Originale (Originals, or "Real People"), musical theatre with Kontakte, is a music theatre work by the German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, written in collaboration with the artist Mary Bauermeister. It was first performed in 1961 in Cologne, and is given the work number 12⅔ in Stockhausen's catalogue of works.
Originale was commissioned from Stockhausen and Bauermeister by Hubertus Durek, manager of the Theater am Dom in Cologne, and his stage director, Carlheinz Caspari, who wanted a play in which actors, painters, other artists, or just simply "authentic" (originale) people would appear freely in spontaneous actions. It was created while the pair were visiting Finland in August 1961. Stockhausen had been invited to lecture at the Summer University of Jyväskylä where, at a presentation of Kontakte, they met the piano virtuoso and Sibelius biographer, Professor Erik Tawastjerna. Together with the Finnish architect and designer Alvar Aalto, a summer house north of Helsinki on Lake Saimaa was put at their disposal, and the score of Originale was completely worked out there in just two weeks. The "silence" scene, in which the events on stage and the music stop for just one minute, and then everything resumes again, was inspired by the "unearthly" effect of the northerly summer light, which remained in the sky for just two hours or so during which the sun briefly dipped below the horizon, then rose again, "as the birds began to twitter, the fish stirred again, the wind came up, and there was day" (Bauermeister 2011, 64–66; Kurtz 1992, 114).
|Role||Premiere cast (Cologne, 1961)||New York cast (1964)||San Francisco cast (1990)||Sindelfingen cast (2007)|
|Pianist||David Tudor||James Tenney||Michael Orland||Aya Inokuchi|
|Percussionist||Christoph Caskel||Max Neuhaus||Don Baker||Christian R. Wissel|
|Sound Engineer||Leopold von Knobelsdorff||David Behrman||Wolfgang Mittermaier|
|Cameraman||Wolfgang Ramsbott||Robert Breer||Simone Speer|
|Lighting Director||Walter Koch (Theater am Dom)||Gary Harris
|Stage Director||Carlheinz Caspari||Allan Kaprow||Henry Steele||Claudine M. Kolbus (choreographer)|
|Action Composer||Nam June Paik||Nam June Paik||Robin Rhode|
|Model||Edith Sommer||Olga Klüver / Lette Eisenhauer||Sonja Kunz|
|Street Singer / String player||Belina/
Kenji Kobayashi (violinist)
|Charlotte Moorman (cellist)||Pamela Z||David Stützel|
|Hat-check woman||Liselotte Lörsch||Marje Strider||Rita Borchtler-Kracht|
|Newspaper Seller||Frau Hoffmann||Michael Kirby||an original from Sindelfingen|
|Conductor||Karlheinz Stockhausen||Alvin Lucier||Manfred Schreier|
|Monkey-house Attendant||a woman from the Cologne Zoo||Keeper from the Bronx Zoo with a large ape
(replaced on one night by a small lady with a dog)
|Painter||Mary Bauermeister||Robert Delford Brown (1st night only) /
|Hitomi Ikuma||Steffi Stangl /
|Poet||Hans G Helms||Allen Ginsberg||Michael Peppe||Hans G Helms|
|Actor||Ruth Grahlmann||Vincent Gaeta||Chris Maher||Jerry Willingham|
|Actor||Eva-Maria Kox||Gloria Graves||Diane Robinson||Barbara Stoll|
|Actor||Alfred Feussner||Dick Higgins||Lisa Apfelburg||Birgit Heintel|
|Actor||Harry J. Bong||Jackson Mac Low||Traci Robinson||Dorothee Jakubowski|
|Actor||Heiner Reddemann /
|Peter Leventhal||Elena Rivera||Markus Schlueter|
Performances of Originale subsequent to the twelve first performances in Cologne between 26 October and 6 November 1962 have been rare. Productions took place in New York in September 1964, organized jointly by Mary Bauermeister and Charlotte Moorman (Bauermeister 2011, 161), in 1990 in San Francisco directed and organized by Randall Packer (Kosman 1990; Tucker 1990), and on 21 January 2007 in connection with a 2006–2007 exhibition of Mary Bauermeister's tetralogy Fama Fluxus—Mythos Beuys—Legende Paik—Atelier Mary Bauermeister in Sindelfingen (Bauermeister 2011, 294).
The New York performances took place at Judson Hall as part of the second annual New York Festival of the Avant-Garde, during the early performative period of the avant-garde movement Fluxus. Outside the concert hall on the opening night, 8 September 1964, several New York artists calling themselves Action Against Cultural Imperialism, including Fluxus founder George Maciunas, Concept Art creator Henry Flynt, poet, journalist, and activist Marc Schleifer, violinist and filmmaker Tony Conrad, and actor/poet Alan Marlowe protested against Stockhausen as a "cultural imperialist" because of some reportedly disparaging remarks about jazz and folk music he was supposed to have made at Harvard in 1958 (Template:Harnb; Fricke 1998, passim; Goodman 1964; Piekut 2011, 65–66). Some of the protesters seen before the event were actually performers involved in the piece, including poet Allen Ginsberg who, enlisting the support of Schleifer, extorted his way into the picket line against Flynt's wishes. Claims by Moorman and Stage Director Allan Kaprow that they also joined the pickets have been disputed (Bauermeister 2011, 162; Piekut 2011, 66). Meanwhile, Maciunas had recruited cast member Robert Delford Brown as a saboteur. Brown, performing the part of the Painter, came costumed as a huge papier-mache penis and, some way into the performance, lit a stink bomb on stage. This forced an evacuation of the hall and an unscheduled intermission to clear the air. Edgard Varèse, who had been seated near the front as guest of honor, had a violent coughing attack and had to be assisted out to the street. Needless to say, Brown disappeared during the interruption and in subsequent performances was replaced by the Japanese artist Ay-O, who was living at that time in New York. Thrilled press reviews reported that the protest and sabotage were actually part of the performance, a publicity stunt staged by Stockhausen himself (Bauermeister 2011, 164; Kohl 1999, 77; Piekut 2011, 65–66; Schonberg 1964; Sigmon 1964).
A performance celebrating the 50th anniversary of the 1964 New York performance is being planned for 2014 by composer/performers Nick Hallett and Zach Layton (Smith 2013).
Concept and form
The surreal absurdity of Originale recalls Samuel Beckett, Alain Robbe-Grillet's books and film L 'année dernière à Marienbad, and, in its use of the commonplace, Harold Pinter (Harvey 1975, 90). It combines the rigorous, tightly controlled compositional form of Stockhausen's serial music with the loosely structured improvisational framework of the early Happenings. The score to Originale is groundbreaking for its incorporation of performance events and other assorted "actions" into a musical organization with precise "timepoints" or temporal markings, typical of Stockhausen's musical scores. Within the 94' duration of Originale is a performance of Stockhausen's Kontakte for piano, percussion, and electronics, that is woven throughout the work, providing a central unifying element to this often disjointed work. In addition to Kontakte, the Cologne performances included tape-recorded excerpts from Stockhausen's Carré for four orchestras and choirs, Gesang der Jünglinge, Gruppen for three orchestras, and Zyklus for a percussionist (Dörstel 1993, 199).
An unusual assortment of "characters" are introduced in Originale, including a pianist, a percussionist, a sound technician, a stage director, a cameraman, a lighting technician, an action composer, an action painter, a poet, a street singer, a coat checker, a newspaper vendor, a fashion model, a child (playing with blocks), an animal handler with animal, a conductor, and five actors reading a collage of unrelated texts (Stockhausen 1964, 111).
According to the musicologist Karl Heinz Wörner, "Originale is a musical composition. The macrorhythm of scene continuity and the ordering of moments are musical. The individual scenes are composed musically, regardless of whether or not there is any 'music' in them. The verbal counterpoint is musical, as are the 'monodic' word melodies and the polyphony of speaking voices" (Wörner 1973, 192). Originale is constructed in 18 scenes, grouped into seven self-sufficient "structures", which may be performed in any order, either successively or with as many as three structures simultaneously, on three separated stages (Stockhausen 1964, 110). Each character's actions are specified to take place within a specified number of seconds or minutes, and at one point the actors even speak in what Stockhausen calls "formant rhythms": in a span of four minutes one actor speaks three equally spaced words, a second actor has five equally spaced words, a third has eight, and yet another has thirteen, while a fifth provides a "noise band" of completely irregular rhythms (Harvey 1975, 90).
- Bauermeister, Mary. 2011. Ich hänge im Triolengitter: Mein Leben mit Karlheinz Stockhausen. Munich: Edition Elke Heidenreich bei C. Bertelsmann. ISBN 978-3-570-58024-0.
- Dörstel, Wilfried. 1993. "Situation, Moment, Labyr, Fluxus, oder, Das verbrannte Original: Das Musiktheater Originale von Karlheinz Stockhausen". In Intermedial, kontrovers, experimentell: Das Atelier Mary Bauermeister in Köln 1960–62, edited by Wilfried Dörstel, 186–205. Cologne: Emons. ISBN 3-924491-43-7.
- Fricke, Stefan. 1998. "Attacken auf Karlheinz Stockhausen: Fluxus im 'Kampf gegen das musikalische Dekor des Faschismus'", Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 159, no. 4 (July–August): 38–41.
- Goodman, Susan. 1964. "Anti-Art Pickets Pick on Stockhausen." Village Voice (10 September)
- Harvey, Jonathan. 1975. The Music of Stockhausen: An Introduction. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02311-0.
- Kohl, Jerome. 1999. "Die Rezeption der Musik und Gedanken Karlheinz Stockhausens in Amerika". In Internationales Stockhausen-Symposion 1998: Musikwissenschaftliches Institut der Universität zu Köln, 11. bis 14. November 1998. Tagungsbericht, edired by Imke Misch and Christoph von Blumröder, 74–86. Signale aus Köln 4. Saarbrücken: PFAU-Verlag. ISBN 3-89727-050-1.
- Kosman, Joshua. 1990. "Doing Stockhausen in Boxer Shorts". San Francisco Chronicle [final edition] (5 May): C7.
- Kurtz, Michael. 1992. Stockhausen: A Biography, translated by Richard Toop. London and Boston: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14323-7 (cloth) ISBN 0-571-17146-X (pbk).
- Maconie, Robin. 2005. Other Planets: The Music of Karlheinz Stockhausen. Lanham, Maryland, Toronto, Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-5356-6.
- Piekut, Benjamin. 2011. Experimentalism Otherwise: The New York Avant-Garde and Its Limits. California Studies in 20th-Century Music 11. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520948426.
- Schonberg, Harold C. 1964. "Music: Stockhausen's 'Originale' Given at Judson". New York Times (9 September).
- Sigmon, Carl P. 1964. "Festival of the Avant-Garde". Musical America 84, no. 7 (October): 52–54.
- Smith, Steve. 2013. "Hanging in with a Demanding Composer: Stockhausen’s Work Flourishes Five Years After His Death". New York Times (Sunday, 14 July): AR9.
- Tucker, Marilyn. 1990. "Avant-Garde Icon Of '60s Revived: Theatrical Touches in Stockhausen Music". San Francisco Chronicle [final edition] (2 May): 2.
- Wörner, Karl Heinz. 1973. Stockhausen: Life and Work, revised edition, introduced, translated, and edited by Bill Hopkins. London: Faber and Faber; Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02143-6.
- Anon. 1964. "Avant-Garde: Stuffed Bird at 48 Sharp". Time (18 September): 81.
- Custodis, Michael. 2004. Die soziale Isolation der neuen Musik: Zum Kölner Musikleben nach 1945. Beihefte zum Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 54, edited by Albrecht Riethmüller, with Reinhold Brinkmann, Ludwig Finscher, Hans-Joachim Hinrichsen, Wolfgang Osthoff, and Wolfram Steinbeck. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-08375-8.
- Fricke, Stefan. 2004. "Inklusieve Vergnügungssteuer: Karlheinz Stockhausens Originale und Fluxus". In Experimentelles Musik- und Tanztheater, edited by Frieder Reininghaus, Katja Schneider, and Sabine Sanio, 161-165 Handbuch der Musik im 20. Jahrhundert, no. 7. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-89007-427-6, ISBN 3-89007-427-8.
- Griffiths, Paul. 1981. "Review: 4711". The Musical Times 122, no. 1664 (October): 685.
- Johnston, Jill. 1964. "Dance: Inside Originale". Village Voice (1 October): 6 & 16.
- Kirby, Michael, and Richard Schechner. 1965. "An Interview with John Cage". Tulane Drama Review 10, no. 2 (Winter): 50–72.
- Krones, Hartmut. 2008. "Sprachkompositionen in der Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts, inbesondere am Beispiel Österreich". In Музички модернизам—нова тумачења: Зборник радова са научног скупа одржаног од 11. до 13. октобра 2007 [Rethinking Musical Modernism: Proceedings of the International Conference Held from October 11 to 13, 2007], edited by Dejan Despić, Melita Milin, and Danica Petrović, 231–45. Naucni skupovi, no. 122; Odelenje likovne i muzicke umetnosti, no. 6. Belgrade: Srpska Akademija Nauka i Umetnosti. ISBN 978-86-7025-463-3.
- Oren, Michel. 1993. "Anti-Art as the End of Cultural History". Performing Arts Journal 15, no. 2 (May): 1–30.
- Prial, Frank. 1964. "'Originale': A Wacky Show with Frenzied Story Line". New York World-Telegram and Sun (9 September).
- Rich, Alan. "Stockhausen's 'Originale'". New York Herald Tribune (9 September).
- Rigoni, Michel. 1998. Stockhausen: ... un vaisseau lancé vers le ciel, 2nd edition, revised, corrected, and enlarged. Lillebonne: Millénaire III Editions. ISBN 2-911906-02-0.
- Ruppel, Karl Heinz. 1961. "Neodadisten". Süddeutsche Zeitung (3 November).
- Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1964. "Originale (1961), musikalisches Theater". In his Texte zur Musik 2, edited by Dieter Schnebel, 107–29. Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg.
- Straebel, Volker. 1995. "'...that the Europeans become more American': Gegenseitige Einflüsse von Europa und Nordamerika in der Geschichte der Musikperformance". In Musik, Labyrinth, Kontext: Musikperformance, 80–94. Schriftenreihe Offenes Kulturhaus, no. 13. Linz: Offenes Kulturhaus des Landes Oberösterreich. ISBN 978-3-85307-003-1, ISBN 3-85307-003-5.
- Uroskie, Andrew V. 2012. "Visual Music After Cage: Robert Breer, Expanded Cinema and Stockhausen's Originals (1964)". Organised Sound: An International Journal of Music Technology 17, no. 2 (August): 163–69.
- Film of the New York premiere, September 1964 on UbuWeb
- Stockhausen's Originale – Doubletakes on YouTube, a film by Peter Moore (same as above)
- "On Originale," Excerpt from "Robert Delford Brown: Meat, Maps and Militant Metaphysics" by Mark Bloch, 2008
- Robert Delford Brown: Meat, Maps and Militant Metaphysics by Mark Bloch, 2008 (pages 38-45 on Originale with reviews reproduced from international press clippings.) ISBN 978-0-9793359-4-5, ISBN 0-9793359-4-9.
- 2007 Originale performance in Sindelfingen, with photographs