackley's Inn; built around 1295,[6] it was the first piece of property that Adam de Brome acquired when he began to found the college in 1324.[13] It comprised a hall and chambers leased to scholars, behind a frontage of five shops, with the scholars above and a cellar of five bays below. The hall, which was open to the roof, was 33 feet (10 m) long, 20 feet (6 m) wide, and about 22 feet (7 m) high; at the east end was a large chamber with another chamber above it. The south wall of the building, which survives, was partly of stone and contains a large two-light early 14th-century window. The cellar below is of the same date and is the best preserved medieval cellar in Oxford; originally entered by stone steps from the street, it has a stone vault divided into four sections by two diagonal ribs, with carved corbels.[14]

The Oriel Street site was acquired between 1329 and 1392.[14] No. 12, now staircases 19 and 20, is the oldest tenement acquired by the college; known as Kylyngworth's, it was granted to the college in 1392 by Thomas de Lentwardyn, Fellow and later Provost, having previously been let to William de Daventre, Oriel's fourth Provost, in 1367. A back wing to the property was added around 1600 and further work to the front was conducted in 1724–38.[26] In 1985, funded by a gift from Edgar O'Brien and £10,000 from the Pilgrim Trust, Kylyngworth's was refurbished along with Nos. 10, 9 and 7.

On the first floor of No. 6 King Edward Street is a portrait bust of former student and benefactor Cecil Rhodes.

King Edward Street was created by the college between 1872 and 1873 when 109 and 110 High Street were demolished. The old shops on each side of the road were pulled down and rebuilt, and to preserve the continuity, the new shops were numbered 108 and 109–112. Named after the college's founder, the road was opened in 1873.[27] On the wall of the first floor of No. 6, there is a large metal plaque with a portrait of Cecil Rhodes; underneath is the inscription:

In this house, the Rt. Hon Cecil John Rhodes kept academical residence in the year 1881. This memorial is erected by Alfred Mosely in recognition of the great services rendered by Cecil Rhodes to his country.[28]

In the centre of the quad is the Harris Building, formerly Oriel court, a real tennis court where Charles I played tennis with his nephew Prince Rupert in December 1642 and King Edward VII had his first tennis lesson in 1859. The building was in use as a lecture hall by 1923,[29] and after modernisation between 1991 and 1994, funded by Sir Philip and Lady Harris, contains accommodation, a seminar room and the college's main lecture theatre. The bronze plaque in the lobby commemorates Sir Philip's father, Captain Charles William Harris, after whom the building is named. The building was opened by John Major, then Prime Minister, on 10 August 1993.[30]

Whereas the staircases on the first three quadrangles are marked with Arabic numerals, the Island site is marked with Roman numerals. Both sites have the numbering running anticlockwise around each quadrangle and there are two staircase eighteens − Mary Quad's staircase numbering finishes at 18 and O'Brien Quad's staircase numbering begins with XVIII.

Rectory Road[edit]

Rectory Road's Goldie Wing is one of the remaining buildings of a former convent.
Rectory Road's James Mellon Hall was built in 2000, on the site of Nazareth House.

Bordered by the Cowley Road, this site was formerly Nazareth House, a residential care home convent — Goldie Wing (shown left) and Larmenier House are its surviving buildings. Nazareth House itself was demolished to make room for two purpose-built halls of residence, James Mellon Hall (shown right) and David Paterson House. The two new halls were opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 8 November 2000.[31]

As it is about ten minutes walk from College and more peaceful than the middle of the city, it has become the principal choice of accommodation for Oriel's graduates and finalists.[32] The site has its own common rooms, squash court, gymnasium and support staff.

Bartlemas[edit]

Bartlemas is a conservation area that incorporates the remaining buildings of a leper hospital founded by Henry I;[33] it includes the sports grounds for Oriel, Jesus and Lincoln Colleges, along with landscaping for wildlife and small scale urban development.

In 1326 Provost Adam de Brome was appointed warden of St Bartholomew's;[33] a leper hospital in Cowley Marsh, the hospital was later granted to the college by Edward III, along with the payments it had been receiving from the fee farm. It was increasingly used as a rest house for sick members of the college needing a change of air.[34] In 1649 the college rebuilt the main hospital range north of the chapel, destroyed in the Civil War, as a row of four almshouses, called Bartlemas House.[35] Bartlemas Chapel and two farm cottages are the other extant buildings.

Coat of arms[edit]

In the vault of the main entrance, a roof boss displays the college's coat of arms, the three lions of Edward II with an engrailed silver border.
On the main gate, a painted carving of the badge of the Prince of Wales, a symbol often adopted by members of college. The German motto "Ich dien " means "I serve."

In heraldic terminology: Gules, three lions passant guardant Or within a bordure engrailed Argent.

The arms of the College are based on those of the founder Edward II, the three gold lions of England on a red background. However, as no one may bear another's arms unaltered, an engrailed silver border was added "for difference".

The three feathers, often adopted by members of the College, can be found in decorations around college and is the motif on the college crested tie. It probably represents Edward, the Black Prince, although it may represent King Charles I, who was Prince of Wales when the building of First quad began in the 17th century.[36]

College colours, used on the college scarf, sports clothing, oar blades and the like, are two white stripes on navy.

The long-time informal emblem of the Tortoise Club (1st Summer VIII and 1st Torpid crews), was formalized in a grant to the College by Letters Patent dated 20 April 2009 of Garter, Clarenceux and Norroy and Ulster King of Arms. The Badge is blazoned A Tortoise displayed the shell circular Azure charged with two concentric annulets Argent.[37] The grant is formulated to provide the College, the Boat Club, and the Oriel Society (Oriel's Alumni society) use of the badge in relation to Tortoise Club alumni activities; the Tortoise Club is not itself an incorporated entity and does not bear Arms in its own right; therefore it could not be granted such a heraldic Badge directly.

Grace[edit]

Before formal Hall, the following Latin grace is recited by one of the student bible clerks. The translation is reputedly by Erasmus in his Convivium Religiosum of a grace recorded by St John Chrysostom:

Benedicte Deus, qui pascis nos a juventute nostra et praebes cibum omni carni, reple gaudio et laetitia corda nostra ut nos affatim quod satis est habentes abundemus in omne opus bonum, per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum, cui, tecum et Spiritu Sancto, sit omnis honos, laus et imperium, in saecula saeculorum.

Blessed God, who feedest us from our youth and providest food to all flesh, fill our hearts with joy and gladness, that we, having enough to satisfy us, may abound in every good work, through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with thee and the Holy Spirit, be all honour, praise and power for all ages.

After the meal, the Provost, or a Fellow, usually recites a short Latin prayer [Benedicto benedicatur, per Jesum Christum, Let praise be given to/by the Blessed One] instead of the full post cibum grace:

Domine Deus, resurrectio et vita credentium, qui semper es laudandus cum in viventibus tum in defunctis, agimus tibi gratias pro Eduardo secundo, Fundatore nostro, pro Adamo De Brome, praecipuo benefactore caeterisque benefactoribus nostris, quorum benficiis hic ad pietatem et ad studia bonarum literarum alimur; rogantes ut nos his donis tuis recte utentes, ad resurrectionis gloriam immortalem perducamur, per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum.

Lord God, the resurrection and life of all who believe in thee, who art always worthy to be praised by both the living and the dead, we give thee thanks for Edward the Second, our Founder, for Adam de Brome, our principal benefactor and for all our other benefactors, by whose benefits we are here maintained in godliness and learning; and we beseech thee that using these thy gifts rightly we may be led to the immortal glory of resurrection, through Jesus Christ our Lord.[38]

Student life[edit]

Oriel shares a boathouse with Lincoln and The Queen's Colleges.

Students are admitted to Oriel in line with the common framework the Oxford University Colleges adhere to, which lays down the principles and procedures for admission to Oxford University, which they all observe.

Accommodation is provided for all undergraduates, and for some graduates, though some accommodation is off-site. Members are generally expected to dine in hall, where there are two sittings every evening, one informal and one formal, except on Saturdays, where there is only an informal sitting.[8] The Bar, situated underneath the Hall, serves food from mid-morning and drinks in the evening. There is both a Junior Common Room (JCR), between Second and Third quad, and a Middle Common Room (MCR), on the Island Site.

The college lending library supplements the university libraries and holds over 100,000 volumes, including core undergraduate texts. Most undergraduate tutorials are carried out in the college, though for specialist papers, undergraduates may be sent to tutors in other colleges.

Between 2001-2010, Oriel College students chose not to be affiliated to the University-wide Students' union, OUSU,[39] although this did not stop some students from getting involved with OUSU and running for elected office. In a 2010 student referendum the JCR decided to reaffiliate.[40] However, in 2013, in a fresh referendum, the Oriel JCR again voted to disaffiliate from OUSU.[41]

Oriel College has its own drama society, the Oriel Lions, which funds college and Oxford University shows.[42]

Sport[edit]

Croquet may be played in St Mary quad in the summer, as can bowls on the south lawn of First quad.[8] The sports ground is mainly used for cricket, tennis, rugby union and football.

Rowing[edit]

During the 2006 Torpids, the double headship winning Oriel Men's and Women's Eights maintained the College's reputation for success in rowing.
The emblem of the Oriel College Boat Club.

Rowing at Oriel is carried out from the college's own boat-house across Christ Church Meadow. Oriel has a reputation for its success in rowing, in particular the two intercollegiate bumps races, Torpids and Eights Week.[43] In 2005 they remained "Head of the River" in Torpids and rowed over second in Eights Week. Having been awarded spoons in Summer Eights 2006 after being bumped every day of racing, the Men's 1st VIII bumped twice in 2007 and twice again in 2008 to return to 2nd on the River, behind Balliol College.[44] The women's 1st VIII has also had success in Summer Eights in recent years, winning blades in 2007 after bumping on all four days and finishing 2008 in Division I for the first time since 1994. In 2006 Oriel claimed the first ever double headship in Torpids, rowing over as Head of the River in both the men's and women's first divisions. Both Men's and Women's 1st VIIIs ceded the headship of Torpids in 2008 by being bumped; the positions remained unchanged in 2007 as Torpids were cancelled.

In 2011 Oriel regained the Headship in Eights, retaining this honour the following year.

On the afternoons of the Thursday, Friday and Saturday of 7th week in Trinity Term, the boat club hosts the annual Oriel Regatta; events in this competition include side-by-side racing for eights, coxed fours, pairs and single sculls.[45] The course runs upstream from the Longbridges Boathouse to past the end of boathouses on Christ Church Island and are conducted in knock-out format.

The general emblem of the Oriel College Boat Club is the original medieval badge of Edward, the Black Prince. In recent years this has been augmented by the addition of crossed-oars below the feathers.

The Tortoise Club[edit]
The emblem of Oriel College Boat Club's elite men's rowers' Tortoise Club.

The Tortoise Club is open to the men's 1st Summer VIII and 1st Torpid (as well as their respective coxwains),[46] but does not extend to the Boat Club committee's Bosun (boatswain), Secretary, or Treasurer unless they are also 1st VIII, 1st Torpid, or coxwains to those boats. The unique emblem of the Tortoise Club is the tortoise badge referred to above.[37] The College of Arms' narrative should not be misunderstood to imply use of the Tortoise emblem by the general Oriel College Boat Club membership or members of the Oriel Society - these have their own appropriate emblematic devices. Use of the Badge/emblem, the wearing of apparel such as ties, bow ties, or OCBC jackets bearing the Tortoise emblem, is not approved beyond College activities relating to, or by members of, The Tortoise Club itself.

The emblem of Oriel College Boat Club's elite women's rowers' Blessed Virgins Club.
The Blessed Virgins Club[edit]

At the creation of the Oriel College Women's Boat Club in 1986,[47] Oriel's female rowers in the 1st VIII and 1st Torpid became members of The Blessed Virgins Club, in like fashion and styling as their male counterparts in the Tortoise Club. The respective unique emblem of The Blessed Virgins is a pair of (angelic) wings. The choice of "Blessed Virgins" is a pun on the official name of the college, that being 'The House of Blessed Mary the Virgin in Oxford'[48]

Oriel Rowing Jackets[edit]

Until 2009 the wearing of Boat Club Jackets (ivory with navy blue piping and cuff rings, bearing the three ostrich feather emblem on the left breast) was limited to the 1st and 2nd Summer VIII's and Torpids and the Oriel College Boat Club Committee. At that time cuff ring designations were: Three rings for 1st Summer VIII and 1st Torpid; two rings for Boat Club Committee; one ring for 2nd Summer VIII 2nd Torpid. These now obsolete designations can still seen at the Walters of Oxford website.[49]

Changes brought about in 2009 to become more inclusive of lower-boats' alumni (3rd, 4th, and sometimes 5th VIII's as well as boat coxswains) reformed the cuff ring designations as follows: Three rings for 1st Summer VIII; two rings for 1st Torpid and a blades-winning 2nd Summer VIII at the Captain's discretion; one ring for general boat club members (no specific distinction for committee members exists today). Although the change was communicated internally and to Walters of Oxford (despite the online store being out-of-date), it remains for the Boat Club to make this announcement in-writing among the wider alumni community.

Academic performance[edit]

Oriel is ranked 9th out of 30 in the 2012/13 Norrington Table.[50]

People associated with the College[edit]

Oriel alumnus, Sir Walter Raleigh.

Many notable and famous people have passed through Oriel's gates, from statesmen to cricketers to industrialists; their most famous undergraduate is the 16th-century explorer, Sir Walter Raleigh.[8][51] On the graduate level, the college boasts as former fellows the principle founders of the Oxford Movement: John Keble, E.B. Pusey, and John Henry Newman. The College has produced many other churchmen, bishops, cardinals, governors, and two Nobel Prize recipients: Alexander Todd (Chemistry) and James Meade (Economics).

The Professorial Fellowships the College holds are: the Regius Professor of Modern History, held by Robert Evans and formerly by Sir John Elliott, Hugh Trevor-Roper and Thomas Arnold, the Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, held by John Barton, the Nolloth Professor of the Philosophy of the Christian Religion, held by Brian Leftow, and the Nuffield Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.[2]

In the 1700s, Oriel attracted its first transatlantic students - sons of planters in Virginia. 'One of them came to regret giving a job to a young surveyor: George Washington.'[52]

See also Former students of Oriel College and Fellows of Oriel College

Notable possessions[edit]

Oriel has three notable pieces of medieval plate.[53] The first is a French beaker and cover in silver gilt; past estimates on its dating from 1460–70 are thought mistaken, and circa 1350, with later decoration, was later expounded.[54] It was bought in 1493 for £4.18s.1d., under the mistaken belief that it had belonged to Edward II.[6] In a college inventory of plate dated 21 December 1596, it is named as the Founder's Cup.

The second notable piece of plate is a mazer of maplewood with silver gilt mounts, dating from 1470–85. On the edge of the rim is a row of grouped beads; below is an inscription in black letters:

Vir racione vivas non quod petit atra voluptas sic caro casta datur lis lingue suppeditatur
Man, in thy draughts let reason be thy guide, and not the craving of perverted lust;
So honest nourishment will be supplied, and strife of tongue be trampled in the dust

This type of shallow drinking vessel was quite common in the Middle Ages, but the only other mazers in Oxford are three dating from the 15th century, and one standing mazer from 1529–30, all belonging to All Souls. Thirdly is a coconut cup, one of six in Oxford; the Oriel cup has silver gilt mounts and dates from the first quarter of the 16th century.[55]

Among the later plate are two flagons, two pattens and a chalice which date from 1640–41. The larger pieces of Buttery Plate include the Sanford and Heywood grace cups, dated 1654–55 and 1669–70, a rosewater ewer gifted in 1669, a punchbowl dating from 1735–36, and the great Wenman tankard presented in 1679, which holds a gallon and is the largest in Oxford. Many of the 17th- and 18th-century tankards were given by commensales and commoners as a form of admission fee.[3]

As of 2006, the college's estimated financial endowment was £77 million.[56] Oriel possesses an engrossment of the Magna Carta.[57]

Film and fiction[edit]

The buildings of Oriel College were used as a location for Hugh Grant's first film, Privileged (1982), as well as Oxford Blues (1984), True Blue (1991) and The Dinosaur Hunter (2000).[58]

The television crime series Inspector Morse used the College in the episodes "Ghost in the Machine", under the name of 'Courtenay College', "The Silent World of Nicholas Quinn", "The Infernal Serpent", "Deadly Slumber", "Twilight of the Gods" and "Death is now My Neighbour",[58] and in the one off follow on, Lewis, the Middle Common Room and Oriel Square were used.[59]

In the first series of Chancer, broadcast in 1990, Oriel College was featured under its genuine name as the home of Lynsey Baxter's character, Victoria Douglas. Filming was done on Staircase 14 in the Rhodes Building, and also featured prominent shots of the first and third quadrangles and of Oriel Square.

The quads and interiors were used in a 2006 documentary on Gilbert White by Michael Wood, both being former students of the college.

In Tom Brown at Oxford by Thomas Hughes, Oriel's win in the 1842 Head of the River Race, with Oriel bumping Trinity, was re-written as Tom's college, "St Ambrose" taking first place and "Oriel" in second place.[5]

In The Covenant, by James A. Michener, the English characters all went to Oriel.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Undergraduate numbers by college 2011-12". University of Oxford. 
  2. ^ a b Oxford University Calendar 2005–2006 (2005) p.323 has the corporate designation as "The Provost and Scholars of the House of the Blessed Mary the Virgin in Oxford, commonly called Oriel College, of the Foundation of Edward the Second of famous memory, sometime King of England", p324 has people — Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-928370-2.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Watt, D. E. (editor), Oriel College, Oxford (Trinity term, 1953) — Oxford University Archaeological Society, uses material collected by C. R. Jones, R. J. Brenato, D. K. Garnier, W. J. Frampton and N. Covington, under advice from W. A. Pantin, particularly in respect of the architecture and treasures (manuscripts, printed books and silver plate) sections. 16 page publication, produced in association with the Ashmolean Museum as part of a college guide series.
  4. ^ http://www.oxfordmail.co.uk/news/10322505.QUEEN_S_VISIT__Special_lunch_fit_for_a_Queen/
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Rannie, David, Oriel College (1900) — published by F. E. Robinson & Co. London (Part of the University of Oxford College Histories series) pp.1, 5–10, 102, 105, 108–110, 241 and 235.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Oriel College Oxford, A short guide — published by Oriel College Development Trust on behalf of Oriel College, Oxford.
  7. ^ a b "The Oxford Parliament". British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate 1638–60. Retrieved 3 September 2006. 
  8. ^ a b c d Oriel College Memorandum 2003–4.
  9. ^ Hibbert's The Encyclopedia of Oxford p. 291 gives date as April 24, with the wording "de Brome, obtained from King Edward II, licence". Jeremy Catto's article about de Brome in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives the date as April 20, with similar wording. Rannie's Oriel College p.4 has "On April 28, 1324, Letters Patent issued by the King giving licence"
  10. ^ a b Hibbert, Christopher, The Encyclopedia of Oxford London: Macmillan (1988) pp. 291–295.
  11. ^ a b Varley, F.J., The Oriel College Lawsuit, 1724–26 Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society, Oxford (DOC).
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Sherwood, Jennifer; Nikolaus Pevsner (1974). The Building of England: Oxfordshire pp.176–180. Penguin/Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09639-9. 
  13. ^ a b Pantin, W.A., Tackley's Inn Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society, Oxford (DOC).
  14. ^ a b c Crossley, Alan (editor), 'Medieval Oxford', A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 4: The City of Oxford (1979) — Oxford University Press British History Online ISBN 0-19-722714-7.
  15. ^ a b Newman's Oxford - A Guide for Pilgrims, Ecumenical undertaking between the Vicar of Littlemore and the Fathers of the Oratory at Birmingham — Oxonian Rewley Press (c.1978) p.10.
  16. ^ Ollard, S.L., The Oxford Architectural and Historical Society and the Oxford Movement Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society, Oxford (DOC)
  17. ^ DeLaura, David, 'The Oriel Inheritance' (chapter one), Hebrew and Hellene in Victorian England: Newman, Arnold, and Pater (1969) — published by University of Texas Press. Retrieved on 30 September 2006
  18. ^ Brittain, Vera Testament of Youth: An Autobiographical Study of the Years 1900–1925 (1933) — Penguin Books Reprint edition (1994) p.136 ISBN 0-14-018844-4.
  19. ^ Cherwell Retropsective (1984 section) The Cherwell 24 November 1989 edition.
  20. ^ Oriel News Issue 6 Summer 2007 published by the Oriel College Development Trust.
  21. ^ a b Pacey, Robert and Popkin, Michael, The Organs of Oxford (1980) — Second edition published by Positif Press, Oxford, p.73 ISBN 0-906894-25-5.
  22. ^ "Oriel College Chapel Guide & History". (reference for the section). Retrieved 22 March 2007. 
  23. ^ a b "Oriel College History of the Library". Retrieved 22 March 2007. 
  24. ^ Colvin, Howard Unbuilt Oxford Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-03126-2.
  25. ^ "95–101 High Street, Oxford". oxfordhistory.org.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2012. 
  26. ^ Pantin, W. A., 'Kylyngworth's', The Oriel Record, Jan 1944, pp. 246–253.
  27. ^ "King Edward Street". oxfordhistory.org.uk. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  28. ^ An ABC of notables oxfordinscriptions.com.
  29. ^ Crossley, Alan (editor), 'Social and Cultural Activities', A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 4: The City of Oxford (1979) — Oxford University Press British History Online ISBN 0-19-722714-7.
  30. ^ Oriel College Record, 1993, pp.54–55.
  31. ^ Royal visit brightens up the day thisisoxfordshire.com news report. Retrieved on 11 September 2006
  32. ^ "Oriel Graduate Accommodation". orielmcr.org. Archived from the original on 21 May 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2006. 
  33. ^ a b Page, William (editor), 'Hospitals: St Bartholomew, Oxford', A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 2 (1907), pp. 157-58 has 1326 to de Brome and 1328 to Oriel — published by Oxford University Press British History Online ISBN 0-7129-1041-7.
  34. ^ Markham, Margaret, Medieval Hospitals has grant date as 1328 Local History Series: Medieval Hospitals, Vale and Downland Museum, Wantage, UK.
  35. ^ Sherwood, Jennifer, A guide to the Churches of Oxfordshire (1989) p. 143 has grant date as 1327 — published by Robert Dugdale in association with Oxfordshire Historic Churches Trust ISBN 0-946976-03-1.
  36. ^ "The name and arms of the College". Oriel College sub-page. Retrieved 22 March 2007. [dead link]
  37. ^ a b "The College of Arms newsletter". College of Arms. Retrieved 20 October 2010. 
  38. ^ Adams, Reginald, The College Graces of Oxford and Cambridge The Perpetua Press, Oxford (1992) pp. 26–27 and 93 (reference for the section) ISBN 1-870882-06-7.
  39. ^ "Oriel Split with OUSU". Buckley, Julia, The Oxford Student article of. 31 May 2001. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2006. 
  40. ^ Only two Sab positions uncontested . Retrieved on 4 January 2007 Mead, Jessica, Cherwell article of 10 November 2006.
  41. ^ http://oxfordstudent.com/2014/01/26/oriel-to-quit-ousu-after-referendum-ruling/
  42. ^ Oriel Lions - the Oriel College Dramatic Society]
  43. ^ "Oriel stay a-Head of river". The Oxford Student article of. 30 November 1999. Archived from the original on January 12, 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2006. 
  44. ^ Cherwell.org, The Cherwell article of 29 May 2008
  45. ^ "Oriel College Boat Club Regatta". 
  46. ^ "The Tortoise Club". Oriel College Boat Club. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  47. ^ "The Blessed Virgins Club". Oriel College Women's Boat Club. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  48. ^ "A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 3: The University of Oxford". British Hostory Online (Victoria County History). Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  49. ^ "Rowing Blazers of Oxford Colleges". Walters of Oxford. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  50. ^ 2012/13
  51. ^ Brock, M.G. and Curthoys, M.C., The History of the University of Oxford, Volume VII, Part 2 — Oxford University Press (2000) p. 689. Thomas Hariot of St Mary Hall was teaching mathematics to Walter Ralegh of Oriel. ISBN 0-19-951017-2.
  52. ^ This is from the history section on the official college website, and can be checked here (just below half-way down).
  53. ^ British History Online . Retrieved on 7 January 2011.
  54. ^ The more recent date is for example given in the Victoria County History of the Counties of England, Oxfordshire Volume III (1954) p.124. In a modern work, such as the Oriel College Oxford, A short guide (2006), the year is given as 1350.
  55. ^ Jones, Alfred, Catalogue of the plate of Oriel College Oxford (1944) — Oxford University Press pp.xi-xiii, 1–2, 97.
  56. ^ "Oxford College Endowment Incomes, 1973-2006". Archived from the original on 2012-05-27.  (updated July 2007)[dead link]
  57. ^ Oxford University News releases for journalists Oxford's Bodleian library holds a quarter of the world’s Magna Cartas 9 November 2007 the engrossment (an official document from the Royal Chancery bearing the ruler’s seal) dates from 1300.
  58. ^ a b Leonard, Bill, The Oxford of Inspector Morse Location Guides, Oxford (2004) pp.100 and 176 ISBN 0-9547671-1-X.
  59. ^ "Inspector Lewis". PBS. Retrieved 13 December 2006. 

External links[edit]